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Design and implementation of a Fm Transmitter

ABSTRACT
This project work is on the construction of an F.M transmitter this system
consists of four discrete modules namely the audio frequency (AF) amplifier
(class A) the modulator the master oscillator and the radio frequency (RF)
amplifier (ClassC) these formed the conventional events for building FM
transmitter here the signal (from the microphone) is fed into the (AF) for
amplification then to the modulator which combines the modulating signal
with the carrier wave transports the modulated signal through (RF) for final
amplification to the antenna via the resonance circuit for propagation the
transmitter was tested using radio receiver it transmitted clearly at the
frequency of 108 MH3 and the coverage was to metres.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of content
Chapter one
Introduction
Concept of modulation and demodulation
Objective of the project
Significance of the project.
Chapter two
Literature review
Historical background of the project
Theories and models relevant to the construction
System component description

Chapter three Hardware construction and implementation Block diagram and system specification Construction of audio frequency (Af) amplifier stage Construction of radio frequency (RF) amplifier stage Circuit diagram of FM transmitter Circuit component analysis Component list Chapter four Methodology packaging testing and results Methodology Packaging of the system Testing and results Chapter five Cost analysis problems encountered Recommendation and conclusion .

Cost analysis Problems encountered Recommendation Conclusion References .

CHAPTER ONE .

The frequency on the tuning dial ranges from 88MHZ to 108MH3. A radio transmitter is device whose major function is to send information (intelligence) from one point to another in most cases the information to be transmitted are voice music and code signals. .INTRODUCTION Information transmission is very vital to human life just as the early men used sticks to produce sound which indicates the location of each other as they wander about also down to the middle era when town crises come into play for the same information propagation to be transmitted from one point to another with the aid of radio communication which necessities the application of radio transmitter and receive. However the transmission of radio signal is done with the aid of electrical resonance this is when the frequency of the receiver is equal to the incoming one from the transmitter resonance is observed which is the totality of radio communication I personally decided to work on frequency modulation (FM) transmitter because it transmitted radio signal which is less distorted than other wave bands like amplitude modulation and short wave band.

In transmitter configuration a sound is fed at the microphone which is the transducer that converts the physical sound into the electrical signal which is usually amplified by the fist electronic circuit (audio frequency amplifier class A) whose output is fed into a modulator which fields a frequency modulated output fed into the final stage (radio frequency amplifier class C) then to the antenna which radiates the radio signal into the atmosphere. The size of antenna required for their would be large Furthermore for proper understanding of this information transmission-using transmitter I here by introduce the concept of modulation and demodulation. . It everybody started transmitting these low frequency signal directly mutual interference will render all of them ineffective 3. All these process were because audio frequency signal cannot be radiated out from the antenna directly because transmission at audio frequency is not particle this is because of audio frequency signals. 1. They have reactively short range 2.

However the audio frequency signal which is being transmitted super imposes on the carrier wave that transports it to the out put of the radio frequency amplifier into the antenna this audio frequency signal other wise known as modulating signal is being amplifier by the radio frequency amplifier in order to overcome air impendence as it travel from the transmitter to the receiver.CONCEPT OF MODULATION AND DEMODULATION Modulation is technically the process of combining an audio frequency signal (low frequency signal) with a high frequency oscillator. As the name implies . Demodulation in the other hand is the process of separating or recovering the signal (modulating signal) from the modulated earlier wave it is the opposite of modulation and it is performed at the receiving end (radio receiver. Amplitude modulation (AM) is the types of modulation in which the information signal (audio frequency signal) varies the amplitude of the earlier wave without changing it’s frequency.) TYPES OF MODULATION There are three types of modulation namely amplitude modulation (AM) frequency modulation (FM) and phase modulation (PM) 1.

it is only the amplitude of the earlier wave without changing it’s frequency. which is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating wave from. As the name implies it is only the amplitude that is being varied while the frequency is kept constant as the wave travels 2. Frequency modulation (FM) is the type of modulation is which the modulating signal varies the frequency of the carrier wave here it is only the frequency of the signal in frequency modulation carrier information (intelligence) is carried 3. is variations in its frequency. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT The objective of this project is to construct an electronically operated system known as FM transmitter capable of transmitting a frequency modulated signal with a littler or no distortion into the atmosphere for dissemination secondly to aid the gradating student into a season research activities that will carry them along during the professional practice as a scientist . Phase modulation (PM) is the type of modulation that varies the phase of the radiated wave at the modulating frequency and by an angle.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT The project signifies a lot in the electronic communication system which telecommunication is the vital aspect which is usually demonstrated through and radio communication system the frequency modulation transmitter is applied in a lot of instance frequency modulation is unavoidable used in FM radio stations scattered all over the country whose advantage is paramount compared to its counter part AM modulation frequency modulation transmitted is equally used in a miniaturized from as wireless morpheme. .

