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Contents

Introduction........................................................................................................... 1
Definition of Raft Foundation.................................................................................2
Foundation Design Considerations........................................................................2
Types of Raft Foundations...................................................................................... 4
Solid Slab Rafts................................................................................................... 4
Beam and Slab Raft Foundations........................................................................6
Cellular Raft Foundations....................................................................................7
Advantages and Disadvantages of Raft Foundations.............................................9
Best Practices for Utilization of Concrete.............................................................10
Concrete as a Material Hazard..........................................................................10
Access.............................................................................................................. 10
Delivery Tickets................................................................................................ 10
Slump Test........................................................................................................ 11
Weather Conditions.......................................................................................... 12
Regulatory Requirements.................................................................................... 12
Conclusion........................................................................................................... 13
Bibliography......................................................................................................... 14

characteristics of the building form and the extent and nature of loads from the building. The selection of foundation type depends upon the nature of the ground. if this part is not done properly it could cause you severe problems in the future. It will discuss the different types of Raft foundations. durable and balanced to ensure effective load transfer to the ground. the foundations must be robust. There are different methods of building the foundations. 1 . Foundations act as the interface between the loads from a building and the ground. analyse when the use Raft foundations are most appropriate and look at various safety measures that need to be taken account of when Raft Foundations are being utilised.Introduction The foundations of a house are the most important part of the build structure. In this report we will focus on Raft foundations. strong. Therefore.

Tomlinson. 2001) Foundation Design Considerations Some important factors must be considered before the most suitable type of foundation can be selected. Sometimes area covered by raft may be greater than the contact area depending on the bearing capacity of the soil underneath.J. The type of the structure 2 . (M. These are: 1. The reinforcing bars runs normal to each other in both top and bottom layers of steel reinforcement.Definition of Raft Foundation A Raft foundation is a thick concrete slab reinforced with steel which covers the entire contact area of the structure like a thick floor.

Raft foundations are most commonly used in the the construction of commercial buildings than they are for domestic homes. such as snow and rain. This therefore greatly diminishes the chances of settlement occurring in the structure. The subsoil characteristics Raft foundations are usually built on weak ground such as very soft clay. are movable. there are variable loads caused by the weather. 2. Dead loads are the static or constant weight of the structure made up from the walls. (Choice of the Type of Foundation. The complete dead load acting on the components of the structures should be taken account of in the design. c. In addition. 2016) 3. but can be used very successful in both situations. They are not dead or imposed and therefore require specific consideration. If the loads transmitted by the columns in the structure are so heavy or the allowable soil pressure so small that individual footings would cover more than about one-half of the area. floors. The loads employed by the structure There are three main types of load: a. roof. goods and people. Since 3 . etc. When the buildings are high and narrow the wind pressure must be taken account of. it would be most appropriate to provide a continuous footing under all columns and walls and thus use a Raft foundation. b. The reinforced concrete raft is designed to transfer the total load of the building from the raft to the ground. Live loads (also known as imposed loads) such as furniture. alluvial deposits and compressible fill material where other types of foundations would not provide a stable base without unnecessary excavation. Wind loads can be positive or negative.

(Civil Construction Tips.rafts are usually at some depth in the ground. The allowable bearing capacity of the affected soil strata should then be projected. Then the soil characteristics within the area below the building should be carefully appraised. Solid Slab Raft 2. subsoil investigation must be carried out. Beam and Slab. 2016) Therefore. to decide about the type of foundation. either with up-stand or down-stand beams 3. and the centers of gravity of excavation and structure coincide. If weight of the excavated soil is equal to the weight of the structure and that of the raft. In essence a Raft foundation is required where soils have low bearing capacity and have to support heavy structural loads. a large volume of excavation may be required. (Choice of the Type of Foundation. 2016) Types of Raft Foundations There are three types of raft foundations namely: 1. settlement would be negligible. Cellular Rafts 4 .

