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Keysight Technologies

Concepts and Measurements
of HSPA + Evolution

Application Note

For most of the 20th century, operators used the work of Danish mathematician and
engineer A.K. Erlang as the basis for network planning: essentially predicting the number
of simultaneous users a telecommunications network would have to support. As long as
networks were used mainly for voice calls, the same broad principles applied to mobile
networks, with the added flexibility of using a smaller cell size in geographic “hot spots”
where more users could be expected and cell capacity exceeded.
However, the coming of the home PC in the 1990s, particularly in its laptop form, meant a
big change in demand. Fixed-line data modems delivering up to 56 kbps data and General
Packet Radio Service (GPRS) cellular modems at up to 28 kbps gave a less-than-acceptable
user experience and gave operators a new challenge. Three main solutions emerged: Data
Over Cable Service Infrastructure Specifications (DOCSIS) modems using existing cable TV
infrastructure, Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) modems using the copper of
fixed-line telephony, and third-generation cellular networks with higher cell capacities (aka
“mobile broadband”).
Today, as the take-up of data services on mobile networks continues to increase, the
rules of network provision need to be re-written. First, data services are by their nature
discontinuous. Moving to packet rather than circuit-switched delivery allows more users to
share the same resource (though directing the data becomes more complex). Second, the
progressively smaller cell sizes needed to fully cover the needs of ubiquitous mobile phone
ownership provides additional bandwidth for both voice and data. And finally, successive
advances in technology and system specifications have provided higher cell capacity
and consequent improvements in single-user data rates – from the 384 kbps of original
Wideband Code Division Multiplex (W-CDMA) in 3GPP specification Release 99 through
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in Release 5 and High Speed Uplink Packet
Access (HSUPA) in Release 6 – collectively High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) – to evolved
HSPA (HSPA+), Dual Carrier HSDPA (DC-HSDPA) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) in 3GPP
Release 8, with the promise of more to come in further releases. Along with Release 8, there
is a concurrent move to the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) – the simplified all-packet network
architecture designed specifically to improve data throughput and latency. The increases
in data rates came courtesy of increased modulation density made possible by better
components, particularly in the area of digital receivers. Current HSPA networks deliver data
rates up to 14 Mbps downlink / 5.8 Mbps uplink. HSPA+ takes this to 21 Mbps downlink /
11 Mbps uplink; DC-HSDPA doubles the downlink speed and first-generation LTE starts out
at 100 Mbps downlink / 50 Mbps uplink.
Yet, these improvements have produced a “chicken and egg” conundrum for mobile
network operators: the more data capacity they make available, the more complex and
data-hungry user equipment (UEs) the device manufacturers offer, and the more sophisticated the demands of end-users become. Finding the funding to keep improving network
capacity, and ways of ensuring an acceptable revenue stream from high data users are
real issues. For some operators, this means offering unlimited data plans, while others
deliberately throttle back the speed available to users who exceed their data allowance.

HSPA+ delivers high enough speeds to compare with most home broadband systems. New in Release 8 is the option for dual-carrier HSDPA. of which 3. that is to have the system aggregate the content of 2 contiguous channels – doubling downlink data rates at a stroke. most of whom have already deployed HSPA. HSPA+ is a software upgrade – ideal in these days of tight budgets. Device manufacturers are set to provide end users with equipment for high-speed services. and further enabling HSPA to maintain its place in the high-speed world. What’s New in HSPA+ Explained The major goals of HSPA+. It is important to recognize that improving uplink performance also helps the downlink. as defined by the 3GPP standards organization are: – To exploit the full potential of the CDMA physical layer before moving to the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) physical layer of LTE – To achieve performance comparable with LTE in a 5 MHz channel bandwidth – To provide smooth interworking between HSPA+ and LTE – To achieve co-existence of both technologies in one network – To allow operation in a packet-only mode for both voice and data – To be backward compatible with earlier user devices Current W-CDMA systems are all based on a 5 MHz channel bandwidth.8 Mbps uplink.Investment Choices While the industry hype is all about LTE. many operators have chosen HSPA+ (or evolved HSPA) as a more cost-effective short-term upgrade strategy. so the user experience adequately meets customer expectations. For those whose networks are based on 3GPP specifications. The option to have the HSPA+ network operate fully in packet mode for both voice and data updates the backhaul network to make future LTE deployment simpler: only the physical (base station radio) layer would need major upgrade. By providing faster acknowledgement.84 MHz is used and the remainder acts as a guard band between channels. downlink capacity and latency both benefit. Important features of HSPA+ are: 3GPP Release 7 – Downlink MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) – Higher order modulation for uplink (16QAM) and downlink (64QAM) – Continuous packet connectivity (CPC) 3 .2 Mbps downlink / 5. with HSPA and derivatives dominating for the foreseeable future and a majority of current installations delivering up to 7.

