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# Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
Experiment No- 2
Experiment Name: Simulating Circuits with Dependent Sources in PSpice
1.0 Introduction
Some devices, such as transistors and amplifiers, act like controlled sources. For
examples, the output voltage of an amplifier is controlled by the input voltage of that
amplifier. Such devices can be modeled using dependent sources. A dependent source
consists of two elements: the controlling element and the controlled element. The
controlling element is either open circuit or short circuit and the controlled element is
either voltage or current.
There are four types of dependent source that correspond to the four ways of choosing a
controlling elements and a controlled element. These four dependent sources are

Voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS)
Voltage-controlled current source (VCCS)
Current-controlled voltage source (CCVS)
Current-controlled current source (VCVS)

The modelings of these dependent sources are discussed in the next section.
1.1 Voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS)
The symbol of a Voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS) is shown in Fig 1(a). N+ and
N- are the positive and negative output nodes, respectively, and NC+ and NC- are the
positive and negative nodes, respectively of the controlling voltage.
1

0.5Vab

8

N+

NC +
a

10 V

b

4
N-

NC -

4

3

16
g v ab

20

2

5
+
Vab

8

-

Fig. 1(a)

Fig. 1(b)

The description of VCVS is
E<name>

N+

N-

NC+

NC-

3

4

2

g (gain value)

Typical statement
E1

1

2

The statement means that the VCVS E1 is connected between nodes 1 and 2 and its
voltage is controlled by the voltage between nodes 3 and 4. The voltage gain is 2.
Now if for the circuit in Fig. 1(b) the italic numbers are parameter value and normal
numbers are node number the Netlist may be written as
R1
1
2
8
R2
3
4 20
R3
0
4
8
R4
5
2 16
R4
0
5
4
E1
V1

2
1

3
0

5 0
10

0.5

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How does this current compare with the previous one? c) What will happen if you set a negative gain value? 1.Exercice 1 Try to write the Netlist of the following circuit 10 3 + V1 - 3 3V1 0. 3(b) The description of VCCS is G<name> N+ N- NC+ NC- 3 4 2z g (transconductance value) Typical statement G1 1 2 The statement means that the VCCS G1 is connected between nodes 1 and 2 and its current is controlled by the voltage between nodes 3 and 4. we get the circuit in Fig 3(b) and the Netlist may be written as Page 2 of 8 . respectively of the controlling voltage.a) Determine the current delivered by the dependent voltage source? Compare your result with that of the result obtained by mathematically solving the circuit. b) Interchange the controlling nodes of the dependent voltage source as well as the controlled nodes and again determine the current delivered by the dependent source. and NC+ and NC.5Vab 8 N+ NC + a 10 V b 4 N- NC - 4 3 16 g vab 20 2 5 + Vab 8 - Fig.2 Voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) The symbol of a Voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) is shown in Fig 3(a). 1 0. Now if for the circuit in Fig. N+ and N. The transconductance value is 2. 1(b) is redrawn by replacing the VCVS with a VCCS. 2 Answer the following questions 1. 3(a) Fig.are the positive and negative output nodes.1 A 20V 2 Fig.are the positive and negative nodes. respectively.

5 Page 3 of 8 . The current gain value is 1. of the current source. respectively. the Netlist of the circuit shown in Fig 4(b) can be written as V1 1 0 10 R1 R2 R3 R4 R4 1 3 0 5 0 2 4 4 2 5 8 20 8 16 4 F1 3 2 V1 0.3 Current-controlled current source (CCCS) The symbol of a Current-controlled current source (CCCS) is shown in Fig 4(a).R1 R2 R3 R4 R4 1 3 0 5 0 2 4 4 2 5 8 20 8 16 4 G1 V1 2 1 3 0 5 0 10 0. So.a) Determine the current delivered by the dependent current source? Compare your result with that of the result obtained by mathematically solving the circuit.are the positive and negative nodes. 4(a) Fig. VN is a voltage source through which controlling current flows.5 Answer the following questions 2. The controlling current is assumed to flow from the positive node of VN through the voltage source VN to the negative node of VN. 1 N+ I1 I1 20 2 4 3 16 5 gI1 VN 0. 4(b) The description of CCCS is F<name> N+ N- VN V1 1 g (current gain value) Typical statement F1 1 2 The statement means that the CCCS F1 is connected between nodes 1 and 2 and its current is controlled by the voltage source V1’s current. How does this current compare with the previous one? c) What will happen if you set a negative gain value? 1.5I1 8 10 V 8 4 NFig. N+ and N. b) Interchange the controlling nodes of the dependent current source as well as the controlled nodes and again determine the current delivered by the dependent source.