The slabs can be made deeper to take the weight of internal and external walls.Solid Slab Rafts A Solid Slab Raft is used for low rise buildings on weak soils and it is reinforced to take tensile and shear stresses. hard-core maybe be added to raise the ground floor level. Mould oil can be used on the surfaces and sides of the formwork which prevents the concrete from sticking to the wood used. In order to start constructing the solid slab raft foundation. The concrete is then poured in and spread all over to cover the reinforcement. The reinforced steel bars will then be placed into the formwork. When the concrete has been allowed to cure for some days a layer of damp proof membrane is used to cover the entire foundation. From time to time. A layer of blinding is added to the surface of the hard-core or directly to the compacted soil to provide a level surface that will take the reinforcement and concrete. the top soil is removed then the soil left behind is compressed. After the blinding has been allowed to cure for a period of time a temporary formwork is constructed. Before the concrete is poured all necessary 5 . Then a reinforced mesh wire is laid over it which will receive the concrete for the main floor slab.

(Limited. the result of this is a reduction in slab thickness. Downstand 6 . The beams are used to allocate the column loads over the area of the raft. Only after the concrete has been cured can the main walling for the building begin. 2016) (Architectural Guidance. The beams can be upstand or downstand depending on the bearing capacity of the soil near the surface.plumbing piping should be completed. 2016) Beam and Slab Raft Foundations Beam and Slab Raft foundations are alternatives to Solid Slab Rafts and are used where unsuitable soils are encountered.

beams will provide a cost saving in terms of excavation whereas upstand beams create a usable void below the ground floor if a suspended slab is used. 2016) 7 . 2016) (Architectural Guidance. (Architectural Guidance.

The upper and lower slabs are usually combined within the beams to form I sections.Cellular Raft Foundations A cellular raft comprises of two-way interlocking foundation beams with a ground bearing slab at the underneath and a suspended slab at the top surface. The interconnecting beams effectively break the large slab into two-way spanning continuous small panels. The thickness of the constructed foundation may exceed 1 m. These rafts are used in places subject to severe mining activity or in areas of poor ground where large bending moments are to be resisted. Other types of foundation are not economical for this type of soil. (Engineer. 2016) 8 . lateral and uplift load and to transmit a foundation load to a solid ground. They are also used in locations where a valuable increase in bearing capacity can be achieved by the removal of the overburden and where deep foundation beams are required. The purpose of cellular raft foundations is to resist vertical. The top slab is cast using precast soffits or other forms of permanent formwork such as lightweight infill blocks. The advantage of cellular raft foundations is that it is suitable for loose soil or soils that tends to settle unevenly such as back filled inactive mining site.

2016) 9 .(Architectural Guidance.

2016) 10 .  They are ideal for poor ground conditions where normal footings would not cope well as they cannot spread the load as effectively. (Forum.  Less excavation is required. The main disadvantage of raft foundations is that they can prone to edge erosion if they are not treated properly.Advantages and Disadvantages of Raft Foundations Raft foundations are usually cheaper and faster to use than traditional footings. There are a number of reasons why this is the case:  The foundation and floor slab is combined. which creates time efficiencies and uses less materials.  Raft foundations can reduce differential settlement which in turn reduces cracking and other more serious issues. They are not effective if the load of the building is going to be focused on a single point.

cement.Best Practices for Utilization of Concrete Whichever foundation type is selected there are a number of best practices that need to be followed in order to obtain the optimum results and maintain safety at all times. (Association. 2016) Access The site manager should ensure that there is easy access for the delivery truck to discharge the concrete in an efficient manner so as to avoid crystallization of the cement in the concrete and possible extra charges from the concrete company. Thus it is best practice to always wear water-proof gloves. The key items to be noted from the delivery dockets are     Serial number of ticket Date of delivery Truck number Name and location of project 11 . mortar. and can cause severe chemical burns. mortar. cement or cement mixtures from clothing. working with fresh concrete carries a safety risk. As an low PH material. and proper eye protection. so promptly rinse out wet concrete. wet cement is corrosive. full-length trousers. or cement mixtures should be washed from your skin immediately. Thus. Wash wet concrete. Concrete as a Material Hazard Cement comprises 7 to 15 percent of total concrete volume. And always seek immediate medical attention if you have persistent or severe discomfort. Indirect contact through clothing can be as serious as direct contact. a long-sleeved top. Delivery Tickets On arrival of the concrete delivery dockets must be furnished to the site manager to ensure proper records can be recorded and filed. It is also important to wear waterproof boots that are high enough to keep concrete from flowing into them If you have to stand in wet concrete.