64QAM in downlink With the possibility to use 64QAM in the downlink. supporting over 300 Mbps downlink and almost 70 Mbps uplink.3GPP Release 8 – Combined downlink MIMO and 64QAM – peak rate can be up to 42 Mbps – CS over HSPA – a “circuit switched” connection in a packet-based network – Dual Carrier HSDPA (though this cannot be combined with MIMO) 3GPP Release 9 and beyond Releases 9 and beyond add further multi-carrier capability. 64QAM is an optional UE capability. To support CPC. it allows more users to be in the full “on” (CELL_DCH) state for a longer period of time even when there is no data exchanged between the UE and the base transceiver station (BTS). Current visions show “HSPA+ Advanced”. so not all UEs will support it. HSPA+ can achieve downlink data rates of 21 Mbps.5 Mbps. 4 . Continuous packet connectivity (CPC) CPC is a collection of enhancements that allow more users to be continuously connected to the network and at the same time increase UE battery life. HSPA+ can achieve uplink peak data rates of 11. enhanced MIMO and 256QAM modulation. It remains to be seen how the trade-offs between the further developments of HSPA+ and LTE will evolve. in Release 11. In other words. especially for lowdata-rate services like Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). adding supplemental downlink capacity using unpaired spectrum. the following uplink and downlink improvements were made: – New UL Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) slot format (Helps reduce signaling overhead) – New UL DPCCH gating/discontinuous transmission (DTx) UE to BTS (Helps increase battery life and minimize interference) – New DL discontinuous reception (DRx) at the UE (Helps increase battery life and minimize interference) – New DL High Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)-less operation (Helps minimize interference and reduce signalling overhead) These features are attractive to service providers because they can increase capacity (especially for low-data-rate services such as VoIP). including non-contiguous channels. CPC mode avoids delays related to state transitions. and they are relatively simple upgrades to the network and terminals. which in turn can improve the link quality. Some Technical Details 16QAM in uplink With the possibility to use 16QAM on the Enhanced Dedicated Channel (E-DCH) in the uplink.

this increase in voice capacity can be as much as 50%. Following this. the UE quickly goes into the UL DPCCH gating mode (or DTx mode). there is no data exchange required by the user between the mobile device and the BTS. This allows the UE to go into a “micro-sleep mode” which significantly helps battery life.Some Technical Details (continued) Web page download User reading web page (in Cell_DCH state) UL DPCCH is continuosly transmitted and DL channels are continuosly received by the UE during the reading phase HSPA R6 DPCCH gating (DTx) starts after download completes HSPA R7 Discontinuos reception (DRx) is only possible when DTx is active Figure 1. In this case. Comparison of normal and DTx/DRx operation Figure 1 illustrates the CPC concept with a real-world example. which in turn allows more users to be connected at the same time. The scheduling of these two events is managed by a series of rules in such a way as to maximize overlap so that DTx and DRx happen at approximately the same time. After the web page has been downloaded they stop browsing and read the page. after the web page is downloaded. DRx operation is only possible when uplink DTx operation is activated. This feature is attractive to service providers because it increases voice capacity with VoIP and requires relatively simple upgrades to the network and terminals. In the upper graphic (HSPA Release 6). 5 . the UL DPCCH is continuously transmitted and the DL channels are continuously received by the UE while the user is reading. the user is downloading a web page. To further reduce signaling overhead. During this reading time. Transitions with HS-SCCH Orders avoid the upper layer signaling required for a traditional reconfiguration procedure. The lower graphic illustrates the application of the CPC mode. HS-SCCH Orders are introduced to control the activation and deactivation of DRx and DTx behavior. In some cases. the UE receiver goes into discontinuous reception (or DRx). In this case. It also reduces the signalto-noise and interference (SIR) generated by all these channels including the HS-SCCH. UE and BTS Tx/Rx designers need to test how their chipsets/algorithms respond to these dynamic changes in the signals.

HS-SCCH-less operation can be combined with UL DTx and DL DRx. the UE buffers the data for retransmission instead of sending a non-acknowledgement (NACK). In addition. the network re-transmits the same data once or twice (only two re-transmissions are allowed) with specific redundancy versions (3 and 4) and the same modulation format (QPSK). First. the first HS-DSCH transmission with HS-SCCH-less operation always uses the same modulation format (quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK)) and redundancy version (zero (0)). 6 . If the UE’s algorithm does not successfully detect the first HS-DSCH transmission. Three modifications are made in the first HS-DSCH transmission with HS-SCCH-less operation to simplify the changes required to the UE’s downlink detection algorithms. In addition.Some Technical Details (continued) HS-SCCH-less operation HS-SCCH-less operation is used to reduce the signaling overhead. the number and complexity of the HS-DSCH transport formats are reduced. the first High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH) transmission of small transport blocks on predefined High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channels (HS-PDSCHs) is performed without the accompanying HS-SCCH which contains information to help the UE decode this and future downlink transmissions. Just as for standard HSDPA. UEs are required to use more complex algorithms to determine the transport format on the HS-DSCH and to identify to which UE the HS-DSCH transmission was addressed. HS-SCCH Orders can be used to activate and deactivate HS-SCCH-less operation thus further reducing the overhead signalling. To provide the maximum benefit. Once again. Consequently. a simpler method for detecting the correct UE ID (technically referred to as the HSDPA radio network temporary identifier (H-RNTI)) is defined. When an ACK is not received. especially for services using relatively small packets. such as VoIP. a simplified HS-SCCH (HS-SCCH type 2) is sent with the re-transmitted data to help the UE to detect the transmission. With HS-SCCH-less operation. an acknowledgement (ACK) is sent on the uplink High-Speed Dedicate Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH) when the UE successfully detects the first HS-DSCH transmission with HS-SCCH-less operation. Finally.

