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PYC3701/101/3/2012

Tutorial Letter 101/3/2012


Social Psychology

PYC3701
Semesters 1 and 2
Department of Psychology
This tutorial letter contains important
information about your module.

Bar code

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION AND WELCOME.. 3

1.1

Tutorial matter ................................................................................................................................. 4

PURPOSE OF AND OUTCOMES FOR THE MODULE ................................................................ 5

2.1
2.2

Purpose .......................................................................................................................................... 5
Outcomes ....................................................................................................................................... 5

LECTURER AND CONTACT DETAILS......................................................................................... 5

3.1
3.2
3.3

Lecturers ......................................................................................................................................... 5
Department ..................................................................................................................................... 6
University ........................................................................................................................................ 6

MODULE RELATED RESOURCES............................................................................................... 7

4.1
4.2
4.3

Prescribed books ............................................................................................................................ 7


Recommended books ..................................................................................................................... 7
Electronic Reserves (e-Reserves) .................................................................................................. 8

STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES FOR THE MODULE ................................................................ 8

MODULE SPECIFIC STUDY PLAN ............................................................................................... 8

MODULE PRACTICAL WORK AND WORK INTEGRATED LEARNING ..................................... 9

ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................................................... 9

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

Assessment plan ............................................................................................................................ 9


Due dates of assignments, Assignment numbers and Unique assignment numbers ................... 10
Submission of assignments .......................................................................................................... 11
Assignments ................................................................................................................................. 12

EXAMINATIONS .......................................................................................................................... 27

10

OTHER ASSESSMENT METHODS............................................................................................. 28

11

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS .......................................................................................... 28

Important note:
Formal tuition in this module will be conducted in English only. Where capacity exists, and upon
request, individual discussions will be conducted in any preferred South African language.

PYC3701/101

INTRODUCTION AND WELCOME

Dear Student
We are pleased to have you as a student of Social Psychology and hope you will enjoy this subject.
Because our field of study is relevant to everyday life in so many ways, it is likely that you will find the
module particularly interesting and useful.
You will receive a number of tutorial letters during the year. A tutorial letter is our way of communicating
with you about teaching, learning and assessment.
Tutorial Letter 101 contains important information about the scheme of work, resources and assignments
for this module. We urge you to read it carefully and to keep it at hand when working through the study
material, preparing the assignment(s), preparing for the examination and addressing questions to your
lecturers.
Please read Tutorial Letter 301 in combination with Tutorial Letter 101 as it gives you an idea of generally
important information when studying at a distance and within a particular College.
In Tutorial Letter 101, you will find the assignments and assessment criteria as well as instructions on the
preparation and submission of the assignments. This tutorial letter also provides all the information you
need with regard to the prescribed study material and other resources and how to obtain it. Please study
this information carefully and make sure that you obtain the prescribed material as soon as possible.
We have also included certain general and administrative information about this module. Please study this
section of the tutorial letter carefully.
Right from the start we would like to point out that you must read all the tutorial letters you receive during
the semester immediately and carefully, as they always contain important and, sometimes, urgent
information.
We hope that you will enjoy this module and wish you all the best!

Social Psychology lecturers

1.1

Tutorial matter

Some of this tutorial matter may not be available when you register. Tutorial matter that is not available
when you register will be posted to you as soon as possible, but is also available on myUnisa. Please
consult my Studies @ Unisa about which department you should contact for assistance to obtain missing
study material.
At the time of registration, you will receive an inventory letter that will tell you what you have received in
your study package and also show items that are still outstanding. Also see the brochure entitled my
Studies @ Unisa.
Check the study material that you have received against the inventory letter. You should have received all
the items listed in the inventory, unless there is a statement like out of stock or not available. If any item
is missing, follow the instructions on the back of the inventory letter without delay.
PLEASE NOTE:

Your lecturers cannot help you with missing study material.

The Department of Despatch should supply you with the following study material for this module:

my Studies @ Unisa (general administrative information about Unisa)

Study Guide

Tutorial Letter 101/2012 (The tutorial letter you are looking at now. It has administrative
information and information about the assignment and the examination.)

NB: Tutorial matter will be posted to you as soon as it becomes available.


myUnisa: myUnisa is an acronym which stands for an Internet facility offered free of charge to all
registered Unisa students. With the aid of myUnisa students will ultimately be able to perform all studyrelated functions on the Internet which are now normally done by telephone, by letter or personal visits to
the campus.
To make use of myUnisa, you will need a computer with a modem and an Internet connection, as well
as a browser such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. See my Studies @ Unisa for further information.
The following functions have already been implemented on myUnisa:

you can contact your lecturers via e-mail;


you can join a discussion forum (e.g. to discuss your module with other students doing the
same module);
you can order books from the library, and search for books on the library database;
you can download study material placed on myUnisa;
you can check whether your assignments have been received and marked;
you can submit written as well as multiple-choice assignments via myUnisa;
you can look up your assignment or exam marks as soon as they are released.

To register on myUnisa, you should go to the Unisa web page, which is located at the Internet address
http://www.unisa.ac.za.
On this web page, select the option myUnisa. If you are a first time user, you must click on the option
Register as myUnisa user which will enable you to register online (this does not cost anything). Type in
your name, student number and a password (the password must be at least 6 characters long). You will
then be supplied with a PIN code (personal identity number) which you will use in all future transactions
with myUnisa.
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PYC3701/101
Once you have registered, select the option Enter myUnisa, which will take you into myUnisa. In myUnisa,
select the option My Courses, (in this case PYC3701). From here, you will be able to submit assignments
and related activities (consult the publication my Studies @ Unisa).

PURPOSE OF AND OUTCOMES FOR THE MODULE

2.1

Purpose

The purpose of this module is to help students gaining insight into the theoretical aspects of cognition,
social perception, the self, attitudes and prejudice, interpersonal relationships, social influence, prosocial,
antisocial, and group behaviour. The module also seeks to bring students in contact with internationally
acceptable standards by exposing them to both fundamental and applied South African and international
social psychological research.

