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Summer Training Report on
HERMETIC CENTRIFUGAL CHILLER
For Practical Training taken at
SUDHIR POWER PROJECTS LIMITED
For the partial fulfillment of the award of degree of
Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering
SESSION 2014-15
Submitted to:

Submitted by:

Mr. ANURAG MANDIYA

Mr. KULDEEP

Asstt. Prof.

Roll no.: 12ME49

Department of Mechanical Engineering
RPS College of Engineering. & Technology, Balana, Mohindergarh
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful completion of any training depends upon the co-operation, coordination and combined efforts of several resources of knowledge, inspiration and energy.
I am thankful to all the employees of SUDHIR POWER PROJECTS LIMITED
who had helped me in gathering various information that helped me in completion of my
Industrial Training Report.

I am very grateful to Mr. Sheel Kumar Bhutani, HEAD OF DEPT. (H.R.), for
allowing me to be a part of such an esteem organization of him. I am grateful for patience and
interest everybody in the organization have shown for me.
The author also wishes very thank to Mr. Vinod Singh (AGM), Mr. Dev (Deputy.
Manager), Ashish (Sec. Engineer) and experienced engineers for providing constant
encouragement, support and valuable suggestion during the Training.

KULDEEP

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PREFACE

Before joining my training, I had no idea what it is going to be and what exactly is its
need in the academic curriculum. By the time I finished my training I understood how
important it was for me to be a complete engineer.
An engineering student would have absolutely no idea of the functioning of an industry. He
would probably be unaware about the various departments and their functioning. He would
be completely ignorant of the working and environment. He generally would not know about
the department in an enterprise. Thus industrial training prepares you to walk out of your
college and join the industry. You need to have basic professional knowledge along with the
theoretical background and spending a month among hardcore professional can teach you a
lot.
The following report does not discuss the details of these experiences and discuss mostly about the
training and how it was completed. It is much more fulfilling experience than any report will be able
to express. I feel pride to get an opportunity to have my practical training at

SUDHIR POWER PROJECTS LIMITED Manesar
I thank everyone who has contributed to make this experience truly complete and stimulating.

KULDEEP

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Manesar. Turnkey EPC contracts covering electrical and mechanical services Indeed. . Gurgaon. Gurgaon. The Company has a wide blue-chip customer base and operates through multiple manufacturing facilities across India and focuses on Diesel & Gas Generators. Gurgaon. Plot No. IMT. HT & LT Switchboards. Plot No. The product line includes the widest range of Diesel Gensets 7. Manesar. 54 &160. . sector-3. Plot No. 147. But to us this is just another step in our ongoing journey to greater goals and broader horizons. Transformers. Plants details:Head office: Ahmadabad. An Industry leader in the field of setting up Diesel base Captive Power Plants upto 20MW having its corporate office in Gurgaon & revenue of over INR 1500 Crs. providing complete turnkey Electrical solutions from GENERATION. it has leveraged its relationship with Cummins Ltd. Haryana. 26-c. complete range of HT 11KV & 33KV Panels. sector-5. Plot No. Haryana. sector-3. to capture a majority market share. Transformers and Turnkey EPC contracts. LT Switchboards. Haryana. Gujarat Manesar Plant: . It stands tall in the Indian Power Generation Sector. Manesar.5-3000 KVA with a fuel option of Diesel or Gas. IMT. sector-3. DISTRIBUTION to ELECTRIFICATION. . Packaged Substations. Haryana. 22 &23. we have achieved and leapfrogged towards unprecedented growth. IMT.COMPANY PROFILE Introduction to SUDHIR POWER PROJECTS LIMITED:Sudhir is a name synonymous with Power. 4 . Manesar. IMT. Gurgaon.

PRODUCT: DIESEL GENERATOR (DG). PANEL Clients: DLF Mahindra Hospitals: AIIMS Ambience mall Hotel Taj Hotel Radisson RML SAFDARGANG Strategic Partners: 5 .

CONTENTS Sr. 5. 3. 7 8 9 10 15 22 28 28 29 6 . 8. 4. 9. 6. 1. No. 7. 2. Topic Introduction Definition Components of Hermetic Centrifugal Chiller Types of Chiller Key Components of Compression Chillers Other main Component of Chiller Plant Application Advantages Conclusion Page No.