Instead. The HS-DPCCH also carries 2 CQI (channel quality indicator) reports. Despite the presence of more information on the HS-DPCCH in DC-HSDPA than for SC-HSDPA. Each of the two HARQ process entities is fed by a common priority queue. In the physical layer. the underlying physical channel remains unchanged. the UE receives HSDPA transmissions from two cells.enhanced high speed) layer (MAC-hs is not supported) the two cells essentially look like two HS-DSCH transport channels. one for each cell. The two cells transmit on separate but adjacent W-CDMA channels while potentially generating two different cell powers. The data content of each cell’s HS-PDSCH is different and each cell’s HS-PDSCH is configured independently. more code points are added to the ACK/NACK and CQI fields. DC-HSDPA assumes that the two cells are served by the same Node-B (from the same physical base station site). One of the cells is known as the serving cell and the other the secondary serving cell. limit the amount of data that has to be transferred across the UE’s internal data buses. etc. the nominal radio frame timing in a secondary serving HS-DSCH cell is the same as for the serving HS-DSCH cell. the UE monitors up to 4 HS-SCCHs from each cell. While operating in DC-HSDPA mode. All 4 categories are capable of receiving 15 HS-PDSCH codes per transport block with an inter-TTI (transmission time interval) of 1 (for maximum HSDPA throughput).). CPICH. with each entity containing a unique set of HARQ processes. On the uplink. 7 . have been added to cover a range of capabilities when a DC-HSDPA connection is active. soft buffer size and whether 64QAM is supported. Each of these HS-DSCH channels is controlled by its own independent HARQ (hybrid automatic repeat request) process entity. thus. As with single-carrier HSDPA (SC-HSDPA). Both cells can transmit HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH to the UE simultaneously. Some limitations have been added to HARQ memory partitioning to restrict the amount of soft memory that can be allocated to a single HARQ process and. but vary in the transport block size. Four new HS-DSCH UE categories. A theoretical maximum throughput of 42 Mbps in the downlink can be achieved with this configuration. the UE must assume that the secondary serving cell only transmits a CPICH (the UE cannot rely on the presence of an SCH/P-CCPCH).Some Technical Details (continued) DC-HSDPA Dual-carrier or dual-cell high-speed downlink packet access (DC-HSDPA) is a W-CDMA feature defined in 3GPP Release 8 that allows the network to transmit HSDPA data to a mobile device from two cells simultaneously. which means the rest of the stack from MAC-d upwards is unaware that two carriers are being used to transmit data to the UE. although it can only be configured to monitor a total of 6 HS-SCCHs across both cells. To the MAC-ehs (medium access control . 21-24. This HS-DPCCH carries either 1 or 2 ACK/NACK bits depending on how many HS-PDSCH transmissions the UE attempted to decode. PICH. While the serving cell has a full set of common channels (SCH. the UE transmits a single HS-DPCCH to the serving cell. P-CCPCH.

primary scrambling code. New RMCs (called fixed reference channels or FRCs) have been specified to test the new features of HSPA and HSPA+. and the serving and secondary serving cells must operate on adjacent W-CDMA channels in the same band. Transport Channel Reconfiguration (TCR) and Physical Channel Reconfiguration (PCR)). In Release 8. Radio bearer (RB) test mode RB test mode is a special defined-channel configuration. including the new modulation types. Once on a connection. and other parameters. or by using the RB Release or Active Set Update message.Some Technical Details (continued) DC-HSDPA continued With upper layer signaling. the secondary serving cell can be activated or deactivated using HS-SCCH Orders sent on either the serving or secondary serving cell (the UE’s behavior is undefined if it receives conflicting orders). DC-HSDPA can be combined with CPC. DC-HSDPA can be enabled or disabled by all the reconfiguration messages (Radio Bearer Reconfiguration (RBR). The network enables and activates DC-HSDPA at call setup in the RRC Connection Setup or RB Setup message. to signal the configuration of the secondary serving cell in terms of its downlink UARFCN. HS-SCCH channelization codes. but HS-SCCH-less operation can only be used on the serving cell. MIMO and DC-HSDPA cannot be active at the same time. 64QAM support. This is the typical test environment that is used throughout the lifecycle of a device’s design and manufacturing process. Since W-CDMA and its extensions are incredibly flexible. and then signals its DC-HSDPA category in the RRC Connection Setup Complete message. defined radio bearers called RMCs (reference measurement channels) simplify which configurations need to be tested for standards compliance. 8 . MIMO and UL DTx/DL DRx. Downlink Secondary Cell Info FDD. the UE indicates whether it supports DC-HSDPA using a flag (multi-cell support) in the RRC (radio resource control) Connection Setup Request message. For a reduction in signaling overhead. The Release 8 versions of all these messages contain a new information element (IE). designed to simplify the testing environment.