2.2

Outcomes

Specific outcomes of this module are the ability to access social psychological information effectively and
responsibly and to know and understand the psychological principles that determine behaviour in particular
contexts. Learners should eventually be aware of social processes and social problems and be able to
understand and apply conceptual and theoretical knowledge. Finally, learners should be able to present
social psychological information in a written format.
Broadly, the outcome of the module is to facilitate the ability to apply social psychological principles in
areas such as clinical psychology, health psychology, the psychology of work, and society in general.

LECTURER AND CONTACT DETAILS

3.1

Lecturers

The lecturers for this module and the chapters in the prescribed book they are responsible for:
Prof J.C. Mynhardt (Module Leader) (Chapters 4, 5, 6 & 12)

(012) 429-8042
e-mail: mynhajc@unisa.ac.za

Dr Caryl Ochse

(Chapters 2, 3 & 11)

(012) 429-8244
e-mail: ochsec@unisa.ac.za

Ms Thandeka Tshabalala

(Chapters 7,8,9 & 10)

(012) 429-8294
e-mail: tshabtl@unisa.ac.za

If you want to contact a lecturer via the myUnisa proceed as follows:


Register as a myUnisa user (follow the procedure in Section 1.2). Select My Courses and then the
option Contact Lecturer. This will enable you to send e-mail correspondence to the lecturers
involved in this module (also consult the publication my Studies @ Unisa).

3.2

Department

3.2.1

Communication with the Department (by letter)

Address all correspondence concerning

problems experienced in studying a specific module, or

arrangements for an appointment with a lecturer to:


The Department of Psychology
(Name of lecturer or module concerned)
P.O. Box 392
Unisa
0003
NOTE: You may enclose more than one letter to the Psychology Department in an envelope, but do not
address enquiries to different departments (e.g. Despatch and Library Services) in the same letter. This will
cause a delay in the replies to your enquiries. Write a separate letter to each department and mark each
letter clearly for the attention of that department.
Letters to lecturers may not be enclosed together with assignments. Always write your student number and
the study-unit code at the top of your letter.
3.2.2

Communication with the Department (by telephone, e-mail or fax)

Our telephone numbers and e-mail addresses are on page five.


Lecturers frequently have to attend meetings, conferences, discussion classes, etcetera. They may
therefore not be in their offices at all times. If you cannot get hold of any particular lecturer in his or her
office, phone the secretary Mrs C Nel on [012] 429-8233.
Her e-mail address is nelc1@unisa.ac.za
If the problem is really very serious, phone the module leader, Professor Mynhardt, on 072 246-2105
(preferably) during normal office hours.
Our departmental fax number is [012] 429-3414. When you send a fax, remember to indicate the module
code and the lecturers name.
Note that study material can NOT be faxed to students.
3.2.3

Personal visit to the Department

Always make an appointment before coming to Unisa to see a lecturer. Lecturers often have other
commitments which prevent them from seeing students without formal appointments.

3.3

University

Consult my Studies @ Unisa for general contact details.

PYC3701/101

MODULE RELATED RESOURCES

4.1

Prescribed book

The book(s) prescribed for this module is (are):


Baron, R.A., Branscombe, N.R., & Byrne, D. (2008). Social
Psychology, (12th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.
ISBN-13: 978-0-205-58149-8
ISBN-10: 0-205-58149-8
Mynhardt, J.C. (2009). South African Supplement to Social
Psychology, (3rd ed.). Pearson Education, South Africa.
NOTE: Booksellers sell these two books as ONE PACKAGE.
Remember to place an order at your bookseller as soon as possible. This will save you the delay and
frustration experienced by those who wait too long. Make very sure to buy the twelfth edition of the book.
This twelfth edition differs considerably from previous editions.
Refer to the list of official booksellers and their addresses in the my Studies @ Unisa brochure.
Prescribed books can be obtained from the University's official booksellers. If you have difficulty in locating
your book(s) at these booksellers, please contact the Prescribed Book Section at Tel: 012 429-4152 or
email vospresc@unisa.ac.za.
The PYC 3701 syllabus consists of a Study Guide and the following chapters in the prescribed book:
Chapter 2:
Chapter 3:
Chapter 4:
Chapter 5:
Chapter 6:
Chapter 7:
Chapter 8:
Chapter 9:
Chapter 10:
Chapter 11:
Chapter 12:

Social Cognition
Social Perception
The Self
Attitudes
Stereotyping, Prejudice and Discrimination
Interpersonal Attraction and Close Relationships
Social Influence
Prosocial Behaviour
Aggression
Groups and Individuals
Social Psychology: Applying its principles to health and business

Note that each chapter in the study guide is divided into a number of study units. At the end of each study
unit is a number of activities or study tasks (see the self-evaluation assignment later in this tutorial letter).
Available South African research is also discussed within the context of the Baron et al. (2008) textbook.

4.2

Recommended books

There are no recommended books for this course.

4.3

Electronic Reserves (e-Reserves)

There are no e-Reserves for this course.

STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES FOR THE MODULE

For information on the various student support systems and services available at Unisa (e.g. student
counselling, tutorial classes, language support), please consult the publication my Studies @ Unisa that
you received with your study material.

MODULE SPECIFIC STUDY PLAN

NOTE: Use your my Studies @ Unisa brochure for general time management and planning skills.

6.1

General module objectives

This module, which is an introduction to social psychology, will acquaint you with some major theories and
research findings in social psychology. Note that we do not expect you to know the names of all the
researchers mentioned in the prescribed book. However, sometimes the names of researchers whose work
has important theoretical or practical implications could also appear in multiple choice questions.
Note that the contextualisation of your social psychological knowledge is very important. One problem with
previous editions of Baron et al. (2008) was that many issues were discussed from an American
perspective only.
To overcome this problem, there is a South African Supplement (third edition) accompanying the twelfth
edition of Baron et al. (2008) that you might find very useful. In this book, chapter-outcomes (goals) as
well as study unit outcomes are formulated and the essence of the contexts of every section in the main
textbook is highlighted.
Available South African research is also discussed within the context of the Baron et al. (2008) textbook.

