This page includes some notes on reinforced concrete as used in the construction of walls
and structures. It is important to note that I have based most of the content of this page
on BS 8110 1:1997. This standard has now been replaced by Eurocode BS EN1992.
There are a number of differences between BS 8110 and BS EN 1992 e.g the symbols are
generally different (N in BS8110 = N ED in BS EN 1992). The notes are not intended to
enable detail design to the latest codes they are simply provided to enable mechanical
engineers to understand the topic and produce basic design studies. Formal design work
must be completed in accordance with the relevant codes.
Reinforced concrete is probably the most prolific and versatile construction material . It is
composed of two distinct materials concrete and reinforcement , each of which can be
varied in quality disposition and quantity to fulfill a wide range of construction
requirements.
The concrete composition is an based on three constituents : aggregate, cement and water.
These are mixed together in a homogeneous mass and are then put in place and left for
the chemical and physical changes to occur that result in a hard and durable material.
Information on concrete forms is provided on webpage concrete.
The strength and
durability of the resulting concrete depends on the quality and quantity of each of the
constituents and on any additional additives have been added to the wet mix.
Much of
the mixing is now done off site by ready mix companies ..The strength of the resulting
mixes is generally confirmed by a cube crushing test.
The concrete reinforcement is generally steel although other materials are sometimes used
such as glass fibre.
The main reinforcement bars are generally high yield deformed bars (
f y >= 460 N/m2 ) . Reinforcement links are often mild steel ( f y >= 250 N/m2 ) although
high yield steel is becoming more popular. For reinforced concrete slabs and walls it is
convention to use mesh reinforcement.
The reinforcement is generally located to compensate for the concrete being weak in
tension e.g in spanning beams the reinforcement is primarily located in the bottom half of a
section and at the midspan. In a cantilever beam the reinforcement will generally be at
the top of the beam with the maximum concentration at the support.
In the notes below the characteristic strength for concrete ( f cu ) is the value of the cube
strength and the characteristic strength for the reinforcement ( f y ) is the designated
proof/yield strength. The referenced standard for these notes (BS 8110) also identifies a
partial factor of safety γ m which is applied to these strengths to take into account the
difference between test and practical conditions. It should be noted that the strength of
concrete related to flexure is actually accepted as 0,67. f cu.
The characteristic load regime on a structure comprises a characteristic dead load (G k) and
a characteristic imposed load ( Q k ) and sometimes a characteristic wind load ( W k ) these
are each modified by an appropriate partial safety margin γf
Structures made from concrete to BS 8110 (and to the latest codes ) should be designed to
transmit the design ultimate dead , wind , and imposed loads safely from the highest
supported level to the foundations. The structure and interactions between the included
members should ensure a robust and stable design . The design should also be such that
the structure is able to remain is service . Account should be taken of temperature, creep,
shrinkage, sway, settlement and cyclic loading as appropriate.
Summary of load symbols
= Partial safety factor for load
E = Characteristic Earth Load
G = Characteristic dead Load
Q = Characteristic Wind Load
γ
f
n
k
k
Summary of strength symbols
= Partial safety factor for material strength
f = Characteristic strength of concrete
f = Characteristic strength of reinforcement
γ
m
cu
y
When completing analysis of cross sections to determine the ultimate resistance to bending
certain assumptions are made
1)The strain distribution in tension or compression assumes plane
sections remain plane
2) The compressive stresses in concrete are derived from stress
strain curve shown below with γ m = 1,5
3) The tensile strength of concrete is ignored
4) The stresses in the reinforcement are derived from the
stress/strain curve as shown below γ m = 1,15
5) When the section is resisting only flexure the lever arm should
not be greater than 0,95x the effective depth
The effective depth is the depth from the compression face to the centre of the area of the
main reinforcement group
Formwork
The formwork is the timber , steel or plastic moulds into which the concrete is poured on
site to create the various concrete components. It is a vital part of the construction
process and the formwork costs can be up to 50% of the concrete construction costs. The
reinforcement must be located in the formword prior to pouring the concrete.
The formwork must be leaktight, strong and rigid to contain and maintain dimensions of the