Test labs. Keysight GS-8800 Table 1. Inc.New test requirements for HSPA+ (3GPP Release 7 and 8) Adding new capability to an existing UE platform involves a huge amount of validation testing before the product’s initial development is completed. tablets. developers must ensure they correctly interpret and implement the required new features.3gpp. and at the same time make sure the behavior of the existing base product does not Figure 2. or laptop data cards. In adding Release 7 and 8 HSPA+ capability. EGPRS.1. or a focus of customer complaint? Today’s handsets. use automated systems such as the Keysight Technologies. shows the list of required tests that have been added for HSPA.5G as well as standard and enhanced 3G functionality: GSM. Thereafter. be they low-cost feature phones. A typical conformance test system. smartphones. DC-HSDPA requires developing the additional receiver capability and ensuring there are no adverse interactions. For test details. see 3GPP TS 34.121-1 V10. 9 . W-CDMA. GS-8800 (see Figure 2) to run exhaustive suites of tests (known as “campaigns” in the industry) to prove the designs meet the cycle of external testing may find interactions that require changes to the design and mean the entire process has to be repeated. either independent or part of a manufacturer or network operator. HSPA+ and DC-HSDPA. at http://www. in the following pages. The final arbiter of product success is the court of public opinion – is the user experience a delight. Radio Transmission and Reception (FDD).0 (2011-12) UE Conformance Specification. and HSPA. typically already support legacy 2 and 2.121-1/34121-1-a10. GPRS.

Figure 3.New test requirements for HSPA+ (3GPP Release 7 and 8) (continued) In Table 1. A subset of these essential tests will form the basis of testing in manufacturing. they are relatively familiar to those working in the industry. and are tied closely to the design of the device’s type and control software rather than to the physical attributes of an individual device. These characteristics are verified by the manufacturer during development and are subject to extensive testing for conformance and interoperability by external test houses. The enhanced performance characteristics listed refer to classes of UE that have more than one receive antenna and support either receive diversity (multiple antennas feeding a single receiver) or MIMO. Devices are required to be completely re-tested if any part of their control software is modified in any way. The former are traditional tests. just look like wideband noise. W-CDMA base station transmitter block diagram 10 . there are tests for both physical attributes of the equipment (characteristics) and expected behaviors (performance requirements). and while they may be modified by evolving technology. Performance characteristics deal with the operation of the device as a network component. They measure parameters such as output power and receiver sensitivity that may change from device to device. national conformance test labs and operators before the device is passed as fit for use on a network. Figure 3 shows a conceptual block diagram of how a base station transmitter output is constructed. therefore. W-CDMA and its evolutions are code-domain-multiplex systems – simplistically. each user makes use of the entire channel with user separation through an assigned scrambling code which is known to the transmitter and receiver. Other transmissions in the same channel use different codes and. so they are performed over the expected environmental range of the device during the design phase. Here is an example of a specific type of requirement.

allowing developers to thoroughly test the functionality of a new or revised device. Figure 5. Figure 4. Noisy 64QAM constellation vector diagram The Keysight 8960 Wireless Communications Test Set supports W-CDMA and all its evolutions. Less space between the constellation points means signal-to-noise ratio must be improved to maintain the same error ratio. 11 . and its Lab Application gives keyboard control of the power increase and decrease messages. the power transmitted from each UE is monitored and raised or lowered continuously to maintain a target error ratio at the base station receiver. while providing minimum interference to other users. This “closed loop power control” is a key UE performance requirement which becomes more important as the modulation density increases.New test requirements for HSPA+ (3GPP Release 7 and 8) (continued) To keep the base station receiver operating at maximum efficiency. See Figure 4 below.

