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COMPOSITES

:
Composite materials (also called composition materials or shortened to composites)
are materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different
physical or chemical properties, that when combined, produce a material with characteristics
different from the individual components. The individual components remain separate and
distinct within the finished structure. The new material may be preferred for many reasons:
common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter or less expensive when
compared to traditional materials.
A composite material can be defined as a combination of a matrix and a reinforcement, which
when combined gives properties superior to the properties of the individual components.
MATERIALS:
Concrete is the most common artificial composite material of all and typically consists of
loose stones held with a matrix of cement.
Reinforcement:
Reinforcement usually adds rigidity and greatly impedes crack propagation. Thin fibers can
have very high strength, and provided they are mechanically well attached to the matrix they
can greatly improve the composite's overall properties. Common fibers used for
reinforcement glass fibers carbon fibers cellulose (wood/paper fiber and straw) aramid (high
strength polymers)

Matrix:
The role of matrix is to support the fibers and bond them together in the composite
material. It transfers any applied load to the fibers, keep the fibre in their position and chosen
orientation. The matrix also determines environmental resistance and maximum service
temperature of a prepreg.Adhesive:
Adhesive is defined as a non-metallic binder that acts via adhesion and cohesion and
also it is “a substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. Bonding
is the joining of two substrates using an adhesive. Adhesion is the adhering of similar or
different types of materials to each other. Cohesion is the inner strength of an adhesive as a
result of a variety of interactions within the adhesive. Adhesion makes an important
contribution to the strength of a bonded joint. Adhesives bond as a result of the following
three phenomenon


Phase changes
Intermolecular interaction
Wetting

A “self-adhesive” prepreg does not require additional adhesive layers and enables the production of light structures at reduced fabrication costs.4 Advanced composites: Advanced composites are composite materials that are traditionally used in the aerospace industries. foam or balsa core. without causing a great weight increase (engineering theory shows that the flexural stiffness of any panel is proportional to the cube of its thickness). This can provide a dramatic increase in stiffness for very little additional weight. These composites have high performance reinforcements of a thin . The purpose of a core in a composite laminate is therefore to increase the laminate stiffness by effectively thickening it with a low density core material.Sandwich: A sandwich construction consists of thin high strength prepreg skins bonded to a thicker honeycomb. 1. Figure 1.1 the manufacture of sandwich construction Core material: The essential property of any core material is that it increases the thickness of the laminate.

Kevlar/epoxy and boron/aluminum composites. urethane) reinforced by thin diameter fibers (e.g. The reasons why they are the most common composites include their low cost. high strength. PROCESS: The following type of processes are generally used in the manufacturing of composite material   Wet lay-up process Clean room process (Advanced composite) . boron). epoxy. These materials have now found applications in commercial industries as well.g. Most common advanced composites: The most common advanced composites are polymer matrix composites (PMCs) consisting of a polymer (e. polyester.diameter in a matrix material such as epoxy and aluminum. grapite/epoxy composites are approximately five times stronger than steel on a weight basis. and simple manufacturing principles. For example. aramids. graphite. Examples are graphite/epoxy.

6. 7. The element that can be used for composites are Shell 99. 9. 5. 3. Commands used: Element Table Real constant Material properties Modeling Meshing Define loads Solution Post processing Tools Required: Ansys 14. 10. Select solve option and give ok. Select the modeling option in pre processor and select areas and provide the dimension for the layup. Select solution option and select define loads and select structural and provide the loads and constraints as required.Ex no: Analysis of composite laminated structure Date: Aim: To design and analysis of composite laminated structure.Shell 181. Select the meshing option in pre processor and select mesh tool and mesh the areas. Shell 91. 11. Create the new file and save it in the directory.5 Procedure 1.Solid 46 and Shell 191. 12. Select Post processing and select contour plot for viewing the various stress and deformation results. 8. Open the ansys mechanical APDL. 2. Select the element type in pre processor and select the required element.5 software. Select the modeling option in pre processor and select shell and select layup for and create required layups and orientation of the layups. Save the file in specified directory Result: Thus the composite laminate was designed and analysed using Ansys14. 4. Ex no: Date: Thermo structural analysis of composite laminated structure . Select the material properties option in pre processor and give the material properties for various layups of composite materials. Select Post processing and select plot results and select deformed shape and undeformed.