6.2

Work programme

We recommend the following: Use the Study Guide as a point of departure and read the Introduction
carefully. Draw up a study timetable to suit your personal commitments and complete all the activities in
each chapter before proceeding to the next chapter.
Remember: we advise you to draw up your timetable as soon as possible. It should make provision for all
your subjects, and also for unforeseen circumstances such as illness and work pressure, to enable you to
work through the entire syllabus in good time and to submit your Assignments on time. The social
psychology module is very labour intensive and the volume of work is large. It is therefore very important to
study regularly.
Complete the important Self-Evaluation assignment before submitting Assignment 03. The aim with the
Self-Evaluation assignment is to further exercise your writing and communicating abilities (see Section 2.2
above as well as the Introduction to the Study Guide).

6.3

The importance of the Study Guide

Although the examination will consist of multiple choice questions only (see Section 9), mastering the
activities or study tasks for the different study units remains extremely important for studying the syllabus.
Remember, these tasks will guide you, by means of interactive self-teaching, to consider various viewpoints
and debates between theorists; to apply theoretical knowledge appropriately and responsibly; to learn
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PYC3701/101
through self-reflection and self-enrichment; and to apply general social psychological knowledge to
everyday life, in the family, health and work arenas. Working out these tasks will also teach you to organise
information and to write systematically. The purpose of the model answers for the questions in the SelfEvaluation assignment which you will receive during the year is to assist you with this learning process.

6.4

The importance of the South African Supplement to Social Psychology for the
examination

The South African Supplement to Social Psychology that is being sold as a package with Baron et al.
(2008) contains, among others, summaries of each chapter. This should enable you to comprehend the
essence of each one of the prescribed chapters better and faster. You should always read the
chapters in the main text first and only then the corresponding chapter in the Supplement. The
Supplement also aims to familiarise you with a sample of relevant South African research and to
contextualise the module. (see Section 6.1 above). Study all the South African Perspective-sections. Keep
in mind that 6-10 South African oriented multiple choice examination questions will come from these
sections (see Section 9).

6.5

The importance of the Self-Evaluation assignment

Our experience, over many years, is that students who work consistently and who monitor their own
progress are more successful in the examinations. It is therefore imperative that you should work out the
study tasks for each study unit in the Study Guide as you go along. This facilitates self-discipline and
consistent learning. Furthermore, we mentioned elsewhere that communication skills and being able to
present social psychological information in written format are critical learning and practical outcomes of the
module. Working out these study tasks will assist you reaching this module objective. Once you are
satisfied with your answer to any one of the questions, you should read the feedback. Bear in mind that,
often, our feedback merely provides suggestions or frameworks for possible answers and should not be
seen as the only way to answer any particular question. The eventual aim with the Self-Evaluation
assignment (and our model answers later) is to assist you in monitoring your own progress.
DO NOT SEND THESE ANSWERS TO US TO BE MARKED.
THIS IS A SELF-EVALUATION ASSIGNMENT.

MODULE PRACTICAL WORK AND WORK INTEGRATED LEARNING

There are no practicals for this module.

ASSESSMENT

8.1

Assessment plan

Assignments are seen as part of the learning material for this module. As you do the assignment, study the
reading texts, consult other resources, discuss the work with fellow students or tutors or do research, you
are actively engaged in learning.
Eventually, students should be able to identify relevant psychological principles that determine social
behaviour from research and also be able to identify psychological principles that determine behavior
specifically within the South African context.

In some cases, additional assessment might be available on the myUnisa site for your module. For
students attending tutorial sessions, tutors may also set additional tasks and give feedback in class.
IMPORTANT: Although students may work together when preparing assignments, each student
must submit his or her own individual assignment. It is unacceptable for students to submit
identical assignments on the basis that they worked together.

Examination admission and marking policy: Assignments 01 and 02 are compulsory and you
have to submit these assignments on time to gain examination admission.
Note that there are no further opportunities to gain examination admission.
Our marking policy for the multiple choice questions in the assignments is as follows: We adjust the
marks to accommodate the effect of 'blind guessing' or 'random guessing' by subtracting a fraction of
the marks for each incorrect answer. For questions with four alternatives the maximum that we will
subtract is one mark for three incorrect answers (in other words, 0, 33 mark for each wrong answer).

Assignments 01 and 02 count 10% towards your year mark. Doing the best you can in these
assignments is an obvious necessity.
If a student fails the examination with less than 40%, the year mark will not count.
There is a Self Evaluation assignment (which you do not submit) while submission of Assignment 03
is optional.

8.2

Due dates of assignments, assignment numbers and unique assignment


numbers

Remember, there are two compulsory, one self-evaluation, and one optional assignment for this
module. Each one of the compulsory assignments consist of 30 multiple questions. Compulsory
Assignment 01 is based on the first half of the textbook, while compulsory Assignment 02 is based on the
second half. Read the section Study units in the Introductory Section of your Study Guide before
completing the self-evaluation assignment. Ideally, this self-evaluation assignment should be completed
before you complete and submit the optional Assignment 03.
The following are the closing dates for the assignments:
Assignment 01
Semester
(Compulsory)
You will find the assignment on page 12
1
2
Assignment 02
Semester
(Compulsory)
You will find the assignment on page 17
1
2
Assignment 03
Semester
(Module Evaluation)
You will find the assignment on page 23
1
2

Closing date

Unique number

9 March 2012
6 April 2012
Closing date

829778
767431
Unique number

31 August 2012
28 September 2012
Closing date

863043
830975
Unique number

23 April 2012
5 October 2012

685746
752341

The Unisa computer identifies all assignments by the unique number. Remember; make sure that you
indicate the unique assignment numbers on your mark reading sheets before submitting Assignments 01,
02 and 03. Also, do not forget to fill in your student number and other required information on your mark
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PYC3701/101
reading sheet. For detailed information and requirements regarding assignments, as well as instructions for
the use of mark reading sheets, consult my Studies @ Unisa.
You will receive two kinds of feedback on the compulsory assignments:

A computer printout showing your answers, the correct answers, and the mark you obtained.
A tutorial letter with feedback about the assignment. Assignments will be scored with a correction
factor for guessing (see Section 8.1).