Re-watering weakens the concrete and thus reduces the specifications that were initially ordered. It is important to record the time of arrival and check the delivery ticket for the time it was originally mixed.) The slump test will indicate how workable the mix is and whether It has been re-watered en-route. it may have been delayed in traffic. and that a late delivery will reduce the placing time on site. The cement will start to form crystals between two and three hours after mixing. This is commonly known as the slump test. (The Concrete Society. 2016) 12 . If the fresh concrete has been made off site in a batching plant.    Grade of concrete Type of cement Time of loading Quantity of concrete Slump Test No matter which type of raft foundations mentioned above is selected it is vitally important to test the the workability of fresh concrete on site before it is used. depending on the weather.

One of the key metrics for a concrete mix is the free water to cement ratio. which means that it is not available to hydrate the cement.Weather Conditions If it's too wet and water starts to accumulate in the foundation. Regulatory Requirements 13 . again affecting the strength of the concrete. you can end up with weakened concrete. you struggle to get it to compact properly. and weak concrete. If the temperature is low. the water can leave pores in the concrete. Further. If the water content is too high. the water can freeze. resulting in air voids. if the temperature is too low. the hydration reaction slows down. If the water content is too low. which also reduces the strength of the concrete.

This Standard forms part of a group of construction standards. (NSAI. mainly by European Standards.S. EN 206-1 demands greater clarity on elements essential to quality. aesthetic considerations. I.S. 14 . The Standard also addresses the following design elements:     Gathering information relating to structural and fire design Determining the intended working life Identifying relevant exposure classes Identifying other requirements for the concrete (e. production and conformity. performance.S. Manufacturers must issue a formal Declaration of Conformity along with the documentation before they can dispatch ready-mix concrete. 326 . durability and consistency such as:   Consistency of mix Grade or compressive strength class as it is defined in the Standard. I. coping with temperature extremes. plus a National Annex.S. Concrete .Part 1: Specification. minimizing cracking.was replaced by a new European Standard I.). scale and complexity of the building. EN 206-1: 2002.In recent years the quality and consistency of concrete have become more tightly regulated.I. EN 206-1 puts substantial responsibility upon the manufacturers of ready-mix concrete to conform to a series of specified requirements. The Irish version EN 206-1 consists of the core text of the European Standard. 2016) Conclusion The above report illustrates that it is vitally important to conduct the necessary checks before deciding on the type of foundation required as to ensure that the foundation design will be appropriate to the nature. The Irish Standard for Concrete .g. etc.

Retrieved from osp. February 16). C. Retrieved from Architectural Guidance: http://architecturalguidance. Retrieved from Concrete Construction Safety Measures: http://www. P.html Association.eg/sfoundation/foundtion.cement.ie/2008/04/architecturalpresentation-raft. Concrete Construction Safety Measures. February 17). (2016. (2016.mans.org/for-concrete-books-learning/concretetechnology/concrete-construction/safety-measures Choice of the Type of Foundation. February 20).edu.blogspot. (2016.htm 15 .Bibliography Architectural Guidance.

J. Civil Engineers Forum. Retrieved from Civil Engineers Forum: http://civilengineersforum. (2016. A Builders Engineer. R.concrete. Oxon: Butterworth-Heinemann.ie/OurServices/Certification/Product-Certification/Product-Certification-forReady-Mix-Concrete. (2016. B.nsai.castlesweekly.uk/fingertips-nuggets. (2016. (2016.ie/2011/06/raft-foundation.abuildersengineer. Retrieved from Castlesweekly. February 20). February 19). England: Pearson Education Limited. R. Tomlinson.blogspot. February 21).).).aspx The Concrete Society.html Forum. Retrieved from NSAI: https://www. E. February 15).Civil Construction Tips. Retrieved from Civil Construction Tips: http://civilconstructiontips.com. NSAI.org. (2014). Building Construction Handbook (10th ed. B. C.com/2012/12/cellularraft. R.asp? cmd=display&id=559 16 . Foundation Design and Construction (7th ed.ng/magazine/article/CONSTRUCTION/ 1238 M. Limited. Retrieved from A Builders Engineer: www. C.html Engineer. (2001). Retrieved from The Concrete Society: http://www.com/raftfoundation-advantages-disadvantages/ Greeno. C. (2016. (2016.com: http://www. February 16). Castles. February 20).