full liquid concrete mass. It must also be designed for standardisation and reuse to reduce
the construction costs to a minimum.
It is clear that the formwork should not only be designed for construction it should also
include features allowing safe and convenient removal and reuse
Relevant Standards
The design notes provided on this page relate to BS 81101 :1997 which has been
superseded by the standards referenced below.
Code Reference Number
BS EN 199211:2004
BS EN 199212:2004
BS EN 19922:2005
BS EN 19923:2006
BS EN 19923:2006
BS EN 2061:2000
BS EN 2069:2010
Title
General rules and rules for
buildings..Replaces BS 81101,
BS 81102 and BS 81103
Eurocode 2:General rules.
Structural fire design
Eurocode 2:Concrete bridges.
Design and detailing
rules..Replaces BS 54004, BS
54007 and BS 54008
Eurocode 2:Liquid retaining
and containing
structures...Replaces BS 8007
Eurocode 2:Liquid retaining
and containing
structures...Replaces BS 8007
Concrete. Specification,
performance, production and
conformity
Concrete. Additional rules for
selfcompacting concrete
(SCC)y
symbols
A = Area of tension reinforcement
A' = Area of Compression reinforcement
b = width or effective width of section
b = average width of web
d = effective depth of section (compression face to centre of reinforcement )
d' = depth to compression reinforcement
h = thickness of flange
L = effective span of beam
M = Design Ultimate moment at section
x = Depth to neutral axis
z = lever arm
f =Characteristic strength for concrete ( f ) = cube strength
M = Ultimate moment capacity of unreinforced beam
βb = ratio (Moment at the section after redistribution)/ (Moment at the section
before redistribution)
γ partial factor of safety applied to characteristics strengths of concrete and
reinforcement
A = Area of concrete at section
A = Total cross section area of links at the neutral axis , at section
f =Characteristic strength of reinforcement ..Proof /yield strength
f =Characteristic strength of links ..Proof /yield strength
s = spacing of links along section
V = design shear force at ultimate loads
v = Design shear stress at cross section
v = Design shear capacity
s
s
w
f
cu
cu
u
m
c
sv
y
yv
v
c
Columns..................
A = net cross section area of concrete in column
A = Area of vertical reinforcement
a = deflection at ULS
b = width of column section (smallest cross section dimension
h = depth of column section
l = effective height of column
l = clear height of column between restraints
l = centre height of column between restraint centres
M = Smaller initial end moment due to design ultimate loads
M = Larger initial end moment due to design ultimate loads
N = design ultimate axial load on column
N = design ultimate axial load of a balanced section : (if symmetrically
c
sc
u
e
o
c
1
2
bal
reinforced assume 0,25f bd )
cu
Walls..................
e = additional eccentricity due to deflections
e = resultant eccentricity of load at right angles to plane of wall
e = resultant eccentricity at top of wall
e = resultant eccentricity at bottom of wall
h = thickness of wall
l = effective height of wall
l = clear height of wall between lateral supports
a
x
x1
x2
e
o
Slabs
V = Effective shear force at ultimate loads and moments
U = Shear perimeter around column head.
U = shear perimeter around column head at column face
U = shear perimeter around column head location away from column face.
(see notes.)
eff
o
i
Concrete building components
Beams
Beams are horizontal structural items specifically design to support vertical loads .
Concrete beams are generally rectangular in section with width b and height h and length L.
Beams can also be of a variety of section including channel section, tee section, I section
etc.
There are a number of support configurations for beams including cantilever, simply
supported , continuous, etc each one tending to produce different stress and deflection
characteristics. As concrete is not able to withstand tensile stress , loaded concrete beams
are generally reinforced in the area under tensile stress.
Concrete columns
Vertical structural elements of clear height = l and cross section = b x h where h < 4b are
columns , otherwise they are walls.
A column should not have an unrestrained length
greater than than 60b.
Concrete Walls
Vertical load bearing element with length exceeding 4 times the thickness. The clear
height is designated l o and the thickness h. Concrete walls can be plain walls which have
zero to minimum reinforcement (< 0,4% of section area ) or reinforced walls with
reinforcemnt > 0,4% of area .
Flat Slabs
Flat slabs are horizontal slabs , used for floors or upper structural surface which are
supported on walls or beams.
Solid Slabs
These are horizontal slabs supported on pads or columns instead of walls
Rough preliminary sizing of concrete elements
Element
Typical
spans
(m)
Overall Depth or Thickness
Simply
supported
Continuous
Cantilever
One way
56
spanning slabs
L /(2230)
L/(2836)
L/(710)
Two way
611
spanning slabs
L /(2435)
L/(3440)