and H-Set 12. H-Set 8A. defined for use with HSDPA.3. Throughput under various conditions and BLER must be measured independently for each cell. Two new Reporting of CQI tests verify the UE’s ability to accurately report CQI for both cells.121-1 sD. Instead. 8 and 10.2 kbps reference measurement channel (RMC). The only difference is that for DC-HSDPA.1. uses one HS-PDSCH code with QPSK modulation. 6. H-Set 10A. H-Set 12 is 60 kbps. and H-Set 10A are essentially the same as H-Sets 3. DC-HSDPA receiver test cases have been added to 3GPP TS 34. A new additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) configuration is defined for DC-HSDPA having a minimum bandwidth of 11. H-Set 6A.121-1 s9. each test is required to specify loopback conditions.1). Reference sensitivity levels have been raised by 4 dB for DC-HSDPA tests. the H-Set is transmitted on both cells. 12 . H-Set 3A. and is transmitted identically on both serving and secondary serving cells. New RF tests use new Fixed Reference Channel (FRC) configurations. namely H-Set 3A. 8960 power control screen In terms of RF conformance testing. 3GPP TS 34.52 MHz (3GPP TS 34.New test requirements for HSPA+ (3GPP Release 7 and 8) (continued) Figure 5.2 also have new DC-HSDPA requirements.108 s7.121-1 s6 and the HSDPA performance test cases in 3GPP TS 34.13 defines a call setup procedure for DC-HSDPA RF conformance testing that is almost identical to the typical HSDPA call setup procedure with the exception that the loop is not always closed on the 12. H-Set 6A. H-Set 8A.

7B Intermodulation Characteristics for DC-HSDPA X 13 .3B Maximum Input Level for HS-PDSCH Reception (64QAM) 6.2A Relative Code Domain Error with HS-DPCCH X 5.7A Intermodulation Characteristics for DC-HSDPA X 6.3C Maximum Input Level for DC-HSDPA Reception (16QAM) X 6.13.10A Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR) with HS-DPCCH X 5.13.1AA Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) and Phase Discontinuity with HSDPCCH X 5.2E UE Relative Code Domain Power Accuracy for HS-DPCCH and EDCH with 16QAM X X 5.13.4B Adjacent Channel Selectivity (ACS) for DC-HSDPA X 6.9A Spectrum Emission Mask with HS-DPCCH X 5.2C UE Relative Code Domain Power Accuracy X 5.2B Reference Sensitivity Level for DB-DC-HSDPA X 6.121-1 V10.2A Reference Sensitivity Level for DC-HSDPA X 6.13.2B Relative Code Domain Error with HS-DPCCH and E-DCH X 5.9B Spectrum Emission Mask with E-DCH X 5.2AA Maximum Output Power with HS-DPCCH (Release 6 and later) X 5.13.3D Maximum Input Level for DC-HSDPA Reception (64QAM) X X X 6.5A Blocking Characteristics for DC-HSDPA X 6.0 (2011-12) Section 5 Test for Transmitter Characteristics 3GPP TS 34.121-1 Test Description HSDPA HSUPA HSPA+ DC-HSDPA 6.6A Spurious Response for DC-HSDPA X 6.2B Maximum Output Power with HS-DPCCH and E-DCH X 5.3A Maximum Input Level for HS-PDSCH Reception (16QAM) 6.121-1 Test Description HSDPA 5.2C Relative Code Domain Error for HS-DPCCH and E-DCH with 16QAM X HSUPA HSPA+ DC-HSDPA X X X X X X X 3GPP TS 34.1.10B Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR) with E-DCH X 5.0 (2011-12) Section 6 Test for Receiver Characteristics 3GPP TS 34.1AAA EVM and IQ origin offset for HS-DPCCH and E-DCH with 16 QAM X 5. HSPA+ and DC-HSDPA 3GPP TS 34.13. Additional test list for HSPA.121-1 V10.2A Maximum Output Power with HS-DPCCH (Release 5 only) X 5.1.New test requirements for HSPA+ (3GPP Release 7 and 8) (continued) Table 1.2D UE Relative Code Domain Power Accuracy for HS-DPCCH and E-DCH X X 5.1A Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) with HS-DPCCH X 5.7A HS-DPCCH Power Control X 5.

FRC H-Set 10 9.2.1GA Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 3 .121-1 Section 7 Performance Requirements 3GPP TS 34. FRC H-Set 8A 9.2.QPSK/16QAM.1E Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 1 .1I Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 3 .121-1 V10.121-1 Test Description HSDPA 9. FRC H-Set 6/3 X 9.64QAM. FRC H-Set 6/3 X 9. FRC H-Set 1/2/3 X 9. FRC H-Set 8 9.QPSK/16QAM.64QAM.1JA Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 2 .QPSK/16QAM.2. FRC H-Set 4/5 X 9. FRC H-Set 10 9. FRC H-Set 8A 9. FRC H-Set 8 9.64QAM.2. FRC H-Set 1/2/3 X 9.QPSK/16QAM.1H Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 2 .2.QPSK/16QAM.1 Demodulation of HS-DSCH (Fixed Reference Channel): Single Link Performance 9.QPSK/16QAM.8.1KA Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 3 .QPSK/16QAM.2.QPSK/16QAM.2.1.121-1 Test Description HSDPA 7.1HA Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 2 . FRC H-Set 6A/3A 9.1D Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 1 . FRC H-Set 6/3 9.2.64QAM.1A QPSK/16QAM.2.0 (2011-12) Section 9 Performance Requirements for HSDPA 3GPP TS 34.2.1G Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 3 .1K Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 3 .2.1IA Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 3 .2.2.1C QPSK/16QAM. FRC H-Set 10A 9.2. FRC H-Set 6/3 X 9. FRC H-Set 10A 14 X X X X X X X X X X X .1B QPSK.1J Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 2 .2.QPSK/16QAM.New test requirements for HSPA+ (3GPP Release 7 and 8) (continued) 3GPP TS 34.13 UE UL Power Control Operation with Discontinuous UL DPCCH Transmission Operation X HSUPA HSPA+ DC-HSDPA HSUPA HSPA+ DC-HSDPA 3GPP TS 34. FRC H-Set 6A/3A 9.2.QPSK/16QAM.1F Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 2 .5 Power Control in the Downlink for F-DPCH X 7.1FA Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 2 .2.2.