Feedback on the compulsory assignments will be available after their closing dates. No extension for the
handing in of assignments will therefore be possible and late assignments will not be marked.
There will not be any feedback on the optional Assignment 03. Model answers for the Self-Evaluation
assignment will be sent to you after the closing date of the second compulsory assignment.

8.3

Submission of assignments

You may submit your assignments either by post (on mark reading sheets) or electronically via myUnisa.
Assignments may not be submitted by fax or by e-mail. For detailed information and requirements as far as
assignments are concerned, see the brochure my Studies @ Unisa.
To submit an assignment via myUnisa:

Go to myUnisa.
Log in with your student number and password.
Select the module.
Click on assignments in the left-hand menu.
Click on the assignment number you want to submit.
Follow the instructions on the screen.

Assignments submitted by post should be addressed to:


The Registrar
PO Box 392
UNISA
0003
As you will know by now, the following important guidelines should be kept in mind before you submit any
one of your assignments:

Always keep a copy of your assignment answers in case your assignment does not reach the
University.
Submit the original copy.
Remember to use your correct student number and the correct unique number.
Where an assignment involves the use of a MARK READING SHEET, read the section
INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE USE OF MARK READING SHEETS in the my Studies @ Unisa.
Students who do not have access to the internet must complete their assignments on a mark reading
sheet provided with your study material.

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Remember the following:

Use only an HB pencil (not a pacer) and mark your answers clearly as follows: []
If you mark a block incorrectly, make sure that the mark is erased properly.
Do not staple your mark reading sheet to any document.

8.4 Assignments

Assignment 01
Semester 1
Semester 2

MULTIPLE CHOICE.
question.

Closing date: 9 March


Closing date: 31 August

829778
863043

Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the

1.

Sipho gets on an elevator in an office building, along with three others. All passengers face front,
except a woman, who continues to stand facing the back of the elevator all the way to the 21st floor.
The most likely reason for Sipho's discomfort for this is that
1.
he thinks it is an attempt by the woman to change the elevator-riding "tradition" in the building
2.
he assumes it is some sort of feminist rebelliousness
3.
the behaviour is a contradiction of Sipho's elevator-riding schema
4.
he believes the woman may have a vision or other problem.

2.

The academic performance of certain students dramatically improved when teachers were led to
believe that those students were intellectually gifted, regardless of the true ability levels of the
students. This result shows the importance of
1.
2.
3.
4.

3.

High levels of stress and multiple, competing demands for our attention and abilities can reduce our
mental processing capacity. These situations can lead to
1.
2.
3.
4.

4.

cognitive withdrawal
information overload
perseverance effect
schema development.

Heuristics exert a strong influence on our thinking because they


1.
2.
3.
4.

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schemas and self-fulfilling prophecies


information overload
the in-group phenomenon
information processing and base rates.

activate critical brain structures such as the amygdala


reduce the mental effort needed to make judgments and decisions
are effortful processes that require an expenditure of mental energy
rely on our internal personal biases and unknown prejudices.

PYC3701/101
5.

The frequency with which a given event or pattern occurs in the population is its
1.
2.
3.
4.

6.

When making judgments that involve factual information, we tend to rely on


1.
2.
3.
4.

7.

2.
3.
4.

Thandi's motivation will probably cause her to become overly optimistic which, in turn, will
cause her to not complete the task at all; Ntombis lack of motivation will likely cause her to
complete the task, surprising even herself.
Thandi will definitely complete the task in a prompt manner due to her high level of motivation;
Ntombi might not complete the task at all due to her lack of motivation.
Thandi's motivation will probably cause her to become overly optimistic which, in turn, will
cause her to not complete the task at all; similarly, Ntombi might not complete the task at all due
to her lack of motivation.
Thandi's motivation will likely cause her to predict that she will finish her task quickly; however,
this will have no effect on whether she actually completes her task quicker than Ntombi.

When people engage in thought suppression, two processes are involved. The operating process
involves
1.
2.
3.
4.

10.

automatic processing
heuristic processing
controlled processing
perseverance processing.

Thandi and Ntombi are members of a girls' basketball team who are responsible for helping to
organise fundraising efforts for their team. Thandi is extremely motivated to complete this task; in
contrast, Ntombi only shows a mild interest in completing the required task. Which one of the
following statements best summarises the likelihood that Thandi and Ntombi will complete their
tasks?
1.

9.

the amount of relevant information we can recall


the ease with which we can recall relevant information
automatic processing of factual information
our feelings regarding the topic.

The relatively effortful and conscious processing of social information is known as


1.
2.
3.
4.

8.

representativeness
recency effect
base rate
frequency ratio.

reducing the effects of the rebound effect


producing a reactance response in people
searching for evidence that unwanted thoughts are about to intrude
deliberate and effortful attempts to distract oneself with other thoughts or activities.

Nandi is in a fairly good mood. Consequently, we should expect her to show a(n) ------ in her use of
-----1.
2.
3.
4.

increase; effortful cognitive processing


decrease; heuristics
increase; thought suppression
increase; heuristics.

13

11.

We tend to remember facts and other information better when we are in the same mood as we were
in when we learned the information. This is known as
1.
2.
3.
4.

12.

In general, we ------- in our detection of deception.


1.
2.
3.
4.

13.

3.
4.

assume that we can do no wrong


overestimate the role of situations in causing our own behaviour
overestimate the role of situations in causing others' behaviour
overestimate the role of dispositions in causing others' behaviour.