Flat slabs
48
L /27
L/36
L/(710)
Rectangular
beams
910
L /12
L/15
L/6
Flanged
beams
515
L /10
L/12
L/6
Columns
2,5 8
H / (1020)
H / (1020)
H/10
Walls
24
H / (3035)
H / 45
H/ (1518)
L = effective span = smaller of distance between bearing centres or clear distance
(between supports ) + depth of section
Partial Safety margins....
Typical Values of
γ m for Ultimate limit state... (Persistent and transient)
Reinforcement
& Pre
1,15
stressing
Concrete in
flexure or
1,5
axially loaded
Shear
strength
1,25
without
reinforcement
others
Load Combinations and values
Load
combin Dead ( G )
ations
k
=> 1,5
γ f for Ultimate limit state.
Load type
Imposed
(Q )
k
Earth Wind
+ Press
Wate ure
r
Press
ure
Adve Bene Adve Bene
rse ficial rse ficial
Dead
and
Imposed
(+ earth
1,4
and
water
pressur
e)
1,0
1,6
0
1,6
1,2
Dead
and
Wind (+
earth
1,4
and
water
pressur
e)
1,0


1,2
1,4
Dead +
Imposed
+ Wind
(+ earth
1,2
and
water
pressur
e)
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
Simple Reinforced beam design
The theory supporting the relationships in this section,in outline, is covered on web
page Reinforced concrete beams theory
The sketch below identifies the types of simple reinforced beams that are relevant to the
notes provided
Condition of strain and stress in a rectangular section at ultimate limit state of
loading is shown in the figure below
Note: The factor 0,67 is not a partial safety margin it relates to the direct relationship
between the cube strength as indicated by f cu and the strength in flexure of the concrete.
The total compressive force generated within the concrete at the ultimate moment capacity
is
0,9 . 0,67.fcu . b . x / (γ
m
=1,5)
=
0,4 . fcu. b. x
The ultimate moment capacity of a unreinforced concrete beam section where there is less
than 10% moment distribution is
M
u
= 0,156 .F
M = K.[ f
cu
.b.d2
cu
.b.d2 ]
Factors for lever arm (z) and neutral axis depth (x)
x 0,13.d 0,15.d
0,19.
0,25d 0,32.d 0,39.d 0,45.d 0,5.d
d
z 0,942.d 0,933.d 0,91.d 0,887.d 0,857.d 0,825.d 0,798.d 0,775.d
K 0,05
0,057
0,070 0,090
0,110
0,130
0,145
0,156
Area of Reinforcement bars
If the applied moment is less than M
u
then the area of tension reinforcement =
If the applied moment is greater than M
reinforcement is necessary
The tension reinforcement required is.
u
( K > 0,156 ) then tension and compression
Compression reinforcement required is
Application of equations to concrete tees
Mu is simply calculated as 0,4.fcu.b.hf.(d  hf/2) if this is greater than M then the neutral axis
is within the flange and the tee can be assessed using the equations above..
Shear Strength of concrete beams
The design shear capactity (v) in a concrete beam at any section is calculated from
v = V / (b v.d )
V is the Shear force at a section
v should never exceed 0,8 √ f cu or 5 N/mm2 if lower.
Values of concrete shear capacity v
depth (d) of section
c
related to % reinforcement and effective
%
Effective Depth (mm)  d
Reinforcem 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 400
ent
N/m N/m N/m N/m N/m N/m N/m N/m
=
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
m2
100
A /b .d
= < 0,15
v
0,45
0,43
0,41
0,40
0,39
0,38
0,36
0,34
0,25
0,53
0,51
0,49
0,47
0,46
0,45
0,43
0,40
0,50
0,67
0,64
0,62
0,60
0,58
0,56
0,54
0,50
0,75
0,77
0,73
0,71
0,68
0,66
0,65
0,62
0,57
1,00
0,84
0,81
0,78
0,75
0,73
0,71
0,68
0,63
1,50
0,97
0,92
0,89
0,86
0,83
0,81
0,78
0,72
2,0
1,06
1,02
0,98
0,95
0,92
0,89
0,86
0,80
>= 3,0
1,22
1,16
1,12
1,08
1,05
1,02
0,98
0,91
s
Form of Shear Reinforcement
If the applied shear stress is less than 0,5 v c throughout the beam then
Minimum links should be provided, and in elements of low importance e.g lintels then no
links need be included
Suggested shear area provided = A
sv
> 0,2 b v.s v / (0,87 .f
yv
)
If the applied shear stress is greater than 0,5 v c and less than (0,4 + v c) throughout the
beam then
Minimum links should be provided for the whole length of beam to provide shear resistance
of 0,4 N/mm2
Suggested shear are provided = A
sv
> 0,4 b v.s v / (0,87 . f
If the applied shear stress is greater than (0,4 + v c) and less than (0,8 Sqrt(F
+ v c) throughout the beam then
cu
yv
)
or 5 N/mm2)
Links should be provided for the whole length of beam to provide shear resistance at no
more than 0,75d spacing . No tension bar should be more the 150 mm for a vertical shear
link.
Suggested shear are provided = A
sv
> b v.s v (v  v c) / (0,87 . f
)
yv
>
Stiffness and Deflection
A table is provided below which gives the basic span/ depth ratio for beams which limit the
total deflection to span/250 or 20mm (if less) , for spans up to 10m.
Type
Rectangular
Section
Flanged
Section
b /b =1,0
b /b =< 0,3
w
w
Cantilever
7
5,6
Simply support
20
16,0
Continuous
26
20,8
For b w/b >0,3 interpolation between the rectangular and flanged values is acceptable
Allowable span/depth ratio
The allowable span/depth = F 1.F 2F 3F 4. Basic span/depth ratio
F 1 For long spans exceeding 10m the values in the table should be multiplied by 10/span.
F 2= A factor to allow for tension reinforcement. See chart below
F 3= A factor to allow for compression reinforcement. See chart below
F 4= A factor to allow for stair waists where the staircase occupies over 60% of the span
Simple Column design
Cross section of a typical simple column.
A column should not have a clear distance between restraints which exceeds 60.b ( b being
the small cross section dimension ). If one end of a column is not restrained (a cantilever
column) then its clear height must be the smaller of 60.b or 100.b 2 /h .
It is important early in the design process to determine if the column is a stocky design and
if there is significant bracing associated with the columns. The effective length of a
column l e = l o.β where β is the effective length constant which is dependent on the end
support conditions (see tables below).
A column is considered a stocky column if its
effective length divided by b = l e/b is less than 15.
A longer column must be assessed in
the design for risk of buckling.
Some simple rules for column reinforcement.
A sc should by more than 1% and less than 6% of gross cross section area of column (b x h)
The minimum dia of bars should be 12mm.
Lateral binders/ties should be arranged to restrain each bar from buckling and the end of
the binders should be anchored.
The pitch of the binder should not exceed b or 12 times
the dia of the longitudinal bars, nor 300 mm . The diameter of the binders should not be
less than 25% of the diameter of the longitudinal bars
Typical column head designs. (columns and associated heads can also be circular.
Braced Columns Table of effective length coefficients (β)
A column is considered to be braced if lateral stability is provided by walls or buttresses.
The column is effectively only taking axial loads and moments resulting from eccentricity of
lateral loads
End Condition at
Bottom
Pinned
End
with
Conditio Rigidl
some
n at Top
y
Fixed
angular
Fixed
restrain
t
Rigidly
Fixed
075
0,80
0,90
Fixed
0,80
0,85
0,95
Pinned
with
some
angular
restraint
0,9
0,95
1,00
Unbraced Columns Table of effective length coefficients (β)
End Condition at
Bottom
Pinned
End
with
Conditio Rigidl
some
n at Top
y
Fixed
angular
Fixed
restrain
t
Rigidly
Fixed
1,2
1,3
1,6
Fixed
1,3
1,5
1,8
Pinned
with
some
angular
restraint
1,6
1,8