7 . INTRODUCTION: Chillers are a key component of air conditioning systems for large buildings. Chillers commonly use more energy than any other piece of equipment in large buildings. As with other types of air conditioning systems. Chillers are complex machines that are expensive to purchase and operate. most chillers extract heat from water by mechanically compressing a refrigerant. They produce cold water to remove heat from the air in the building. Maintaining them well and operating them smartly can yield significant energy savings. A preventive and predictive maintenance program is the best protection for this valuable asset. They also provide cooling for process loads such as file-server rooms and large medical imaging equipment.1.

such as a hotel. especially in situations where many individual rooms must be controlled separately. thus across the raining water & blows it outside. thru removing the heat from the building. lights and ambient heat can warm the reservoir water temperatures. Thus added heat back into the water that goes back to the plant. This water pools up at the bottom of the tower & is sucked back into the building to run through the condenser side of the chillers again. chillers. 8 . This results in healthy root production and efficient absorption of nutrients. and cooling towers. In air conditioning. 68°F (20°C) is a good temperature for most plants. In hydroponics. The water is pumped to the top of the tower & then rains down inside it. which is a separate water loop. There are big fans on the top of the tower that pulls air through the tower. For ideal plant health. The return water from the building goes to the evaporator side of the chillers & they cool it back down. which are outside. leading to plant root and health problems. condenser pumps. A chiller plant normally consists of evaporator pumps. chilled water is often used to cool a building's air and equipment. transferring the heat to the condenser side of the chillers. pumps. A chiller lowers water temperature to between 40° and 45°F before the water is pumped to the location to be cooled. a chiller can be used to lower the water temperature below ambient level. The evaporator pumps pump chilled water out to the building through a water pipe loop to air handler units that use valves to vary the amount of chilled water to that unit's water coil to control the temperature of the air coming out of the unit. Definition: A water chiller is a mechanical device used to facilitate exchange from water to a refrigerant in a closed loop system.2. The refrigerant is then pumped to a location where the waste heat is transferred to the atmosphere. The condenser pumps pump the condenser water out to the cooling towers.

Components of Hermetic Centrifugal Chiller 9 .3.

Types of Chillers Mechanical Compression During the compression cycle. the refrigerant passes through four major components within the chiller: the evaporator.4. the condenser. THE REFRIGERATION CYCLE Block diagram of cooling cycle: 10 . and a flow-metering device such as an expansion valve. The evaporator is the low-temperature (cooling) side of the system and the condenser is the high-temperature (heat-rejection) side of the system. the compressor.

11 . centrifugal and frictionless centrifugal. The pistons have intake and exhaust valves that can be opened on demand to allow the piston to idle. rotary screw. a crankshaft is turned by an electric motor. Some units use both methods. This is more efficient than using a hot-gas bypass to provide the same capacity variation with all pistons working. Reciprocating: Similar to a car engine with multiple pistons. unloading pistons to a minimum number. heating it in the process.Mechanical Compressor Chillers Mechanical compression chillers are classified by compressor type: reciprocating. the pistons compress the gas. which reduces the chiller capacity as the demand for chilled water is reduced. The hot gas is discharged to the condenser instead of being exhausted out a tailpipe. Capacities range from 20 to 125 tons. then using hot-gas bypass to further reduce capacity stably. This unloading allows a single compressor to provide a range of capacities to better match the system load.

Centrifugal chillers provide high cooling capacity with a compact design. They can be equipped with both inlet vanes and variable-speed drives to regulate control chilled water capacity control. the gas is compressed by direct volume reduction between the two rotors. Capacity controlled by a valve or variable-speed drive (VSD) Capacities sliding is inlet on the motor. range from 20 to 450 tons. Centrifugal: The centrifugal compressor operates much like a centrifugal water pump. Capacities are 150 tons and up. with an impeller compressing the refrigerant. As the helical rotors rotate. 12 .Rotary Screw: The screw or helical compressor has two mating helically grooved rotors in a stationary housing.

The compressor requires no lubricant and has a variable-speed DC motor with direct-drive for the centrifugal compressor. 13 .Frictionless Centrifugal: This highly energy-efficient design employs magnetic bearing technology. Because there are few absorption machines in the Northwest U. this document covers only mechanicalcompression chillers. Absorption Chillers: Absorption chillers use a heat source such as natural gas or district steam to create a refrigeration cycle that does not use mechanical compression.S.. Capacities range from 60 to 300 tons. You can learn more about absorption chillers at the Energy Solutions Center.

