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4/15/2016

PH 108 Electromagnetic Theory
Maxwell's Equation and Poynting’s Theorem
Tutor: Vishnu Nair
(D4-T2 Batch )
Contact: nair.vishnu.1993@gmail.com
+919930205083
H14 – A 406

Disclaimer :
The slides have been developed from various
books and sources . I don’t claim the ownership
of the content in these slides. This is not for
commercial purposes.
VN

VISHNU NAIR , IIT BOMBAY

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4/15/2016 Discovery of EM Waves: Pre. IIT BOMBAY 2 .Maxwellian times VISHNU NAIR . IIT BOMBAY Discovery of EM Waves: The Anomaly ! Div of a curl is zero ! The Anomaly starts here depending whether I am dealing with a Steady current or not ! In a general problem it may not be steady Consider a parallel plate capacitor where we apply Amperes Law at two different amperian loops S1 and S2 (They can be taken in any configuration) S1 obeys amperes law but S2 doesn’t !! Why does this happen ? What’s wrong in this system ? VISHNU NAIR .

IIT BOMBAY 3 . IIT BOMBAY Discovery of EM Waves: The Correction ! Why was it only observed in Hertz’s Experiment and not before ? Changing Electric field inducing a Magnetic field in presence or absence of a steady current ! Changing Magnetic field inducing an Electric field in absence of a steady current ! NEED FOR A COUPLED SET OF NON-CONSERVATIVE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS SATISFYING THE REQUISITE VECTOR ALEGBRA OF BOTH EQNS – AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE ! VISHNU NAIR .4/15/2016 Discovery of EM Waves: The Correction ! The anomaly arise because we have a system from charge accumulates hence violating equation of continuity !! How do we account for this phenomenon in our equation and make a correction ? The above is the change in charge density owing to a fluctuation in Electric field with time which destroys the consistency of my amperes law ! Hence we add this term to J in amperes law to kill it off ! Displacement Current VISHNU NAIR .

4/15/2016 Maxwell’s Equation In materials the equations become : VISHNU NAIR . IIT BOMBAY 4 . IIT BOMBAY Problem 1 VISHNU NAIR .

IIT BOMBAY Energy conservation in EM Waves : Poynting’s Theorem Energy density in individual fields Let us consider some charge and current configuration producing our Electric and Magnetic field .4/15/2016 VISHNU NAIR . Now consider the work done by these fields on this charge configuration in a tie interval dt VISHNU NAIR . IIT BOMBAY 5 .

IIT BOMBAY Energy conservation in EM Waves : Poynting’s Theorem Poynting’s Vector This work done appears as mechanical energy of the charge configuration VISHNU NAIR .4/15/2016 Energy conservation in EM Waves : Poynting’s Theorem VISHNU NAIR . IIT BOMBAY 6 .

IIT BOMBAY Problem 2 VISHNU NAIR .4/15/2016 Go to EM Waves and come back to do Problem 2 !! VISHNU NAIR . IIT BOMBAY 7 .

4/15/2016 VISHNU NAIR . IIT BOMBAY 8 . IIT BOMBAY VISHNU NAIR .

IIT BOMBAY 9 . IIT BOMBAY VISHNU NAIR .4/15/2016 VISHNU NAIR .