Free
2,2


Rigidly Fixed
The end of the column is connected monolithically (solidly) to beams
on either side which are at least as deep as the overall dimension of
the column in the plane considered. Where the column is
connected to a foundation structure, this should be of a form
specifically designed to carry moments.
Fixed.
The end of the column is connected monolithically to beams or slabs
on either side which are shallower than the overall dimension of the
column in the plane considered
Pinned with some angular restraint
The end of the column is connected to members which, while not
specifically designed to provide restraint to rotation of the column
will, nevertheless, provide some nominal restraint.
Free.
The end of the column is unrestrained against both lateral
movement and rotation. e.g the free end of a cantilever column in
an unbraced structure
Design Calculations
When a stocky column is subject to a simple axial loads with induced moments , assuming a
well balanced load scenario , it need only be design for the ultimate design axial force + a
nominal allowance for an eccentricity of force (e c ) of h/20 (with a maximum of 20mm).
When a stocky column is subject Axial forces and bending stresses it is generally necessary
to use design charts .Reference Column Design charts.
Stocky beams resisting moments
Following equations include provision for
γ m.
When a stocky column cannot be subjected to significant moments,it is sufficient to design
the column such that the design ultimate load is less than
N = 0,4 f
.A c + 0,75 A sc.f
cu
y
When a stocky column is supporting to a reasonably symmetrical arrangement of beams of
similar spans and which are for uniformly distributed loads , it is sufficient to design the
column such that the design ultimate load is less than
N = 0,35 f
cu
.A c + 0,67 A sc.f
y
Biaxial bending in columns
When it is necessary to consider biaxial moments, the design moment about one axis is
enhanced to allow for the biaxial loading condition and the column is designed around the
enhanced axis. Consider the column as loaded below.
The relevant moment is modified as below
N/
( b.h.F 0
)
c
0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50 >=0,60
u
β
a
1,0 0,88 0,77 0,65 0,53 0,42 0,3
Design of Walls
The design axial forces in a reinforced wall may be calculated on the assumption that the
beam and floor slabs being supported are simply supported.
The effective length of a wall l e should be obtained as if the wall was a column which is
subject to moments in the plane normal to the wall. The determination if a wall is stocky
or slender is also obtained using the same criteria as for a column.
Stocky reinforced walls
A stocky braced reinforced wall supporting reasonably symmetrical load should be designed
such than..
n
w
= 0,55.f
.A c + f y.0,67A
cu
SC
.
n w = total design axial load on wall due to design ultimate loads :providing the slab loads
are uniform in loading and relatively evenly distributed.
Except for short braced walls loaded symmetrically the eccentricity in the direction at right
angles to a wall should not be less than h/20 or 20mm if less.
When the eccentricity results from only transverse moments the design axial load may be
assumed to be evenly distributed along the length of the wall. The cross section should be
designed to resist the design ultimate load and the transverse moment . The assumptions
made for the calculation of beam sections apply.
When a wall is subject to inplane moments and uniform axial forces the cross section of the
wall should be designed to support the ultimate resulting axial loads and inplane moments.
Slender reinforced walls
The maximum slenderness ratio l e/h should be 40 for braced walls with <1% reinforcement:
45 for braced walls with => 1% reinforcement: 30 for unbraced walls
A suitable design procedure is to first consider axial forces and inplane moments to obtain
the distribution of forces along the wall assuming the concrete does not resist tension. The
transverse moments are then calculated. At various points along the wall the results are
combined.
Walls subject to significant transverse moments additional to the ones allowed for by
assuming a minimum eccentricity are considered by assuming such walls are slender
columns bent about the minor axis . If the wall is reinforced with only one central layer of
reinforcement the additional moments should be doubled
Plain walls
Plain walls include less than 0,4% reinforcement.
The effective height of plain unbraced concrete walls is assessed as ( l e = 1,5 l o ) if the wall
is supporting a roof or floor slab, otherwise it is calculated as (l e = 2 l o).
When a plain concrete wall is braced with lateral supports resisting both rotation and
movement then ( l e = 0,75 l o )
Where the lateral support only resists lateral movement then ( l e = l o )or if relevant ( l
2,5 (distance between support and a free edge )
e
=
Design of solid slabs
Solid slabs can be simply oneway loaded plates or two way loaded plates depending on the
support arrangements
Design Moments and shear forces in simple one way spanning continuous slabs
Uniformly Distributed Loads
F = Total Design Ultimate load on one slab (1,4 G
l s = is effective span of slab
k
+ 1,6 Q k)
G k = Dead Load
Q k = Imposed load)
Design Moments and shear forces in simple one way spanning continuous slabs
End support/ Slab connection
Simple
Supports
Continuous
At
Middl
At
At First
e of Interior
Suppor
interi suppor
t
or
ts
span
Near
Near
Outer
Outer Middl
Middle
Suppor
Suppor e of
of end
ts
ts
end
span
span
Mome
0
nt
F.l /11,
F.l /1 F.l /11, FL /
F.l /25
5
3
5
15,5
F.l /15
,5
Shear

