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Learning

Objectives

1. The
differences
between cytosol and cytoplasm
 Cytosol is the intra-cellular fluid that is present inside
the cells. On the other hand, cytoplasm is that part of
the cell which is contained within the entire cell
membrane.
 Cytosol comprises of a lot of water, dissolved ions, large
water soluble molecules, smaller minute molecules and
proteins. Cytoplasm on the other hand is made of water
up to 80% nucleic acids, enzymes, lipids, non-organic
ions, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lightweight
molecular compounds.
 It is in the cytosol that all the metabolic chemical
reactions of prokaryotes take place. On the contrary
large scale cellular activities including glycolis, cell
division and other metabolic paths take place in the
cytoplasm.
2. prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic

contoh prokaryotic : monera, Bacteria and Archaea
contoh eukaryotic : Protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
3. normal ukuran liver
The weight of a liver normally ranges from 1.2 to 1.4 kg in
women and from 1.4 to 1.6 kg in men. The horizontal
transverse liver size might be from 20 to 22.5 cm whereas the
vertical liver size ranges from 15 to 18 cm. At the level of the

but also with the more frequently juvenile gigantomastia during puberty (virginal breast hypertrophy). Example of hypertrophy :  Muscular hypertrophy One of the two most common and visible forms of organ hypertrophy occurs in skeletal muscles in response to strength training (known asmuscle hypertrophy). It should be distinguished from hyperplasia. the antero-posterior liver size is from 10 to 13 cm. Although hypertrophy and hyperplasia are two distinct processes. Its size can be influenced by sex. in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number. but ventricular hypertrophy is generally associated with pathological changes due to high blood pressure or other disease states. In severe cases it is possible for women to have breasts that weigh well in excess of 20 lb (9 kg) each. liver size increases with age andit achieves fully developed indices in adolescents of 15 or 16 years. i. In the period of human development. age. body constitution.  Hypertrophy of the clitoris In the most pronounced cases. . clitoromegaly is a symptom of intersexuality since the large clitoris resembles an apple (the different grade of genital ambiguity is commonly measured by the Prader classification ranging. hypertrophy is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.e. 4. they frequently occur together. 10 pounds (5 kg) per breast and more. diseases and other factors.  Hypertrophy of the breasts Gigantomastia is the extreme growth of the breasts. the hypertrophy can occur through increased sarcoplasmic volume or increasedcontractile proteins. Changes can be beneficial or healthy if they occur in response to aerobic or anaerobic exercise.right kidney. Gigantomastia can occur as a rare complication of pregnancy. in ascending order of masculinisation. such as in the case of the hormonally-induced proliferation and enlargement of the cells of the uterus during pregnancy. Depending on the type of training.  Ventricular hypertrophy Ventricular hypertrophy is the increase in size of the ventricles of the heart.

It may result in the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes mixed up with benignneoplasia / benign tumor. Microscopically cells resemble normal cells but are increased in numbers. 5. Sometimes cells may also be increased in size (hypertrophy). Hyperplasia is a common preneoplastic response to stimulus.[1] Hyperplasia is different from hypertrophy in that theadaptive cell change in hypertrophy is an increase in cell size. Hyperplasia increase in number of cells/proliferation of cells. whereas hyperplasia involves an increase in the number of cells .from 1: Female external genitalia with clitoromegaly through 5: Pseudo-phallus looking like normal male external genitalia).