a 1000 ton dual will have two nominal 500 ton compressors mounted. As the chiller unloads from 100% load. By utilizing two compressors on a common refrigeration circuit. In effect. For example. Single compressor chillers are most efficient at or near 100% capacity. Additionally. variable speed drives can be used to improve part load efficiency. Only one compressor is required to circulate enough refrigerant to meet the load. the two heat exchangers have twice the required surface area. one compressor shuts off at approximately 600 tons (60% of full load). offering optimum efficiency. the compressor is operating with a condenser and evaporator designed for twice the capacity. it is possible to greatly improve the part load efficiency of a centrifugal chiller. The need for operating only one compressor at mid-range chiller loads accounts for the superior performance of these chillers. Dual compressor chillers have two compressors operating in parallel between a common evaporator and condenser. the compressor efficiency drops off dramatically.Dual Compressor Chillers As inlet guide vanes are used to modulate the capacity of a compressor. This lowers the lift and improves the compressor performance. This matches the typical building load profile very well. 14 . Dual compressor chillers have a unique performance profile. Dual compressor chillers are most efficient at 50% to 60% capacity. This is a major benefit of a dual compressor chiller. Where there is tower water relief (decreasing tower water temperature). That compressor is operating with its inlet guide vanes wide open and at maximum compressor efficiency.

15 . The liquid refrigerant then travels to the expansion valve. Upon leaving the compressor. hot refrigerant flows around the tubes containing the condenser-loop water. The chilled water is then pumped.5. The condenser water is pumped from the condenser bundle to the cooling tower where heat is transferred from the water to the atmosphere. Condenser Inside the water-cooled condenser. Key Components of Mechanical Compression Chillers Evaporator Chillers produce chilled water in the evaporator where cold refrigerant flows over the evaporator tube bundle. The heat transfers to the water. and changed into a high-pressure. The warm water (warmed by the heat transferred from the building ventilation air) returns to the evaporator and the cycle starts over. The refrigerant evaporates (changes into vapor) as the heat is transferred from the water to the refrigerant. the refrigerant enters the condenser side of the chiller. The chilled water passes through coils in the air-handler to remove heat from the air used to condition spaces throughout the building. via the chilled-water distribution system to the building’s air-handling units. high-temperature vapor. causing the refrigerant to condense into liquid form. Compressor Vaporized refrigerant leaves the evaporator and travels to the compressor where it is mechanically compressed.

absorbing the heat of the chilled water that’s been returned from the air handlers. 16 . Chiller control systems include safety and operating controls. completing the refrigeration cycle. If the equipment malfunctions. the chiller control system should communicate with the facility’s direct digital control (DDC). To better monitor chiller performance. It flows around the evaporator tubes. Operating controls allow adjustments to some chiller operating parameters. Controls Newer chillers are controlled by sophisticated. the safety control shuts the chiller down to prevent serious damage to the machine. Once through the valve. on-board microprocessors.Expansion valve The refrigerant flows into the evaporator through the expansion valve or metering device. the refrigerant expands to a lower pressure and a much lower temperature. This valve controls the rate of cooling.

Consult your local mechanical code or the International Mechanical Code for details. The temperature set point for the water leaving the cooling tower should be as low as the chiller manufacturer will allow for water entering the condenser. Best Practices for Efficient Operation The following best practices can improve chiller performance and reduce operating costs: Operate multiple chillers for peak efficiency: Plants with two or more chillers can save energy by matching the building loads to the most efficient combination of one or more chillers. Establish a chilled-water reset schedule. increasing the temperature of chilled water supply by 2–3°F will reduce chiller energy use 3–5%. On a centrifugal chiller. The actual leaving tower water temperature may be limited by the ambient wet bulb temperature. 17 . The EPA has enacted regulations regarding the use and handling of refrigerants to comply with the Clean Air Act of 1990. Raise chilled-water temperature: An increase in the temperature of the chilled water supplied to the building’s air handlers will improve its efficiency.Safety Issues Chillers are typically located in a mechanical equipment rooms. Each type of refrigerant used in a chiller compressor has specific safety requirements for leak detection and emergency ventilation. All personnel working with refrigerants covered by this act must be appropriately licensed. Reduce condenser water temperature: Reducing the temperature of the water returning from the cooling tower to the chiller condenser by 2–3°F will reduce chiller energy use 2–3%. the most efficient chiller should be first one used. A reset schedule can typically adjust the chilled-water temperature as the outside-air temperature changes. In general.