Members of collectivistic cultures are more likely to recognise more of the situational determinants of
behaviour than are members of individualistic cultures. As a result, members of collectivist societies
are
1.
2.
3.
4.

14

traits that strongly colour the way we interpret other aspects of another person
relatively unimportant characteristics that interact with each other to determine our overall
impression of another person
clusters of traits that we use to try to understand and explain the behaviour of another person
traits that strongly encourage the self-serving bias.

The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to


1.
2.
3.
4.

17.

attributional inference
implicit personality
causal attribution
correspondent inference

Early research conducted by Solomon Asch suggests the presence of central traits, which are
1.
2.

16.

attempt to shift blame away from ourselves


focus attention inward for reflection
combine information about others into unified impressions of them
seek to understand the causes of the behaviour of others and ourselves.

The theory of ------- describes how we use others' behaviour as a basis for inferring their stable
dispositions.
1.
2.
3.
4.

15.

don't perceive others as being trustworthy


do only a little better than chance
feel the need to be polite
often confront people directly

Which statement best describes the attribution process? The process by which we
1.
2.
3.
4.

14.

affective state determined retrieval


affect-cognition feedback
the mood congruence effect
mood dependent memory.

able to avoid the fundamental attribution error completely


a great deal more likely to make the fundamental attribution error
somewhat more likely to make the fundamental attribution error
somewhat less likely to make the fundamental attribution error.

PYC3701/101
18.

Impression formation is the process by which


1.
2.
3.
4.

19.

The rejection of in-group members who threaten the positive image of the group is, according to the
textbook, known as
1.
2.
3.
4.

20.

self-centered identities; other-centered identities


social identities; personal identities
individualistic identities; collectivist identities
gender-based identities; cultural-based identities

Sylvia, a foreign-exchange student from China, rarely takes credit for her achievements in school,
preferring to say that her accomplishments are due to her very good teachers. She usually explains
her failures as being caused by her own faults. This reflects the importance of
1.
2.
3.
4.

23.

intergroup comparisons
intragroup comparisons
individualistic relationships
collectivist relationships.

Recent research (Simon, 2004) has noted that linguistic cues can activate certain types of selfconcepts. When other people describe us, nouns tend to activate ------- while adjectives and verbs
tend to activate --------.
1.
2.
3.
4.

22.

social comparison theory


the black sheep effect
the rejective-disjunctive effect
group monitoring.

Tshepo was listening as a friend described him to someone else on the telephone. His friend's
description included "friendly, tall, active" and similar terms. As a result, Tshepo is now probably
thinking of himself in terms of
1.
2.
3.
4.

21.

we regulate our own behaviour in order to achieve a particular goal


particular facial expressions are used by particularly effective public speakers
we form impressions of others
implicit personality theories are recognised.

cultural differences in the self-serving bias


personal resistance to the above average effect
the self-effacing bias
the negative influence of an overly high self-esteem.

A form of social learning that occurs when responses to a particular stimulus lead to positive
outcomes or allow the person to avoid negative outcomes is called
1.
2.
3.
4.

observational learning
social outcomes learning
instrumental conditioning
the zone of proximal development.

15

24.

Palesa feels somewhat ambivalent about premarital sex. However, most of her friends seem to be
unambiguously in favour of sexual activity before marriage. As a result, in a recent group discussion
in her health class, Palesa expressed fairly strong opinions in favour of premarital sex, and avoided
voicing her real concerns about the topic. Palesa's actions are most likely due to
1.
2.
3.
4.

25.

According to the theory of planned behaviour, our behavioural intentions are partially determined by
our attitudes toward a particular behaviour, our perceptions of our ability to perform the behaviour,
and
1.
2.
3.
4.

26.

low in emotional stability; high in self-confidence


high in friendliness; high in accomplishment
low in warmth; high in competence
high in warmth; low in competence

The tendency to divide the social world into separate groups, including our in-group and a number of
different out-groups is known as
1.
2.
3.
4.

16

The first, focusing on actual patients and their negative outcomes


The third, focusing on the ultimate outcome of ignoring the potential problem
The second, focusing on specific information that will reduce fear
None of these will be effective.

A social group that is perceived to be a threat to the high-status group is frequently characterised as ------ and -------.
1.
2.
3.
4.

29.

subliminal conditioning
hypocrisy
persuasion
intentions.

An advertising company has been hired by the Department of Health to produce TV commercials to
increase awareness of breast cancer in males. Advertising executives are considering three different
commercials. The first features a film of actual patients who describe the pain they experienced from
the disease. The second focuses on medical doctors discussing early detection strategies and
treatment options. The third shows grieving family members surrounding a grave. Which is likely to be
more effective at changing men's behaviour?
1.
2.
3.
4.

28.

others' perceptions of whether we have the ability to perform the behaviour adequately
others' perceptions of our motivation for engaging in the particular behaviour
our perceptions of whether others will approve or disapprove of the behaviour
our perceptions of whether the behaviour will be instrumental in achieving our stated objectives.

Efforts to change our attitudes by using different kinds of messages are known as
1.
2.
3.
4.

27.

peer pressure
impression motivation
attitude accessibility
pluralistic ignorance.

social categorisation
in-group differentiation
social identity formation
contact hypothesis.

PYC3701/101
30.

Encouraging majority members to think about the advantages they have enjoyed as a result of their
majority status increases their ------- which, in turn ------- racism.
1.
2.
3.
4.

individual guilt; reduces


collective guilt; reduces
collective guilt; increases
individual guilt; increases.

Assignment 02
Semester 1
Semester 2

MULTIPLE CHOICE.
question.
1.

Biologists.
Architects.
Attorneys.
Medical doctors.

positive emotions; feelings of familiarity


beneficial consequences; harmful consequences
negative emotions; positive emotions
feelings of familiarity; feelings of uncertainty

Physical attractiveness, according to the textbook, is


1.
2.
3.
4.

4.

Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the

According to Zajonc (2001), repeated encounters with a stranger generally allows - - - - - to decrease
and - - - - - to increase.
1.
2.
3.
4.

3.

767431
830975

Which of the following professionals are most likely to utilise what is known about proximity in their
work?
1.
2.
3.
4.

2.

Closing date: 6 April


Closing date: 28 September

adjudged based on precise cues that are not easy to identify


characteristics that are evaluated as beautiful/handsome only
not at all influenced by our prior learning experiences
generally unrelated to grades, evaluations, or other external measures of capability.

Suppose a present day mayoral candidate by the name of Jan van der Merwe is generally viewed as
attractive and is taller than his male opponent. Which one of the following factors may be viewed as a
negative factor by many voters?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Sympathy for his less attractive opponent.


Envy (particularly from men) of his attractiveness.
His ethnic name.
Distraction from his qualifications by his attractiveness.

17

5.

The research finding that people tend to respond positively to indications that another person shares
their attitudes, beliefs, and interests while they respond negatively to indications that another person
differs from them in terms of attitudes, beliefs, and interests is known as the
1.
2.
3.
4.

6.

On the basis of the proportion of similar attitudes, the person we would like the most would be the
one with
1.
2.
3.
4.

7.

display greater concern for being part of the majority


explain how their beliefs apply in ambiguous and complex social situations
consider the general social context when formulating its arguments for change
use tactics that command the attention of majority members.

One technique used for seeking compliance from others involves making a small request first, then
making a larger request that is actually desired after compliance with the smaller request has been
obtained. This is known as
1.
2.
3.
4.

18

normative focus influence of their friend


normative social influence of their friend
informational social influence of their friend
individuation influence of their friend.

A minority group that wants to influence the majority must be consistent in their opposition to majority
opinion, avoid appearing rigid and dogmatic, and
1.
2.
3.
4.

10.

peer pressure
symbolic social influence
informational social influence
normative social influence.

Sipho and Lebo just bought a house, and moved into a new, upscale neighborhood. One of their
friends, who lives down the street from them, has installed a hot tub in her rock garden, and has
pointed out all the advantages of having one. Sipho and Lebo are debating whether to install a rock
garden with a hot tub in their new home. Their decision may be strongly influenced by the
1.
2.
3.
4.

9.

12 similar attitudes and 20 dissimilar attitudes


10 similar attitudes and 10 dissimilar attitudes
9 similar attitudes and 8 dissimilar attitudes
20 similar attitudes and 4 dissimilar attitudes.

Lerato tells her friend, Sizakele, "Didn't you hear that eating lots of garlic is good for you?" If Sizakele
then changes her eating habits to include a lot of garlic, it would be due to
1.
2.
3.
4.

8.

proportion of similarity
similarity-dissimilarity effect
repeated exposure effect
affect-centered model.

the door-in-the-face technique


the lowball procedure
the foot-in-the-door technique
ingratiation.

PYC3701/101
11.

One way in which symbolic social influence may work is by allowing the psychological presence of
others to trigger goals with which the other persons are associated. This may, in turn, influence our
1.
2.
3.
4.

12.

One reason that people are willing to obey persons in authority who order them to engage in
destructive behaviours is that
1.
2.
3.
4.

13.

bystander fears potential negative consequences for trying to help


person who needs help has the same facial expression as the bystander
bystander was in a particularly positive mood before encountering the emergency
bystander believes the person who needs help is not responsible for the situation.

Empathic responses to the needs of others are more common in children who have
1.
2.
3.
4.

16.

implicit bystander effect


altruistic personality
empathy-altruism hypothesis
empathic joy hypothesis.

A bystander may ultimately decide not to help when confronted with an emergency situation if the
1.
2.
3.
4.

15.

authority figures are selected on the basis of their superior knowledge and understanding in
most situations
the authority figure relieves those who obey of responsibility for their actions
the authority figure represents a significant threat to those who do not obey
the authority figure may inadvertently stimulate heuristic mental processes that limit our ability
to think about what we are doing.

Lunga volunteers at a homeless shelter two days a month. She finds that she looks forward to her
volunteer days because she feels good when helping others. Her mood is elevated before she
reaches the shelter and for a few days afterwards. This situation best represents the
1.
2.
3.
4.

14.

desire to impress these people and our impression-management behaviours


performance on tasks and our commitment to reaching these goals
liking for these persons and our willingness to exert effort on their behalf
cognitions about our behaviours and activate heuristic thinking.

a secure attachment style


emotionally cold, distant mothers
families that avoid discussion of emotions
fathers who use anger to control their children's behaviour.

Receiving help can cause a negative emotional response if the


1.
2.
3.
4.

recipient does not feel worthy of the help being given


recipient has a high level of self-esteem
helper and recipient are somehow similar
helper feels incompetent.

19

17.

Volunteers who continue their volunteer work for more than two years tend to be motivated by the
need to
1.
2.
3.
4.

18.

Volunteerism is likely to be maintained if the major motivational element is


1.
2.
3.
4.

19.

3.
4.

obstructionism
overt aggression
incivility
hostile aggression.

In collectivist cultures, people tend to work harder when in a group than they do when alone because
1.
2.
3.
4.

20

cathartic aggression
expressions of hostility
overt aggression
obstructionism.

Tshepi is the senior administrative assistant for a mid-level manager at a large research organization.
She is generally supportive of the coworkers in her department, but she strongly dislikes one
particular person. She frequently points out this person's faults to her supervisor and never misses an
opportunity to report on any negative comments this person may make about the workplace or other
employees. As a workplace expression of hostility, Tshepi's behaviour is best characterised as
1.
2.
3.
4.

23.

Type A personality
Type B personality
holistic approach to aggression
hostile attributional bias.

One common form of aggressive workplace behaviour is based on an effort to impede someone's job
performance. This type of workplace aggression is known as
1.
2.
3.
4.