CHAPTER TWO .

The transmitter modulates the information onto a carrier signal and broadcasts it over the channel 2) Channel: The medium which transports the modulated signal to the receiver. The receiver must be able to discriminate the signal from other signals which may use the same channel medium. LED will be connected to FM transmitter end. Transmitter Audio Amplifier Receiver VCO PLL Channel Figure 1) simple drawing for FM system Parts List . In this project. Signals then will be picked up by the Photo Detector diode right before the FM Receiver 3) Receiver that is the sub-system that takes in the transmitted signal from the channel and processes it to retrieve the information signal.The basic Frequency Modulation communications system has: 1) Transmitter. which is the sub-system that takes the information signal and processes it prior to transmission. amplify the signal for processing and demodulate (remove the carrier) to retrieve the information.

In order to use electromagnetic transmission. R3.00 $4. Figure 2) Parts list To design the FM transmitter and receiver from the beginning we estimate that 25 manhours would be needed.01 $0.10 $0.01 2 1 1 1 $0.01 $0.only the MC14046B was purchased while all other components were provided by the school. R8.06 $0. R7.84 $1. FM Transmitter Description The FM Transmitter uses FM waves (frequency modulated waves) to send sound.03 $0. the audio signal is used to modulate a carrier signal.8nF 220uF 9V XLR3 connector. therefore unit prices were estimated.1k R2 18k R1. The majority of those man-hours would be devoted to discovering the frequency characteristics of the transmitter’s VCO (VCO voltage input vs.FM Transmitter and Receiver Circuits Parts List Description Resistor Resistor Resistor Resistor ID Value R4. However. .10 $0.01 $0. R9 5. where the frequency of the carrier wave corresponds to the voltage level of the audio signal.20 1 1 1 2 1 $0. The conversion is accomplished by a transducer.29 $12.84 2 1 3 $4. the audio signal must first be converted into an electric signal. MC14046B Op-Amp chip.20 $0.20 $0. R5 1k R10 22k Capacitor Capacitor Capacitor Capacitor C2.01 $0. VCO frequency output) by changing the resistor and capacitor components that determine it.01 $0. C3 C1 C4 C5 PLL chip.05 $0. U3 U1 9V battery 62pF 470uF 1.20 $0. R6. LM741 U2. female Transmitter Quantity 3 1 3 Receiver Quantity 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Unit Price * Total Cost $0. After conversion. in our case the microphone.00 1 Total: Total Quantity 5 1 3 1 14 8 22 $19.57 *Note .10 $0.20 $0. we estimate that only 5 hours would be needed to produce the printed circuit boards and install all the components of the transmitter and receiver. Frequency modulation transmits data (in our case an audio signal) over a carrier wave by changing the frequency of the carrier wave.53 $0.87 1 $4.

The top diagram shows the modulating signal superimposed on the carrier wave. The frequency of oscillation is varied by the . Our amplifier was designed to have gain of 20. We chose an LM741 operational amplifier that was readily available in our lab. Design Amplifier In our circuit we used an amplifier in order to amplify the audio signal and increase the amplitude of the VCO input. therefore if the input signal is 100mV the output of amplifier will be 2V. Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) A voltage-controlled oscillator or VCO is an electronic oscillator designed to be controlled in oscillation frequency by a voltage input. Ref (1) The process of modulation means to systematically use the information signal (what you want to transmit) to vary some parameter of the carrier signal. as shown above. and configured it for use as a non-inverting amplifier. but in our case the carrier signal will be a square-wave that is generated by a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The carrier signal can be a sinusoidal.Figure 3) An example of frequency modulation. The bottom diagram shows the resulting frequency-modulated signal.