Optimize free cooling: If your system has a chiller bypass and heat exchanger. known as a water-side economizer. Maintain a daily log: Chiller O&M best practices begin with maintaining a daily log of temperatures. Newer chillers have automatic air purgers that have run-time meters. Make sure they operate properly. Verify Performance of hot-gas bypass and unloader: These are most commonly found on reciprocating compressors to control capacity. Either condition reduces a chiller’s capacity and efficiency. Condenser water circulates through the cooling tower to reject heat. which may be able to communicate directly with the DDC system. fluid levels. The water-side economizer produces chilled water without running the chiller.Purge air from refrigerant: Air trapped in the refrigerant loop increases pressure at the compressor discharge. and compare them to the manufacturer’s requirements. 18 . Maintain refrigerant level: To maintain a chiller's efficiency. This increases the work required from the compressor. it should be used to serve process loads during the winter season. Many newer chillers automatically save logs of these measurements in their on-board control system. Both low-level and high-level refrigerant conditions can be detected this way. check the refrigerant sight-glass and the superheat and sub cooling temperature readings. Taken together. flow rates. these readings serve as a valuable baseline reference for operating the system and troubleshooting problems. Daily or weekly tracking of run time will show if a leak has developed that permits air to enter the system. Below is an example of a daily log that can be adapted for use with your chiller. and motor amperage. pressures. and then goes to a heat exchanger (bypassing the chiller) where the water is cooled sufficiently to meet the cooling loads.

3 DEG C 101.94 DEG F IN DEG F COMPRESSOR SUCTION TEMP IN 41.55/13.83 DEG F 41.55/13.482 0.75 DEG F 08 DEG F CAPACITY 350 TR 350 TR 09 OPERATING CONDITION OVERALL DIMENSION IN MM 4693*1670*205 4693*1670*2051 10 REFRIGERANT CHARGED IN KG 1 KG 480 480 KG 11 NOISE 82 DBA 82 DB A 12 FROM THE UNITE IN DB COMPRESSOR TYPE CENTRIFUGAL CENTRIFUGAL 13 MODEL SEMI HERMETIC SEMI HERMETIC 14 MAKE CARRIER CARRIER 15 REFRIGERANT 134 A 134 A 16 SPEED IN RPM 3000 MOTOR 3000 MOTOR 17 KW AT OPERATING CONDITION 238 KW 243 KW 18 MOTOR LOSSES LESS THAN 19 KW / TR 0.68 20 CAPACITY CONTROL VFD 21 NO OF STEPS VANES LESS STAPES STAPES LESS 22 100 % 0.3 DEG 5.68 IKW/KW 0.693 IKW/KW 23 75% 0.Technical details of Hermetic Centrifugal Chiller SL PARAMETER NAME DESIGN .491 CONDENSING LEVEL AT AT TEM DESIGN 1 METER 5% LESS THAN 5% 0.693 + GUIDE VFD + GUIDE VANES 19 .13 DEG F C 101. AS PER VALUE ACTUAL AS PER SITE ARI N O WATER COOLED CHILLING MACHINE 01 MAKE CARRIER CARRIER 02 MODEL 19 XR 19 XR 03 NOMINAL CAPACITY TR 372 TR 372 TR 04 NO ONE ONE 05 MACHINE LEAVING 06 OPERATING TEMP 07 OF COMPRESSOR /ENTERING PER WATER 5.

25 1.459 26 100 % 0.693 27 75% 0.681 0.2 DEG C 32.2 DEG C 45 WATER OUT LET IN DEG C 37.68 0.5 DEG C 37.0005 FPS 47 EVAPORATOR 48 TYPE FLOODED FLOODED 49 SHELL 908 MM 908 MM 50 NO OF TUBES 282 282 51 TUBE 19 MM 19 MM 52 MATERIAL OF TUBE COPPER COPPER 53 REFRIGERANT IN KG 480 480 OD IN MM OD IN MM 20 .863 29 25% 1.849 0.455 0.00025 FPS 0.226 MOTOR 30 MAKE AO SMITH AO SMITH 31 TYPE TERC TERC 32 FRAME KEH SERIES KEH SERIES 33 MOTOR KW/RPM 2960 2960 34 RATED AMP 372 AMP 378 AMP 35 EFFICIENCY MORE 36 STARTING CURRENT 95%AMP 372 378 AMP (I) THAN MORE THAN 95% STARTER 37 STATOR TYPE VFD VFD 38 MAKE DANFOSS DANFOSS 39 SINGLE PHASING PROTECTION PROVIDED PROVIDED 40 OVER LOAD PROTECTION PROVIDED PROVIDED 41 TYPE OF DRIVER GEAR DRIVEN GEAR DRIVEN 42 CONDENSER 43 MAKE CARRIER CARRIER 44 WATER INLET TEMP IN DEG C 32.695 28 50% 0.24 50% 0.5 DEG C 46 FOULING FACTOR 0.342 25 25% 0.338 0.