FRC H-Set 4/5 X V10. FRC H-Set 1/2/3 X 9.0 (2011-12) Section 9 Performance Requirements for HSDPA continued 3GPP TS 34.3E Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 3 – QPSK/16QAM.3 Closed Loop Diversity Performance 9.3D Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 2 – QPSK/16QAM.3.1B Single Link Performance . FRC H-Set 1/2/3 X 9.QPSK. 64QAM 9.2B QPSK. 64QAM 9.2C Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 1 – QPSK/16QAM.3.2. DCHSDPA Requirements X 9.1LA Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 3i . DCHSDPA Requirements X X X 9.3.3.Fading Propagation Conditions X 9.2A QPSK/16QAM. FRC H-Set 6/3 X 9.3.3 Reporting of CQI 9.3.1B Single Link Performance . FRC H-Set 3 X 9.2B Single Link Performance – Fading Propagation Conditions.QPSK.4 Open Loop Diversity Performance .AWGN Propagation Conditions 9.Fading Propagation Conditions X 9.2.5 Closed Loop Diversity Performance .AWGN Propagation Conditions X 15 X X . FRC H-Set 1/2/3 X 9.3.1L Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 3i . FRC H-Set 6 X 9.2.2 Open Loop Diversity Performance 9. FRC H-Set 3 X 9.AWGN Propagation Conditions.2.2.2.AWGN Propagation Conditions X 9.1C Single Link Performance . Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 2 – QPSK/16QAM.AWGN Propagation Conditions.3A QPSK/16QAM. FRC H-Set 1/2/3 X 9.AWGN Propagation Conditions.121-1 Test Description HSDPA 9.3. DCHSDPA Requirements X X 9.3B QPSK.1 Single Link Performance .3 Open Loop Diversity Performance .3C Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 1 – QPSK/16QAM.2A Single Link Performance .1.New test requirements for HSPA+ (3GPP Release 7 and 8) (continued) 3GPP TS 34.3. Periodically Varying Radio Conditions X 9.2.AWGN Propagation Conditions.2.2E Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 3 – QPSK/16QAM.2. FRC H-Set 3 X 9. FRC H-Set 6A HSUPA HSPA+ DC-HSDPA X 9.1A Single Link Performance .2 Single Link Performance . FRC H-Set 4/5 X 9.Fading Propagation Conditions.2.

1 10 ms TTI 10.0 (2011-12) Section 9 Performance Requirements for HSDPA continued 3GPP TS 34. Type 1 10.2A Open Loop Diversity Performance .6 HS-DSCH and HS-SCCH Reception in CELL_FACH State 9.6.5 HS-SCCH-Less Demodulation of HS-DSCH (FRC) 9.2 2 ms TTI X X X X X X V10.2 Detection in Inter-Cell Handover Conditions 10.1.1 10 ms TTI X X 10.1A 10 ms TTI.2.1 10 ms TTI X X 10.1A Single Link Performance . Closed Loop Diversity Performance .2.2 2 ms TTI X X 16 HSPA+ DC-HSDPA .2. Type 1 X X 10.121-1 V10. FRC H-Set 7 – Enhanced Performance Require.2.1 Single Link Performance X 2 ms TTI.New test requirements for HSPA+ (3GPP Release 7 and 8) (continued) 3GPP TS 34.2.1.Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 1 X 9.5. Type 1 X X 10.4.1 10 ms TTI X X 10.3.1A 10 ms TTI.1A 10 ms TTI.2.2A (2 ms TTI.2.2.3 HS-SCCH Type 3 Performance 9. Type 1 10. Single Link Performance 10.2 Open Loop Diversity Performance X 9.1 RLS Not Containing the Serving E-DCH Cell 10.1A Requirement QPSK. Single Link Performance 10.1 Requirement QPSK.6.3.Fading Propagation Conditions X 9. Type 1 X X Detection of E-DCH Relative Grant Channel (E-RGCH).1.2.3. FRC H-Set 7 9.2 (2 ms TTI X X X X 10.2.4 HS-SCCH Detection Performance 9.2.121-1 Test Description HSDPA 9.121-1 10.1 Single Link HS-DSCH Demodulation Performance in CELL_FACH State X 9.X ments Type 1 9.2 2 ms TTI X X 10.1.2. Type 1 X X Test Description HSDPA HSUPA Detection of E-DCH HARQ ACK Indicator Channel (E-HICH). 10 ms TTI.1.2 RLS Containing the Serving E-DCH Cell 10.1. Type 1 X X 10.2 Single Link HS-SCCH Detection Performance in CELL_FACH State X HSUPA HSPA+ DC-HSDPA X X 3GPP TS (2011-12) Section 10 Performance Requirement (E-DCH) 3GPP TS 2 ms TTI.1.Enhanced Performance Requirements Type 1 X 9.