Select Post processing and select plot results and select deformed shape and undeformed. 2. Select the modeling option in pre processor and select areas and provide the dimension for the layup. Ex no: Date: Structural analysis of landing gear . Create the new file and save it in the directory.Solid 46 and Shell 191.5 software. The element that can be used for composites are Shell 99. 8.Shell 181. Select the material properties option in pre processor and give the material properties for various layups of composite materials. 10. Shell 91. 7. 3.5 Procedure 1. Select solution option and select settings and provide the uniform temperature. Open the ansys mechanical APDL. Select the element type in pre processor and select the required element. 9. Select the meshing option in pre processor and select mesh tool and mesh the areas. Select Post processing and select contour plot for viewing the various stress and deformation results. 12. 11. 4. Select the modeling option in pre processor and select shell and select layup for and create required layups and orientation of the layups. Save the file in specified directory Result: Thus the composite laminate was designed and thermal analysis was done using Ansys 14. 6.Aim: To design and thermal analysis of composite laminated structure Commands used: Element Table Real constant Material properties Modeling Meshing Define loads Solution Post processing Tools Required: Ansys 14. 5. Select solve option and give ok. and select structural and provide the structural loads and constraints as required.

Commands used: Element Table Real constant Material properties Modeling Meshing Define loads Solution Post processing Tools Required: Ansys 14. Create the new file and save it in the directory. 13. Select the modeling option in pre processor and select lines and create lines. Select the material properties option in pre processor and give the material properties . 6. Select Post processing and select plot results and select deformed shape and undeformed. 11. 7. Select solve option and give ok. 5.Aim: To design and analysis of Landing gear.5 Procedure 1. Save the file in specified directory Result: Thus the landing gear was designed and analysed using Ansys software. 4. Select the meshing option in pre processor and select mesh tool and mesh the lines. Select the modeling option in pre processor and select keypoints and create keypoints. Ex no: Structural analysis of aircraft wing Date: Aim: To design and analysis of aircraft wing. 2. Select the element type in pre processor and select the required element. 8. Open the ansys mechanical APDL. 9. 10. Commands used: . 12. 3. Select section option and create a beam section of required dimension. Select Post processing and select contour plot for viewing the various stress and deformation results. Select solution option and select define loads and select structural and provide the loads and constraints as required.

Commands used: Element Table Real constant . 4. Select solution and select solve. Ex no: Structural analysis of fuselage structure Date: Aim: To design and analysis of aircraft wing.5 Procedure 1.Element Table Real constant Material properties Modeling Meshing Define loads Solution Post processing Tools Required: Ansys 14. 10. 2. 11. Select the structural analysis from tool box. 5. Select the engineering data select edit and provide the material properties. 8. 3. 9. Save the file in specified directory Result: Thus the wing was designed and analysed using Ansys software. Create the new file and save it in the directory. 6. Select solution and select required stress and deformation for viewing the results. Select static structural and select analysis settings and provide the necessary constraints and loads. Select the geometry and select import geometry and import the iges wing file. Select the model option and select edit geometry Select the meshing option and provide the necessary meshing parameters. Open the ansys workbench. 7.

Select the geometry and select import geometry and import the iges wing file. Save the file in specified directory Result: Thus the wing was designed and analysed using Ansys software. 5.5 Procedure 1. 10. Select the engineering data select edit and provide the material properties. . 8. 2. Select the model option and select edit geometry Select the meshing option and provide the necessary meshing parameters. Select solution and select required stress and deformation for viewing the results. Create the new file and save it in the directory. 4. 6. 3. Select solution and select solve. Select static structural and select analysis settings and provide the necessary constraints and loads. 11. Open the ansys workbench. 7. Select the structural analysis from tool box.Material properties Modeling Meshing Define loads Solution Post processing Tools Required: Ansys 14. 9.