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Spanish verbs are one of the more complex areas of Spanish grammar.

Spanish is a
relatively synthetic language with a moderate to high degree of inflection, which shows up mostly
in Spanish verb conjugation.
As is typical of verbs in virtually all languages, Spanish verbs express an action or a state of
being of a given subject, and like verbs in most Indo-European languages, Spanish verbs
undergo inflection according to the following categories:

Tense: past, present, or future

Number: singular or plural

Person: first, second or third

T–V distinction: familiar or respectful

Mood: indicative, subjunctive, or imperative

Aspect: perfective aspect or imperfective aspect (distinguished only in the past tense
as preterite or imperfect)

Voice: active or passive

The modern Spanish verb system has sixteen distinct complete [1] paradigms (i.e., sets of forms
for each combination of tense and mood (tense refers to when the action takes place, and mood
or mode refers to the mood of the subject—e.g., certainty vs. doubt), plus one
incomplete[2] paradigm (the imperative), as well as three non-temporal forms (infinitive, gerund,
and past participle).
The fourteen regular tenses are also subdivided into seven simple tenses and seven compound
tenses (also known as the perfect). The seven compound tenses are formed with the auxiliary
verb haber followed by the past participle. Verbs can be used in other forms, such as the present
progressive, but in grammar treatises that is not usually considered a special tense but rather
one of the periphrastic verbal constructions.
In Old Spanish there were two tenses (simple and compound future subjunctive) that are virtually
obsolete today.
Spanish verb conjugation is divided into four categories known
as moods: indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and the traditionally so-called infinitive
mood (newer grammars in Spanish call it formas no personales, "non-personal forms"). This
fourth category contains the three non-finite forms that every verb has: an infinitive, a gerund,
and a past participle (more exactly, a passive perfect participle). The past participle can agree in
number and gender just as an adjective can, giving it four possible forms.

because (1) not every verb has this form and (2) the way in which the meaning of the form is related to that of the verb stem is not predictable. sonriente). new verbs usually adopt the -ar form.There is also a form traditionally known as the present participle (e. and still others can be used as either a noun or an adjective (corriente. rather than an inherent inflection of the verb. or -ir. (The vowel in the ending—a. Unlike the gerund. The -er and ir verbs are fewer. See "Spanish irregular verbs". Some present participles function mainly as nouns (typically. denoting an agent of the action. dominante. dependiente). The rest fall into one of three regular conjugations. but not always. There are also subclasses of semiregular verbs that show vowel alternation conditioned by stress.g. durmiente). e.. -er. but this is generally considered a separate word derived from the verb. the present participle takes the -s ending for agreement in the plural. Many of the most frequently used verbs are irregular. and they include more irregular verbs. cantante. or i—is called the thematic vowel. . while others have a mainly adjectival function (abundante. estudiante). cantante. which are classified according to whether their infinitive ends in -ar. such as amante.) The -ar verbs are the most numerous and the most regular. See Spanish conjugation for conjugation tables of regular verbs and some irregular verbs. moreover.