respectively. of the voltage source.5I1 8 1 20 2 16 3 I1 16 4 4 3 I1 5 5 10 V 8 10 V 8 0V 4 6 4 Fig. 6(a) Fig.4 Current-controlled voltage source (CCVS) The symbol of a Current-controlled voltage source (CCVS) is shown in Fig 6(a). 5 N+ I1 + 10 gI1 VN 100 V v1 - 10 10 v1 5 10 I1 10 NFig. 1 0. b) Connect a zero volt independent source in series with the dependent current source to find the value of the controlled current. The description of CCVS is H<name> N+ N- VN g (transresistance value) Typical statement Page 4 of 8 . For example. a dummy voltage source of 0V value should be connected in series with the resistor to monitor the controlling current. 4(b) is controlled by the current of 16 ohm resistor’s current as shown in Fig. 5(b) and write the Netlist. Compare your result with that of the result obtained by mathematically solving the circuit. 5(a). 5(b) Now answer the following questions 3. and it can have a zero or finite value. a dummy voltage source of 0V value should be connected in series with the resistor to monitor the controlling current. If the current through a resistor controls the source. 5(a) Fig. The controlling current is assumed to flow from the positive node of VN through the voltage source VN to the negative node of VN. What value does Spice show for this voltage source? How does it compare with I1? 1. a) Determine the voltage across the dependent current source. 5(b) Exercise 2 Write the Netlist for the circuit shown in Fig. If the current through a resistor controls the source. 6(b) The voltage source VN that mentions the controlling current must be an independent source.5I1 8 20 2 0. VN is a voltage source through which controlling current flows. N+ and N. and it can have a zero or finite value.are the positive and negative nodes.The voltage source VN that mentions the controlling current must be an independent source. if the current source of Fig. we can redraw the circuit as shown in Fig.

6(b) Now answer the following questions 3. b) Calculate the power absorbed by each resistor.0 Spice Schematics In spice schematics. the dependent sources can be found in the parts list. The parts are the following shapes CCVS VCVS CCCS VCCS Fig. Click on the get parts list and write E(for VCVS) in the part name box. Now.G or H) in the part name box. The transresistance value is 4. 2. You can get the other type of dependent sources by writing F. a) Calculate the power associated with each source (both independent and dependent). click the place & close option to work with the VCVS. c) Compare your results with that of the result obtained by mathematically solving the circuit and show that conservation of energy holds true for this circuit. The circuit in fig 1(b) can be drawn in schematics in the following way Page 5 of 8 . 7 The circular box represents the source and the other terminals are for the controlling parameter. Exercise 3 Try to write the Netlist for the circuit shown in Fig.H1 1 2 V1 4 The statement means that the CCVS H1 is connected between nodes 1 and 2 and its voltage is controlled by the voltage source V1’s current.

3(b) can be drawn in the following way Page 6 of 8 . Fig. Click on the gain option and the write the gain value on the value box. 9 The circuit in Fig. and then click ok. 8 To set the gain value.Fig. The part attributes option will be activated. click the VCVS or select it and double click. Click the save Attr.

1(b) can be drawn with bubble in the following way Fig. Place the bubble in one corner of the interconnection and double click it. The circuit in Fig. Copy the bubble in the other corner of the interconnection.Fig. 10 For a circuit with multiple number of dependent sources and mesh. Then select bubble from full list column. click on the add new parts option and write b on the parts name box. The inter connection of the controlling nodes may become complicated. In the set attributes option write a in the label box and click ok. The connection is then automatically made. Similarly you can connect another bubble with different label for another interconnection. To work with the bubble connector. 11 The circuit in Fig 4(b) can drawn as Page 7 of 8 . Now. a connection bubble named Bubble can be used. click the place and close option to work with the connection bubble. you need not have to draw the wire to complete the connection. To make the interconnections easier.

12 Exercise 4 Try to draw and simulate the circuit of Fig. 6(b) Now answer the following questions 4.Fig. c) Compare your results with that of the result obtained by mathematically solving the circuit and show that conservation of energy holds true for this circuit. b) Calculate the power absorbed by each resistor. 5(a) and Fig. Page 8 of 8 . a) Calculate the power associated with each source (both independent and dependent).