22.

that some groups encourage aggression against their members


different ways of inflicting harm on others and what situations tolerate or encourage aggressive
behaviour
that aggressive behaviours are always punished in the long run, but rewarded in the short run
that aggressive behaviours are always rewarded with desirable outcomes.

Lefa always feels like he's pressed for time. As a result, he's chronically in a hurry. He is competitive
with others, feeling a strong need to "prove himself" and win at everything he tries. He also tends to
be somewhat irritable and aggressively impatient with those who move more slowly than he does or
who get in his way. Lefa probably has a
1.
2.
3.
4.

21.

due to interpersonal influence


not self-centered
self-enhancement
protective.

According to Bandura's social learning perspective, people learn


1.
2.

20.

strengthen social relationships and to gain career-related experiences


gain career-relevant experience and to strengthen social relationships
reduce negative feelings, such as guilt, and to exercise skills that are often unused
gain understanding and enhance their own self-esteem.

individual accomplishment is often more highly valued than the collective good
the collective good is more highly valued than individual accomplishment
men are more likely to be part of a work team
women are more likely to be part of a work team.

PYC3701/101
24.

People whose motivation to join a particular high-status group is primarily self-enhancement tend to
have a ------- than are those whose primary motivation is self-transcendence.
1.
2.
3.
4.

25.

Group members who identify with the group frequently redefine part of their self-concept to include
the group, effectively creating a(n)
1.
2.
3.
4.

26.

3.
4.

about whether the rewards they receive are proportionate to the contributions they have made
about whether the rewards they receive are the same as the rewards received by other group
members
about the individuals who decide which group members receive rewards and the ways in which
those rewards are presented
concerning the fairness of the procedures used to distribute available rewards among group
members.

A competitive orientation towards social dilemmas involves a preference for


1.
2.
3.
4.

29.

become increasingly aware of their individuality


act as if they were in a much smaller group
lose their individuality
do the same things they do when alone.

Procedural justice involves individuals' judgments


1.
2.

28.

ambiguous self-concept
dysfunctional self-concept
limited self-concept
extended self-concept.

When individuals are part of a large crowd, they tend to


1.
2.
3.
4.

27.

weaker deindividuation within the group


stronger identification with the group
greater deindividuation within the group
weaker identification with the group

ensuring that an individual's own outcomes are at least equal to those of other individuals
involved in the dilemma
ensuring that an individual's own outcomes are superior to those of other individuals involved in
the dilemma
maximising the joint outcomes received by all individuals involved in the dilemma
maximising an individual's own outcomes in the dilemma.

Leaders who direct their groups by rewarding group members for desired behaviour and by taking
action to correct mistakes are
1.
2.
3.
4.

initiating structure leaders


consideration leaders
transactional leaders
regulatory focus leaders.

21

30.

Based on recent research (Cohen et al., 1998), people who are exposed to a rhinovirus (one that
causes the common cold) are more likely to develop a cold if they have
1.
2.
3.
4.

remained relatively unstressed during the previous year


recently experienced chronic stress
at least one family member with a chronic disease
at least one family member with an acute bacterial infection.

SELF-EVALUATION ASSIGNMENT

Below are six self-evaluation activities. Being able to present social psychological information in
written format are critical learning and practical outcomes of the module. Working out these selfstudy tasks will give you an opportunity to exercise your writing skills.
We will send you model answers for the questions after the closing date of Assignment 02.
Prepare answers for all the study tasks in the Study Guide before the closing date of Assignment 03
and use the model answers for the six self-evaluation tasks to monitor your own writing skills. This is
for your own benefit because you will not gain writing experience by simply learning the textbooks.
Do not send your answers to us to be marked. Remember, these are selfevaluation activities.

Question 1
Define and give your own example of the self-serving bias and briefly discuss the reasons why it occurs.
Refer to South African research.
[10]
Question 2
How effective are fear appeals in persuasive messages? In your answer, refer to relevant research.

[10]

Question 3
Discuss stereotypes as a cognitive source of prejudice in detail. Concentrate on why people form and use
stereotypes and how stereotypes operate. Where appropriate, use examples discussed in the South
African Supplement to Social Psychology.
[10]
Question 4
Thirty-eight people witnessed the murder of Kitty Genovese, but not one of them tried to help --- directly or
indirectly --- by calling the police. Using your knowledge of variables that influence prosocial behaviour in
emergencies, explain the reactions of the bystanders. In your answer, refer to the five essential steps in the
decision-making process and give a South African perspective of this incident.
[10]
Question 5
What accounts for our ability to resist conformity? Discuss this question with reference to the factors
discussed by Baron et al. (2009).
[10]
Question 6
Explain why individuals in large crowds often do things they would not normally do.

22

[10]

PYC3701/101

Assignment 03
Semester 1
Semester 2

Closing date: 23 April


Closing date: 5 October

685746
752341

Note:
This assignment is not compulsory, and carries no examination credits. The assignment consists
of 31 questions to evaluate the Social Psychology module. Please assist us to improve the module by
evaluating it. Note that this is not an assignment in the real sense of the word and you will not get any
marks or credits for completing it. We only use the assignment format to utilise our computer to
analyse the data.
Remember to use an ordinary mark-reading sheet to indicate your answers.

MODULE EVALUATION
1.

My overall opinion of the Social Psychology module is that it is


1.
2.
3.
4.

2.

My expectations of this module have been met.


1.
2.
3.
4.

3.

No, not at all.


Yes, but only to some extent.
Yes, to a great extent.
Absolutely, yes!

This module has led to greater insight into South African society.
1.
2.
3.
4.

4.

poor
average
good
excellent.

No, not at all.


Yes, but only to some extent.
Yes, to a great extent.
Absolutely, yes!

This module has led to a better understanding of South African social health issues.
1.
2.
3.
4.

No, not at all.


Yes, but only to some extent.
Yes, to a great extent.
Absolutely, yes!

23

5.

It was --------- to understand the PYC3701 Study Guide.


1.
2.
3.
4.

6.

The Study Guide and study tasks contributed to my mastering of the module material.
1.
2.
3.
4.

