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3103-450

Spatial data analysis with
Geographical Information
Systems (GIS)
Thilo Streck
Joachim Ingwersen
Sebastian Gayler
Teaching assistants

Detailed schedule I
Day

Date

14.00 - 15.30

Room

16.00 - 18.15

Room

1

Mon,
04.04.16

Introduction
(Ingwersen)

HS8

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

2

Tue,
05.04.16

Remote sensing basics
(Streck)

HS8

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

3

Wed,
06.04.16

Landcover mapping
(Streck)

HS8

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

4

Thu,
07.04.16

Landcover mapping
(Streck)

HS8

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

5

Fri,
08.04.16

Digital terrain analysis
(Streck)

HS8

Map projections
(Streck)

HS8

6

Mon,
11.04.16

Spatial data and data bases
(Streck)

HS8

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

7

Tue
12.04.16

Correlation and time series
analysis (Streck)

HS8

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

8

Wed,
13.04.16

Spatial data analysis and
interpolation (Streck)

HS8

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

9

Thu,
14.04.16

Spatial data analysis and
interpolation (Streck)

HS8

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

10

Fri,
15.04.16

Spatial data analysis and
interpolation (Streck)

HS8

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

Detailed schedule II
Day

Date

14.00 - 15.30

Room

16.00 - 18.15

Room

11

Mon,
18.04.16

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

12

Tue,
19.04.16

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

Working with GIS
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

13

Wed,
20.04.16

GIS project work
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

GIS project work
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

14

Thu,
21.04.16

GIS project work
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

GIS project work
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

15

Fri,
22.04.16

GIS project work
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

GIS project work
(Ingwersen, Gayler)

HS14,
PC1

20

Fri,
29.04.16

Written exam
(14.00-16.00)

HS9

USA. Applied geostatistics.00Computer .. (2006).I. UK. NY. What ist the difference between supervised and unsupervised classification schemes in land cover mapping? How is a classification error matrix set up and interpreted? In the GIS project "Greenvalley" you digitized a scanned image of the planned Historic park. MA. Chipman. Oxford University Press. Wiley.Computer exercises (4.-T. Remote sensing and image interpretation.A. computer rooms rooms HS14 and PC1/2) PC1 PC1 HS14 Example exam questions • • • • • • Explain the differences between vector and raster data models. • Chang. H. T. What have you done before you started digitizing? Explain shortly how you did it.. Oxford.M.. • Isaaks. R. . Boston.M. • Lillesand. USA. Srivastava.30+ pm. Find a mock exam on the ilias website! Recommended reading • Burrough. Explain and compare the techniques of "Thiessen polygons". Oxford University Press.5. Principles of Geographical Information Systems. K. (1989). R. "Inverse Distance Weighting" and "Kriging".. 2015). J. USA. NY.A. (2004.W. P. R. McDonnell. McGraw-Hill. (2010). Kiefer. Describe the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection.W. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems.

decisionmaking.Introduction Objectives of this introductory lesson In this lesson. GIS are now being employed in a wide range of applications including • • • • • Natural resource management Land use planning Demographic research Fleet management Environmental research. …” DeMers.N. M. operations management and inventory.. which displays graphics representing real-world objects” ESRI Introduction What are GIS used for? GIS provide a useful set of tools for planning. (1997) “In a GIS data about real-world objects is stored in a database and dynamically linked to an onscreen map. . assessment and planning and many more.. you will learn: • • • • • what the five components of a GIS are what spatial data consist of how spatial data are organized in a GIS how real-world objects are represented in a GIS which six operations a GIS should be able to perform Introduction What is a GIS? “Geographic Information Systems are tools that allow for the processing of spatial data into information (and knowledge).

What are the five components of a GIS? A full GIS. requires hardware. software. Mac OS X and Windows and others . or geographic information system. A GIS has five components. and • Procedures (Analysis methods) What are the five components of a GIS? GIS Users For the operation of a GIS the user needs to • know how to handle a GIS (technical knowledge) • have an advanced scientific knowledge of the subject to be explored What are the five components of a GIS? GIS Software • • • • • ArcGIS (ESRI) MapInfo Professional (MapInfo) ERDAS Imagine (Leica Geosystems) ILWIS (ITC) QuantumGIS(QGIS)/GRASS . data. They are: • Users • Hardware • Software • Data.free GIS software under GPL - for Linux. and sound analysis methods for interpreting the results generated by the GIS. trained users.