while in our case signals will be fed into the VCO to cause frequency modulation (FM). Figure 4) voltage-frequency characteristics of the VCO Due to limitation of the frequency response of the LED and photodiode. which reaches 1MHz at approximately 5. A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) provides a periodic signal where the frequency of the signal is related to the level of an input voltage control signal supplied to the VCO.9V.9V. we limited our frequency range to a maximum of approximately 1MHz. Therefore we chose the characteristics of the pink line. For the choice of the center frequency.applied voltage. we considered the capture frequency range of the receiver. We chose a center frequency of 860kHz which corresponds to a VCO input voltage of 4. This meant a frequency range of the VCO between approximately 700kHz and 1MHz. We believed that the PLL would safely be able to lock onto a frequency range of 300kHz. We collected data to plot the voltage-frequency characteristics of the VCO of the MC14046B. .

often called locked. The PLL consists of three basic functional blocks: 1) A Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) 2) A Phase Detector 3) A Low Pass Filter .FM Receiver Description For the FM receiver our team is using the Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) chip which receives an amplified signal from the photodiode circuit and is able to demodulate the signal. Design Phase locked Loop A PLL is a circuit that causes a particular system to track with another one. a control mechanism acts on the oscillator in such a way that the phase error is again reduced to minimum. PLL synchronizes its output signal (generated by oscillator (VCO)) with a reference or input signal in frequency as well as phase. If a phase error builds up. In such a control system the phase of the output signal is actually locked to the phase of the reference signal. This is why it is referred to as a phase locked loop. The demodulated signal is the reproduced audio signal. or remain constant. In the synchronized. state the phase error between the oscillator’s output signal and the reference signal is zero.

The following figure shows the inside structure of the MC24046B chip. For our design purpose we use Phase Comparator 1. the phase detector develops a nonzero output signal. (for more information please refer to Appendix) Figure 6) PLL Circuit design and Phase comparator (Source: MC14046B datasheet from ON Semiconductor) . and input and output signals to the phase comparator.Figure 5) PLL diagram Ref (2) If the phase error (error signal) is not zero. a voltage−controlled oscillator (VCO). The signal would cause the VCO to change its operating frequency in such a way that the phase error finally vanishes. Phase comparator 1 (an exclusive OR gate) provides a digital error signal PC1out. and a source follower. After some delay the loop filter would also produce the signal. which contains two phase comparators. and maintains 90° phase shift at the center frequency between PCAin and PCBin signals. The VCO has been already described. we use the MC14046B chip. For PLL.

1 k S IG _ IND E M O _ O U T C O M P _ IN VC O _O U T C 1 C O M P1_O U T C 2 C O M P2_O U T R 1 PH _PU LSE R 2 V C O _ IN IN H VSS* R 8 14 3 4 6 7 11 12 5 ZEN ER VD D * 15 V2 9Vdc 16 Input signal from photodiode circuit received at pin 14 of U3 Output signal at pin 10 of U3 (passed to speaker amplifier circuit) 10 2 13 1 9 R 9 5 .8 n F R 10 510 0 C D 4046 8   0 0 0 0 Figure 7) Pspice design for receiver .1 k C 4 1 .Pspice Design FM Receiver Circuit (Not including photodiode circuit) U 3 62p C 3 5 .

CHAPTER THREE .

0 MHz is used to transmit and receive the FM signals. Designing and assembling an FM transmitter is a difficult task. Tuning of the FM transmitter to the desired frequency. The circuit diagram shown below is that of a Single transistor FM transmitter with a range of 30. output power and range of transmission. 2. Usually 87. Coil diameter. Transmitter frequency. length. Antenna length. the broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. number of turns and gauge of the wire used for coil winding.108. Even a slight change in the coil specification or slight change in the variable capacitor value can shift the harmonic frequency instead of the 88-108 MHz FM band. 3. 2.FM Transmitter Design methodology: In telecommunications. . The Note given here explains how a simple FM transmitter is designed and assembled.50 feets and 100 – 125 milli watt output. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech. Design Considerations The performance of an FM transmitter depends on two important aspects.5 . Throughout the world. Length of the Antenna used to transmit the frequency. frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. The important parameters for the optimum performance of an FM transmitter are : 1. 1.