3 599.33 57 TEMP DIFFERENCE 7.55 56 ENTERING WATER TEMP IN DEG C 13.00025 FPS DROP IN DEG C IN WATER 21 .0001 FPS 0.33 13.3 LEAVING WATER TEMP IN DEG C 5.75 58 NO OF PASSES TWO TWO 59 TUBE VELOCITY 3.75 7.99 FT/S 60 PRESSURE 11 FEET 11 FEET 61 C OLUM FACTOR FOULING 0.99 FT/S 3.55 5.54 FLOW RATE IN 55 US GPM 599.

manufacturing and electric power generation. cooling rapidly. Think of the times you've seen something hot be rapidly cooled by putting water on it. The type of heat rejection in a cooling tower is termed "evaporative" in that it allows a small portion of the water being cooled to evaporate into a moving air stream to provide significant cooling to the rest of that water stream. The smallest cooling towers are designed to handle water streams of only a few gallons of water per minute supplied in small pipes like those might see in a residence. such as an overheated car radiator. and this air is discharged to the atmosphere.6. The heat from the water stream transferred to the air stream raises the air's temperature and its relative humidity to 100%. Common applications for cooling towers are providing cooled water for air-conditioning. while the largest cool hundreds of thousands of gallons per minute supplied in pipes as much as 15 feet (about 5 meters) in diameter on a large power plant. Evaporative heat rejection devices such as cooling towers are commonly used to provide significantly lower water temperatures than achievable with "air cooled" or "dry" heat rejection devices. which extracts waste heat to the atmosphere though the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. like the radiator in a car. The cooling potential of a wet surface is much better than a dry one. COOLING TOWER Definition: A cooling tower is a heat rejection device. OTHER MAIN COMPONENTS OF CHILLER PLANT 1. which evaporates. thereby achieving more cost-effective and energy efficient operation of systems in need of cooling. 22 .

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COOLING TOWER SPECIFICATIONS AND TECHNICAL DETAILS 24 .

SL .60% 34 CLASS OF INSULATION F 35 PROTECTION IP55 HINDUSTAN MOTOR MFG CO MODEL / FRAME SIZE 25 .5 AMP 27 FREQUENCY 50 HZ 28 POWER FACTOR . NO 1567G5679BV 23 MOTOR HP 2*5 HP (EFF 1) 24 SPEED IN RPM 710 25 VOLTAGE 415 V 26 CURRENT 7. OF PHASE 3 PHASE 30 STARTING TORQUE (RATED ) 31 SERVICE FACTOR 32 WINDING MATERIAL COPPER 33 MOTOR EFFICIENCY 90. FAN DATA 13 14 15 16 MAKE 17 18 AIR FLOW PER FAN TYPE DIMETER SPEED IN RPM TYPE OF DRIVE ADVANCE AXIAL FLOW ADJUSTABLE 1600 MM 710 58000 CFM DIRECT DRIVE MOTOR 19 20 21 MAKE TYPE TE EXTENDED SHAFT WP 22 SL .99 29 NO . NO 2012-05-34F6 05 DISTRIBUTION HEADER AND BRANCH ARMS 06 QTY 4 NO 07 NO OF CELLS 2 PERFORMANCE 08 WATER FLOW 1050 USGPM 09 WATER FLOW/CELL 525 USGPM 10 INLET /OUTLET TEMP 100°/90° F 11 DESIGN WBT 83°F 12 TOTAL HEAT REJECTION CAPACITY 1323000 KCAL/HR. PARAMETER NAME ACTUAL NO COOLING TOWER 01 MAKE ADVANCE 02 TYPE INDUCED DRAFT COUNTER 03 MODEL FLOW TM 117(TWIN CELL) 04 SL .

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2. CHILLED WATER PUMP  The pump that moves chilled water back from the chilled loop into the rest of the HVAC system is called the chilled water pump. 27 .

CONDENSER WATER PUMP  The pump that moves condensate back from the condensate loop into the rest of the HVAC system is called the condenser water pump.3. 28 .

factories 8. ADVANTAGES:  Reduce Green House gas emission  Cut Energy cost  Easy to monitoring  Easy to controlling  Easy to install  High cooling rate  Low maintenance 29 . APPLICATIONS:  In chemical factories  In ice storage plants  In data centers  In building automation solution  In hospitals  In big companies.7.

It was really a fruitful training for us to enhance our knowledge and confidence level. Conclusion: We conclude from this training that the various processes as applied are dependent on various parameters. 30 . We observed almost each process related to COOLING CYCLE that we had just studied in books.9. Also I learn how to install a Hermetic Centrifugal Chiller. In this training I learn how to coordinate with seniors. A good co-ordination is the key to get best efficiency and high productivity. we conclude that nothing can be understood thoroughly without practical knowledge and practice. how to operate it & which problems can be raised during operating chiller & how to solve them. In the technical aspect.