Connectivity and adjacency are two examples. For example. You can also specify rules for the streets. display. Their geometry is “lines“. . • Attributes are descriptive characteristics of the geographic features.What are the five components of a GIS? Hardware of a GIS Digitizing tablet Scanner Others Bussystem Computer with monitor. city streets are being represented in a GIS.Example Here. you could add behavior that says that the streets cannot have more than four lanes. Network keyboard and mouse Bussystem Storage Printer/Plotter Others What are the five components of a GIS? Spatial data There are four main components of spatial data: • Geometry represents the geographic features (points. which is an attribute. • Topology represents spatial relationships. polylines. lines. or analysis. A spatial relationship (topology) between two streets may be that they are crossing. or polygons (areas)) associated with real-world locations. depending on circumstances that the user defines. Each street can be described by its name. • Behavior means that geographic features can be made to allow certain types of editing. What are the five components of a GIS? Spatial data .

geometric features. feature types. . lines. The database is a collection of the spatial and descriptive attributes of real-world objects. These shapes are often called geometric objects. A unique identifier links a feature with its attributes. Real-world entities can be abstracted into three primary shapes: points.How are spatial data organized in a GIS? A geographic database is the core of a GIS. and polygons (areas). How are spatial data organized in a GIS? How are spatial data organized in a GIS? Linking features and attributes Each feature has a record in the table. or feature classes.

How are spatial data organized in a GIS? Storing abstracted objects There are two basic models for storing geographic data: the vector and raster data models.How are spatial data organized in a GIS? A GIS organizes and stores information about the world as a collection of thematic layers that can be linked by geography. like streets or cities. Each layer contains features having similar attributes. How are spatial data organized in a GIS? Vector and Raster model . The vector data model stores positional coordinates for each shape. The raster format uses a grid of square cells to represent real-world entities. that are located within the same geographic extent.

Higher need of storage space compared to vector data structure .How are spatial data organized in a GIS? Storing raster data Raster display Raster cell values Raster ASCII file Value attribute table (VAT) Cell value Attribute 1 Wheat 2 Potato 3 Sugar beet How are spatial data organized in a GIS? Storing vector data How are spatial data organized in a GIS? Raster data structure Benefits 1. Size of cells limits the resolution 2. Processing algorithms are easier than for vector data sets Disadvantages 1. Neighbourhood locations can be easily analysed 2.

satellite pictures) needs high computational power How are spatial data organized in a GIS? Data about data: Metadata • Metadata give descriptive information about data. Less storage space is needed because many pixels need not be stored for homogeneous areas 2. 6. Vector data set graphics tend to be of a higher resolution (quality) Disadvantages 1. It is easier to associate a variety of descriptive resource data with a single resource feature 3. What operations should a GIS be able to perform? Any geographic information system should be capable of performing six fundamental operations in order to be useful for finding solutions to real-world problems. • Metadata give spatial data credibility and. 3. Vectorizing of scanned data (i. Query data Analyze data 5. • Metadata for spatial data include information such as date. spatial data cannot be interpreted or used without metadata. Display data 4. in many situations. and coordinate system.e. geographic extent.How are spatial data organized in a GIS? Vector data structure Benefits 1. creator. Processing algorithms are complex and need advanced knowledge 2. Output data . A GIS should be able to: Capture data 2. Store data 1.

You would create a query expression with those criteria. are used to select features on the map and their records in the database. The more input methods available. When the GIS finds features that meet the query's criteria. What operations should a GIS be able to perform? Querying data Suppose you wanted to find landlocked countries with a population greater than 20 million. the more versatile the GIS. Queries. What operations should a GIS be able to perform? Querying data A GIS must provide tools for finding specific features based on their location or attributes. . which are often created as logical statements or expressions.What operations should a GIS be able to perform? Capturing data A GIS must provide methods for entering geographic (coordinate) and tabular (attribute) data. it highlights them on the map.

To transfer point data to areal data we need geostatistical interpolation techniques such as inverse distance weighting. For example. What operations should a GIS be able to perform? Geostatistical analysis In environmental and agricultural sciences we often collect point data. overlay analysis could be used to integrate data on soils. slope. Example: Interpolation of ground water level data Point data Areal data Interpolation . and vegetation or land ownership data with tax assessment data.What operations should a GIS be able to perform? Analyzing data Example: Proximity analysis uses the distance between features to answer questions like: • • How many houses lie within 100 meters of this water main? What is the total number of potential customers within 10 kilometers of this store? • What proportion of the alfalfa crop is within 500 meters of the well? GIS technology often uses a process called buffering to determine the proximity relationship between features. What operations should a GIS be able to perform? Overlay analysis The integration of different data layers involves a process called overlay. kriging and others.

hardware. • A GIS organizes and stores information about the world as a collection of thematic layers that can be linked through geography. • Any GIS should be able to perform six fundamental operations: It should be able to capture. lines. and polygons. • A Geographic Information System stores data about realworld objects in a database and dynamically links it to an onscreen map. • The four components of spatial data are geometry.What operations should a GIS be able to perform? Outputting data GIS displays. attributes. the greater the potential for reaching the right audience with the right information. • Real-world entities are abstracted into three primary shapes: points. • The raster data model represents geographic features using cells. software. The more output options a GIS can offer. which displays the real-world objects. query. .Geographic phenomena can be represented using raster or vector models. • A GIS has five components: users. and behavior. lines. can be output and distributed in a variety of ways. Summary II • Metadata give descriptive information about data. store. data. like this map. analyze. while the vector data model uses points. These shapes are called feature classes. and output data. and polygons. and procedures. Summary I • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are tools that help to process spatial data to gain knowledge. topology. display.