F/2
F / 2,5
s
s
s
s
6 F /13 
3 F /5

s
Design Moments and shear forces in two way spanning continuous slabs
Uniformly Distributed Loads
Type of
Panel
and
Location 1,0
Short span coefficient β
For values of l /l
y
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
1,5
Long span
coefficient
sx
β
x
1,75 2,0
Interior Panels
Moment
at
0,03 0,03 0,04 0,04 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,06 0,032
continuo
1
7
2
6
0
3
9
3
us edge
Moment
0,02 0,02 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,04 0,04 0,04
at mid0,024
4
8
2
5
7
0
4
8
span
One short edge discontinuous
Moment 







0,037
sy
at
0,03 0,04 0,04 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,06 0,06
continuo
9
4
8
2
5
8
3
7
us edge
Moment
0,02 0,03 0,03 0,03 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,05
at mid0,028
9
3
6
9
1
3
7
0
span
One long edge discontinuous
Moment
at
0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,08 0,037
continuo
9
9
6
2
8
3
2
9
us edge
Moment
0,03 0,03 0,04 0,04 0,05 0,05 0,06 0,06
at mid0,028
0
6
2
7
1
5
2
7
span
Two adjacent edges discontinuous
Moment
at
0,04 0,05 0,06 0,06 0,07 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,045
continuo
7
6
3
9
4
8
7
3
us edge
Moment
0,03 0,04 0,04 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,06 0,07
at mid0,034
6
2
7
1
5
9
5
0
span
Two short edges discontinuous
Moment
at
0,04 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,06 0,06 0,06 0,07 continuo
6
0
4
7
0
2
7
0
us edge
Moment
0,03 0,03 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,04 0,05 0,05
at mid0,034
4
8
0
3
5
7
0
3
span
Two long edges discontinuous
Moment
at
continuo
us edge







0,045
Moment
0,03 0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,07 0,09
at mid0,10 0,034
4
6
6
5
2
8
1
span
Three edges discontinuous1 long edge discontinuous
Moment 








at
0,05 0,06 0,07 0,07 0,08 0,08 0,09 0,09
continuo
7
5
1
6
1
4
2
8
us edge
Moment
0,04 0,04 0,05 0,05 0,06 0,06 0,06 0,07
at mid0,044
3
8
3
7
0
3
9
4
span
Three edges discontinuous 1 short discontinuous
Moment
at
continuo
us edge