2 2 ms TTI X X 10.1 Single Link Performance X X test requirements for HSPA+ (3GPP Release 7 and 8) (continued) 3GPP TS Demodulation of E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel (E-AGCH) 10.2A Detection in Inter-Cell Handover Conditions (Type 1) X X 10.1A Single Link Performance (Type 1) X X 17 HSPA+ DC-HSDPA . Type 1 X X 10.121-1 V10.121-1 Test Description HSDPA HSUPA 10.1.2A 2 ms TTI.0 (2011-12) Section 10 Performance Requirement (E-DCH) continued 3GPP TS Detection in Inter-Cell Handover Conditions X X 10.4.

so it is possible to make a system-level closed-loop bit error ratio (BER) or packet error ratio (PER) measurement. and HSPA. SystemVue’s W1916 3G library is an algorithmic reference for Baseband PHY design. cdma2000®. including features specific to DC-HSDPA. W-CDMA. used for simulation-based pre-compliance/verification of RF/analog designs. which also interacts with Keysight signal generation and analysis test equipment and RF EDA platforms. Figure 6. receiver characteristics. DC-HSDPA receiver sensitivity test using SystemVue 18 . The W2364 2G/3G Cellular Library is a component of the Keysight Advanced Design System. It already includes CDMA. Figure 6 shows one of the SystemVue measurements. spectral regrowth of power amplifiers. They both include functional Tx and Rx models. and generally to speed the design verification process. It can be used to measure DC-RF efficiency.Keysight design and test products for HSPA+ SystemVue design libraries There are two SystemVue design libraries for HSPA+ design work.

including flexible HARQ and CQI patterns for dual-cell and MIMO testing and FRC configurations for conformance testing. N7600B generates transport-channel-coded W-CDMA and HSDPA DL signals and includes pre-defined RMC and H-Set 1-5 configurations.Keysight design and test products for HSPA+ (continued) Signal generation and Signal Studio waveform creation software N7600B Signal Studio for 3GPP W-CDMA FDD is PC-based software that simplifies creation of standard-compliant 3GPP W-CDMA arbitrary waveform (ARB) test signals. For BTS receiver testing. PSG and MXG Vector Signal Generators and PXB Baseband Generator and Channel Emulator. See Figure 7 below. 19 . Signal Studio user interface For UE receiver testing. HSPA and HSPA+ signals with standard-compliant physical layer configurations. For component testing. N7600B generates UL and DL W-CDMA. N7600B generates transport-channel coded W-CDMA. It is compatible with the ESG. Figure 7. HSPA and HSPA+ UL signals.

VSA display of 64QAM downlink signal 20 . it supports both two. the 89600 VSA supports the new Release 7 and 8 features. and troubleshooting tools that engineers can use to view signals and gather the data they need to successfully troubleshoot physical layer signal problems. Figure 8 shows the composite EVM and relative code domain power of a 64QAM downlink signal in both tabular and graphical form using VSA.and four-channel MIMO and is compatible with over 30 Keysight signal analyzers. Moreover. Figure 8. including MIMO and the analysis of the uplink transmission to the serving cell of the dual-cell HS-DPCCH ACK/NACK and CQI report decodes.Keysight design and test products for HSPA+ (continued) Vector signal analysis On the signal analysis side. scopes and logic analyzers. The software also provides superior general-purpose and standards-based signal evaluation.

Figure 9 below shows a DC-HSPA-capable USB device under test. the secondary serving cell and the combination of both cells.keysight. 8960 running DC-HSPA data throughput test 21 . and shows the received data rate.) The 8960’s data monitor screen shows both single channel and overall data throughput. The PC on the left of the picture is a server running “IPERF. Both FDD test mode and active cell DC-HSDPA connections are supported. 23. both RB test mode and packetswitched (PS) data DC-HSDPA connections are supported. For full setup and measurement configuration as well as details of the numerical rates of the primary and secondary serving cells.” a utility developed as a method for measuring maximum TCP and UDP bandwidth performance. 22. The maximum data rates for DC-HSDPA connections are 42 Mbps in the downlink and 11 Mbps in the uplink. For testing 3GPP TS 34. and 24. see the online user guide at www.e. all of the new H-Sets defined for use with DC-HSDPA are supported. The receiving PC on top of the 8960 is also running IPERF. Bands I through XIV and XIX through XXI. and to see the difference in performance when data reception needs to be acknowledged. In this case. it transmits the primary and secondary serving cells via its front panel RF output to the device. The serving cell and secondary serving cell are generated on adjacent 5 MHz channels in any band supported by the 8960.121-1 test cases. The 8960 emulates DC-HSDPA transmission (i. The same setup can also be used to allow the receiving PC to FTP files from the server using software such as Filezilla. The data throughput monitor and HSDPA BLER measurement report results for the serving cell. the server is sending a 42 Mbps bitstream via the ethernet port of the 8960. Figure 9. In active cell.Keysight design and test products for HSPA+ (continued) 8960 Wireless communications test set The updated 8960 (E5515E) supports DC-HSDPA connections for all defined HS-DSCH categories that support DC-HSDPA: 21.