7.

very difficult
difficult
acceptable
easy.

If English is not your first language, to what extent did language contributed to module difficulty in
the case of PYC3701?
1.
2.
3.
4.

24

Not at all.
To some extent.
To a great extent.
The tutorial letters are crucial.

The two compulsory assignments for this module were


1.
2.
3.
4.

12.

very difficult
difficult
relatively easy
very easy

The tutorial letters contributed to my mastering of the module material.


1.
2.
3.
4.

11.

very difficult
difficult
relatively easy
very easy

The tutorial letters for this module is -------- to understand.


1.
2.
3.
4.

10.

very difficult
difficult
acceptable
very easy.

It was ------- to get hold of the prescribed work.


1.
2.
3.
4.

9.

Not at all.
To some extent.
To a great extent.
The study guide is crucial.

The prescribed work for this module is


1.
2.
3.
4.

8.

very difficult
difficult
fairly easy
very easy

Not applicable (English is my first language).


It caused serious difficulties.
It sometimes contributed to the level of difficulty.
It was not a source of difficulty.

PYC3701/101
13.

In total, the workload for this module is


1.
2.
3.
4.

14.

On average, I spent ---------- studying this module.


1.
2.
3.
4.

15.

less than 4 hours per week


4 to 6 hours per week
7 to 10 hours per week
more than 10 hours per week

Did you enjoy studying this module?


1.
2.
3.
4.

16.

too demanding
demanding
manageable
easy to manage.

No, I did not enjoy it at all.


No, not really.
Yes, to some extent.
Absolutely yes!

Would you recommend this module to your colleagues or friends?


1.
2.
3.
4.

No, not at all.


With reservations.
Yes.
Yes, with great enthusiasm!

CONTACT WITH PYC3701 LECTURERS


17.

How often during 2012 have you made contact with 3701 lecturers?
1.
2.
3.
4.

18.

How do you prefer to communicate with your lecturers?


1.
2.
3.
4.

19.

Weekly.
Monthly.
Quarterly.
Not at all.

Telephone calls.
E-mails.
Personal visits.
Letters/faxes.

In general, how helpful were the lecturers?


1.
2.
3.
4.

Not applicable (I didnt contact them).


Not at all helpful.
Helpful.
Very helpful.

25

TUTORIAL CLASSES
20.

Did you attend tutorial classes?


1.
2.
3.
4.

No, I was not really interested.


No, there were no tutorial classes in my area.
Yes, in Parow.
Yes, in Thutong.

If you attended tutorial classes, please complete the following section.


Use the scale below to express your opinion on each one of the following statements. Mark (4) Not
applicable only if a statement is clearly not relevant in your case):
1 = D (Disagree)
2 = A (Agree)
3 = SA (Strongly agree)
4 = NA (Not applicable)
Tutorial Class Statements:
21.

I found the classes intellectually challenging.

22.

I found the classes worthwhile.

23.

I came prepared to the classes.

24.

I feel more confident about the examination


after attending the tutorial classes.

25.

The tutorial classes focused on the syllabus.

26.

The tutor came prepared to the classes.

27.

The tutor demonstrated knowledge of the subject.

28.

The tutor encouraged active participation.

29.

The tutor responded effectively to questions.

30.

The tutor was open to a discussion of other


viewpoints.

The tutor showed respect for students as


individuals.

31.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION.

26

PYC3701/101

EXAMINATIONS
Use your my Studies @ Unisa brochure for general examination guidelines and examination
preparation guidelines.

9.2 Examination Paper


The multiple choice examination questions will be based on any part or section of the
chapters in the main text (the twelfth edition of Baron (et al., 2008) and on the South African
Perspectives sections in the (3rd edition) of the South African Supplement to Social
Psychology.
There are only two examination sessions per year in the semester system, in May/June 2012 or
October/November 2012. If you fail the module, but achieve a mark of 45% or higher, you are
entitled to one supplementary examination. This will take place during the next examination session
at the end of the next semester. You will be expected to inform the Examination Department of your
intention to write the supplementary examination. You will also be expected to pay the examination
fees. Note that there will be no further supplementary exams. If you fail the supplementary
examination, you will be required to re-register for the module.
The multiple choice examination papers will not be marked negatively. Also remember that the
examination paper is based on the twelfth edition of the prescribed book and its
accompanying third edition of the South African Supplement - NOT on previous editions of
these books.
The examination paper will be in English only.
If you are repeating this module, it is necessary to keep the following in mind: Our experience is that
students who repeat the module are frequently over-confident and tend to revise the work
superficially - everything appears familiar to them and, consequently, they merely read the work
instead of studying essential detail. Be careful not to make this mistake!

9.3 Format of the examination paper (two hours)

The examination paper (two hours) will consist of seventy multiple choice questions for a total of
70 marks.
The total marks for this two hour examination paper is 70. Your mark out of 70 will be recalculated as a percentage.
Remember that the multiple choice questions will be set on any part or section of any one of the
prescribed chapters of the twelfth edition of Baron et al. (2008) (see also the introductory
section of your Study Guide).
At least six, but not more than ten of these seventy items will come from the South African
Perspective sections of the third edition of the South African Supplement to Social Psychology
(2009) accompanying the twelfth edition of Baron et al. (2008).
Also remember that, in this module, the year mark counts 10% and the examination 90% of the
final mark. Your average for Assignments 01 and 02 counts toward your year mark.

27

9.4 Examination period


PYC3701 is a semester module. This means that you will write the examination in May/June 2012 or
October/November 2012.
The Examination Section will provide you with information regarding the examination in general,
examination venues, examination dates, examination times, supplementary and special examinations
(due to illness or accident). Please make sure that you have these details.
Your lecturers will unfortunately not be able to help you with this.

10

OTHER ASSESSMENT METHODS

There are no other assessment methods for this module.

11 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS


The my Studies @ Unisa brochure contains an A-Z guide of the most relevant study information.

28