0,058
Moment
0,04 0,05 0,06 0,07 0,07 0,08 0,09 0,10
at mid0,044
2
4
3
1
8
4
6
5
span
Four edges discontinuous
Moment
0,05 0,06 0,07 0,08 0,08 0,09 0,10 0,11
at mid0,056
5
5
4
1
7
2
3
1
span
Design Moments and shear forces in two way spanning continuous slabs
Shear Force coefficients
Type of
Panel and
Location
Short span coefficient βsx
For values of ly/lx
Long span
coefficient β
vy
1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,75 2,0
Interior Panels Four Edges continuous
Continuous
0,33 0,36 0,39 0,41 0,43 0,45 0,48 0,50 0,33
edge
One short edge discontinuous
Continuous
0,36 0,39 0,42 0,44 0,45 0,47 0,50 0,52 036
edge
Discontinuo
us Edge







0,24
One long edge discontinuous
Continuous
0,36 0,40 0,44 0,49 0,51 0,55 0,59 0,36 0,037
edge
Discontinuo
0,24 0,27 0,29 0,32 0,34 0,36 0,38 us Edge
0,028
Two adjacent edges discontinuous
Continuous
0,40 0,44 0,47 0,50 0,52 0,54 0,57 0,60 0,40
edge
Discontinuo
0,26 0,29 0,31 0,33 0,34 0,35 0,38 0,40 0,26
us Edge
Two short edges discontinuous
Continuous
0,40 0,43 0,45 0,47 0,48 0,49 0,52 0,54 edge
Discontinuo
us Edge







0,26
Two long edges discontinuous
Continuous
edge







0,40
Discontinuo
0,26 0,30 0,33 0,36 0,38 0,40 0,44 0,47 us Edge
Three edges discontinuous1 long edge discontinuous
Continuous
0,45 0,48 0,51 0,53 0,55 0,57 0,60 0,63 edge
Discontinuo
0,30 0,32 0,34 0,35 0,36 0,37 0,39 0,41 0,29
us Edge
Three edges discontinuous 1 short discontinuous
Continuous
edge







0,45
Discontinuo
0,29 0,33 0,36 0,38 0,40 0,42 0,45 0,48 0,30
us Edge
Four edges discontinuous
Discontinuo
0,33 0,36 0,39 0,41 0,43 0,45 0,48 0,50 0,33
us Edge
Deflection .
The deflection can be limited by the application of the span/depth ratio as indicated in the
table for beams and modified by the use of F2 as shown in the relevant graph Design of
Beams...... Only conditions at the centre of slab in the width of the should be used to
influence the deflection.
For two way spanning slabs the ratio should be based on the shorter span.
Design of Flat Slabs
Flat slabs should be designed to satisfy deflection requirements and to resist the shear load
around the column supports.
BS 8110 allows for a simplified method for determining moments subject to certain
provisions
1) design is based on a single load case of all spans being loaded
with the maximum design ultimate load.
2) There are at least three rows of panels of approx equal span in
the direction under consideration
4)The ratio of imposed to dead load does not exceed 1,25
5)The characteristic imposed load does not exceed 5kN/m2
This method involve simply using the table provided for design moments in simple one way
spanning continuous slabs as provided above as copied below.
Moments at supports resulting from the table below are reduced by 0,15F.h c
The design moments resulting should be divided between the column strips and midstrips
as shown in the figure below in proportions as shown in table below
F = Total Design Ultimate load (1,4 G k + 1,6 Q k)
l s = is
effective span of slab
G k = Dead Load
Q k = Imposed load)
End support/ Slab connection At First At
At
Support
Middl
Interior
Simple
Continuous
e of support
Supports
interi
s
or
span
Near
Near
Outer
Outer Middl
Middle
Suppor
Suppor e of
of end
ts
ts
end
span
span
Momen
t (M)
F.l /11,5 F.l /25 F.l /13
s
s
s
F.l /11, FL /
5
15,5
s
F.l /15,
5
s
Distribution of design
moments across panels
in flat slabs
Design
Moment
apportionment
between strips
as a percentage
of total negative
or positive
moments
Column
strip %
Middle
Strip
strip %
negative
75
25
positive
55
45
Punching shear forces in Flat Slabs
The critical shear condition for flat slabs is punching shear around the column heads. The
shear load supported by a column is the basic calculated shear force (V) uprated to account
for moment transfer. For slabs with approximately equal spans the uprated shear force,
designated the effective shear force V eff ,can be simply estimated using the following rules.
For
For
For
For
V
For
internal columns V eff = 1,15 V
corner columns V eff = 1,15 V
corner columns V eff = 1,15 V
edge columns with the moment parallel to the edge V
edge columns with the moment normal to the edge V
The slab shear at the column face is calculated as
eff
eff
= 1,25
= 1,4 V
d = thickness of slab and U
o
is the perimeter of the slab at the column head edge
ν o should be less than 0,8 √ f cu or 5 N/mm2 if less
Perimeters U i radiating out from the column edge should be checked with the first
perimeter (i =1) at a distance 1,5.d from the column face and subsequent perimeters i =
2,3... with intervals of 0,75.d
successive perimeters are checked until the applied shear stress ν i is less than the allowable
shear stress ν c. Reinforcement links are required between the perimeters at which the
shear stress is greater than ν c.
Deflection .
When the gross width of drops in both directions exceed 1/3 the respective span the
deflection can be limited by the application of the span/depth ratio as indicated in the table
for beams Design of Beams...... Otherwise the resulting span/effective depth should be
multiplied by 0,9.
The assessment should be completed for the most critical direction.
Reinforcement Data
Cross sectional area of number of bars ( mm2 )
Bar
Siz
e
(m
m)
Cross sectional area of number of bars (mm2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
6
28
57
85
8
50
101 151 201 251 302 352 402 452 503 553 603
10
79
157 236 314 393 471 550 628 707 785 864 942
113 141 170 198 226 254 283 311 339
12
113 226 339 452 565 679 792 905 1018 1131 1244 1357
16
201 402 603 804
20
314 628 942
25
491 982
32
804
40
125 251 377 502 628
1005 1131 1256 1382 1508
7540 8796
7
3
0
7
3
3
0
6
3
0
50
196 392 589 785 981 1178 1374 1570 1767 1963 2159 2356
3
7
0
4
7
1
4
8
1
5
8
2
100
1206 1407 1608 1810 2011 2212 2413
5
125 157
1885 2199 2513 2827 3142 3456 3770
7
1
147 196 245
2945 3436 3927 4418 4909 5400 5890
3
3
4
160 241 321 402
4825 5630 6434 7238 8042 8847 9651
8
3
7
1
Cross sectional area of number of bars ( mm2 ) per metre
spacing
Ba
r
Siz
e 50
(m
m)
Bar Spacing
75
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 400
6
565 377
283
226
188
162
141 126 113 103 94
71
8
100
670
5
503
402
335
287
251 223 201 183 168 126
10
157
1047 785
1
628
524
449
393 349 314 286 262 196
12
226
1508 1131 905
2
754
646
565 503 452 411 377 283
16
402
100
2681 2011 1608 1340 1149
894 804 731 670 503
1
5
20
628
157 139 125 114 104
4189 3142 2513 2094 1795
785
3
1
6
7
2
7
25
981
245 218 196 178 163 122
6545 4909 3927 3272 2805
7
4
2
3
5
6
7
32 
1072
402 357 321 292 268 201
8042 6434 5362 4596
3
1
4
7
5
1
1
40 