syntax checking. documentation. see Figure 10. However. 8960 is one of the instruments supported in Command Expert scripting 22 .” where setup details can be constructed offline and sent to the instrument. Using Command Expert makes repeatable testing easier as it eliminates the possibility of missed or incorrect steps in setting the instrument manually. Command Expert is free to download and combines instrument commands. the 8960 is one of a number of instruments supported by a new Keysight utility known as “Command Expert. and command execution all in one simple interface. Figure 10. See product data sheet 5990-9362EN for more information and download instructions.Keysight design and test products for HSPA+ (continued) Keysight command expert In the DC-HSPA example. the 8960 was set up manually via its front panel.

However. handsets were relatively simple single. particularly for cellular verification test. WiFi. 3G W-CDMA/HSPA and 1xEV. increasing throughput while maintaining the integrity of the test and quality of the finished product. and NFC. non-signaling test set that integrates an innovative test sequencer. vector signal generator (VSG). non-signaling test can eliminate costly signaling overhead from the manufacturing test process. the highly competitive handset market has created huge pressure to reduce manufacturing test times and costs. Device manufacturers will continue to use signaling test methods in development and production verification to ensure they build stability and confidence into their processes when moving to non-signaling test. The Keysight E6607B EXT wireless communications test set provides fast and accurate measurements. Fast. flexible sequencer techniques. 23 . Signaling test then serves as a traceable reference (measurement correlation) of device RF performance during design (between signaling and non-signaling test modes) and on through the transition to manufacturing test. At the same time. The result has been the inclusion of test modes in handset chipsets that allow much faster directed non-signaling test. Manufacturing test systems emulated a network base station. plus WiMAXTM.Keysight design and test products for HSPA+ (continued) Manufacturing test Throughout most of the history of cellular communications. vector signal analyzer (VSA). This configuration enables simultaneous verification of DUTs’ receivers and testing of device’s GPS receiver without extra fixturing or device handling. By taking advantage of test modes built into the new chipsets. The E6617A Multiport Adapter extends EXT to eight fully calibrated RFIO interfaces and four GPS ports for parallel device testing. see Figure 11. and 4G LTE. and their efforts are leading to the development of proprietary. chipset-specific test modes. today’s handsets must support both new and legacy cellular formats and contain numerous radios to do this: 2G GSM/GPRS/EGPRS and cdma2000. Bluetooth®. setting up device test conditions via over-the-air signaling. There are different levels to which non-signaling test modes are implemented in cellular chipsets and the capability of the test modes influences the degree to which test-time reductions can be made. The EXT is a one-box. and works in sync with modern chipset test modes to speed calibration and verification of the latest wireless devices.or dual-radio devices. and multi-format hardware. Chipset and test equipment vendors are continually investigating ways in which they can provide non-signaling test speed improvements to manufacturers. standards-compliant measurements and modulation analysis capabilities are based on proven Keysight measurement algorithms.

Keysight has the tools and knowledge to help provide greater insight into evolving the design and test of HSPA+ components and devices. 24 . interoperability test. And you can archive or transfer data directly using LAN. Figure 12. and on into manufacturing. from early simulation through design. one-button measurements for quick and error-free setup. The Keysight EXT/MPA is an integrated solution for non-signaling test Portable tools add lexibility for network deployment Keysight’s new range of FieldFox portable analyzers make collaboration simpler.Keysight design and test products for HSPA+ (continued) 3GPP channel and signal identifiers The 3GPP organization keeps a full and up-todate listing of all the technical abbreviations used in the Accurate measurements with no warm-up. see http://www. It may be faster and less costly to implement than moving immediately to LTE. manufacturing and field service without the need to move lab-grade equipment around. while still meeting the expectations for the higher data rates that smartphone users demand. see Figure 12. Figure 11. conformance test. lightweight product design mean you can tackle your measurement problem at its source rather than have to re-create conditions at your desk.3gpp. Fieldfox portables mean you can carry precision measurements to where you need them Conclusion HSPA+ offers network operators an option for the delivery of mobile broadband services. wide operating temperature range and a compact. USB and SD card.htm. Share measurements amongst colleagues in development. For a full list.

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