1256 1005 8378 7181 628 558 502 457 418 314
6
50 

3
3
5
7
0
9
2
1963 1570 1309 1122 981 872 785 714 654 490
5
8
0
0
7
7
4
0
5
9
Link reinforcement in beams, Asv/sv ( mm2/mm )  2 legs
Bar Link reinforcement in beams, Asv/sv (mm2/mm)  2 legs
Size
Spacing of Links (mm)
(mm
) 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 400
6
1.13 0.75 0.57 0.45 0.38 0.32 0.28 0.25 0.23 0.21 0.19 0.14
8
2.01 1.34 1.01 0.80 0.67 0.57 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.37 0.34 0.25
10
3.14 2.09 1.57 1.26 1.05 0.90 0.79 0.70 0.63 0.57 0.52 0.39
12
4.52 3.02 2.26 1.81 1.51 1.29 1.13 1.01 0.90 0.82 0.75 0.57
16
8.04 5.36 4.02 3.22 2.68 2.30 2.01 1.79 1.61 1.46 1.34 1.01
Link reinforcement in beams, Asv/sv ( mm2/mm )  3 legs
Bar Link reinforcement in beams, Asv/sv (mm2/mm)  3 legs
Size
Spacing of Links (mm)
(mm
75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 400
) 50
6
1.70 1.13 0.85 0.68 0.57 0.48 0.42 0.38 0.34 0.31 0.28 0.21
8
3.02 2.01 1.51 1.21 1.01 0.86 0.75 0.67 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.38
10
4.71 3.14 2.36 1.88 1.57 1.35 1.18 1.05 0.94 0.86 0.79 0.59
12
6.79 4.52 3.39 2.71 2.26 1.94 1.70 1.51 1.36 1.23 1.13 0.85
16
12.06 8.04 6.03 4.83 4.02 3.45 3.02 2.68 2.41 2.19 2.01 1.51
Link reinforcement in beams, Asv/sv ( mm2/mm )  4 legs
>
Bar Link reinforcement in beams, Asv/sv (mm2/mm)  4 legs
Size
Spacing of Links (mm)
(mm
75
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 400
) 50
6
2.26 1.51 1.13 0.90 0.75 0.65 0.57 0.50 0.45 0.41 0.38 0.28
8
4.02 2.68 2.01 1.61 1.34 1.15 1.01 0.89 0.80 0.73 0.67 0.50
10
6.28 4.19 3.14 2.51 2.09 1.80 1.57 1.40 1.26 1.14 1.05 0.79
12
9.05 6.03 4.52 3.62 3.02 2.59 2.26 2.01 1.81 1.65 1.51 1.13
16
16.08 10.72 8.04 6.43 5.36 4.60 4.02 3.57 3.22 2.92 2.68 2.01
mesh reinforcement in beams, Asv/sv ( mm2/mm )  4 legs
Mesh size
Cross section
nominal Diameter
Nomina No. of
area per metre
pitch of
of wire
l mass sheets
width
wires
BS448
Mai
Mai
per
3
Cross
Cross Main Cross
n
n
tonne
Fabric
2(/sup
mm2(/sup kg/m²
mm mm mm mm mm>
>

Square mesh
A393
200 200
10
10
393
393
6.16
15
A252
200 200
8
8
252
252
3.95
22
A193
200 200
7
7
193
193
3.02
22
A142
200 200
6
6
142
142
2.22
40
A98
200 200
5
5
98
98
1.54
57
Structural mesh
B1131
100 200
12
8
1131
252
10.9
8
B785
100 200
10
8
785
252
8.14
11
B503
100 200
8
8
503
252
5.93
15
B385
100 200
7
7
385
193
4.53
20
B283
100 200
6
7
283
193
3.73
24
B196
100 200
5
7
196
193
3.05
29
Long mesh
C785
100 400
10
6
785
70.8
6.72
13
C636
100 400
9
6
636
70.8
5.55
16
C503
100 400
8
5
503
49
4.34
21
C385
100 400
7
5
385
49
3.41
26
C283
100 400
6
5
283
49
2.61
34
98
1.54
57
Wrapping mesh
D98
200 200
5
5
98
D49
100 100
2.5
2.5
49
49
0.77
113
Nominal thick cover *(mm)of reinforcement bars for fire
resistance (hours)
Nominal thickness cover in mm
Beams
Floors
Ribs
Colum
ns
Hou
rs Simply
Simply
Simply
Simply
Continu
Continu
Continu
Suppor
Suppor
Suppor
Suppor
ous
ous
ous
ted
ted
ted
ted
0,5 20
20
20
20
20
20
20
1
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
1,5 20
20
25
20
35
20
20
2
40
30
35
25
45
35
25
3
60
40
45
35
55
45
25
4
70
50
55
45
65
55
25
Minimum Section width for fire resistance.
Minimum
Wall
Thickness
Column width
Min
Fire
Maximu Rib
floor
Resistan m beam Widt
One
Thickne Fully
50%
p<
ce
width
h
Face
ss
Expose expose
0,4
Expose
d
d
%
d
h
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
0,4
p
%<
>
p<
1%
1%
mm mm
m
m
0,5
200
125
75
150
125
100
150 100 75
1,0
200
125
95
200
160
120
150 120 75
1,5
20
125
110
250
200
140
175 140
10
0
2,0
20
125
125
300
200
160

160
10
0
3,0
240
150
150
400
300
200

200
15
0
4,0
280
175
170
450
350
240

240
18
0
Characteristic strength of concrete
Concrete strength classes
f
ck
f
cu
f
cm
E
cm
MPa
12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90
(N/mm2)
MPa
15 20 25 30 37 45 50 55 60 67 75 85 95 105
(N/mm2)
MPa
20 24 28 33 38 43 48 53 58 63 68 78 88 98
(N/mm2)
GPa
27 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 41 42 44
(N/mm2)
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Indir
Flex ect
Charact
ural tensi
eristic
Modul
stren le
strength
us of
Cube strength (N/mm2) at the age of:
gth stren
(f
Elasti
after gth
after 28
city
28 at 28
days
days days
.
cu )
(N/mm2) 1 28 2 3 months 6 months
da da mo
1 year (N/m (N/m (kN/m
m2) m2) m2)
ys ys nth
15

15 






20
13.
20 22
5
23
24
25
2.3
1.5
24
25
16.
25 27.5 29
5
30
31
2.7
1.8
25
30
20 30 33
35
36
37
3.1
2.1
26
40
28 40 44
45.5
47.5
50
3.7
2.5
30
50
36 50 54
55.5
57.5
60
4.2
2.8
32
Characteristic strength of Reinforcement
Modulu
Characteris s of
Designati tic strength Elastici
on
f
ty E
2
N/mm
kN/mm
y
2
Hot rolled
250
Mild Steel
200
High Yield
Steel (Hot
500
or Cold
Rolled)
200
Reinforcement bar bending
Details based on BS 8666 .Normally grade H bars used f
y
= 500 N/m2