1. Presence of the . When the tank circuit vibrates for long time.5 Turn 22 SWG Enameled Copper Wire Coil Length 0. Condenser MIC The condenser MIC is used to pick up the sound signals. The 4.L1 Air Core Coil Coil Specification .265 Inch The design details of each component are as follows.Diameter 0. C1 modulates the current to the base of transistor.7 uF capacitor isolates the microphone from the base voltage of the transistor and only allows alternating current (AC) signals to pass. Capacitor C2 (0.25 Inch . 2.01) act as the decoupling capacitor. the tank circuit (Coil-Trimmer) will vibrate at the resonant frequency. A large value capacitor induces bass (low frequencies) while a low value one gives treble (high frequencies). Variable resistor VR1 adjusts the current through the MIC and thus determines the sensitivity of MIC. The diaphragm inside the MIC vibrates according to the air pressure changes and generates AC signals. Capacitor C3 across the transistor T1 keeps the tank circuit vibrating. Sleeving the MIC inside plastic tubing can increase its sensitivity enormously. As long as the current exists across the inductor coil L1 and the Trimmer capacitor. The condenser MIC should be directly soldered on the PCB to get maximum sensitivity. Decoupling Capacitors C1 is the first decoupling capacitor impedes the different frequencies of speech signals. the frequency decays due to heating.

capacitor C3 prevents this decay. The inductance of the coil can be calculated using the formula L = n2 r2 / 9r + 10 x Where r is the inner radius of the coil.2 Base . 3.3 Collector (EBC) from the front side (Flat side on which the number is printed). The resulting value is in Micro Henry. Remove the enamel from the tips and solder close to the transistor. Inductor Coil The inductor used in the circuit is a hand made coil using 22 SWG (Standard Wire Gauge) enameled copper wire. number of turns etc are the important parameters to be considered while making the inductor. Pin assignment of 2N 2222 A is 1 Emitter . It has maximum power rating of 0. For this circuit.5 Watts. So maximum power output should be around 125 milli watt. The length. x is the length of the coil and n.2 inch long. Coil can be wound around a screw driver (with same diameter) to get a 5 turn coil of 0. Transistor 2N 2222A is the common NPN transmitter used in general purpose amplifications. 5. The given values are necessary for the 2N 2222A transistor. A capacitor between 4 and 10 PF is necessary. The voltage divider R1 and R2 limits the base current of T1 and R3 forms the emitter current limiter. Over powering of 2N 2222A can generate heat and destroy the device. the coil radius was selected as 0. Remove the coil from the screw driver and use the 5 turn Air core coil. Resistors Variable resistor VR1 restricts the current through the MIC.13 inner diameter.26 inches (outer diameter) and 0. 4. number of turns. inner diameter. . Then only the inductor resonates in the 88-108 band FM frequency.

The purely reactive elements. This causes the emitter-collector current to vary at the same frequency.6. The variable capacitor and the inductor coil form the Tank circuit (LC circuit) that resonates in the 88-108 MHz. the C and the L simply store energy to be returned to the system. The resonant frequency can be calculated using the formula f = 1 / 2 x √LC = Hz Where f is the frequency in hertz. and L is the inductance of coil in Hendry.7 pF capacitor are the oscillating components. In the tank (LC) circuit. The name 'Tank' circuit comes from the ability of the LC circuit to store energy for oscillations. This signal fed to the aerial and radiated as radio waves. In the tank circuit. . the capacitor stores electrical energy between its plates while the inductor stores magnetic energy induced by the windings of the coil. Tank Circuit Every FM transmitter needs an oscillator to generate the radio Frequency (RF) carrier waves. Trimmer capacitor A small button type variable capacitor with a value of 22 pF can be used to adjust the resonant frequency of the tank circuit. C is the capacitance of trimmer in Farads. the 2N 2222 A transistor and the feedback 4. x is the coil length. The feedback signal makes the base-emitter current of the transistor vary at the resonant frequency.

For the circuit mentioned above. the length of the antenna should be ¼ of the FM wave length. Antenna A plastic wire or Telescopic aerial can be used as antenna. . As a rule. a 25-27 inches long antenna is sufficient. Speed of Light = Frequency of Oscillation x Wavelength = in Kms/ Sec Wave length = Speed of light / Frequency = in meters Antenna length = 0. use the following equation.7. The length of the antenna is very important to transmit the signals in the suitable range.25 x wavelength = in meters By using this formula it is easy to select the antennal length. By multiplying the Wave frequency and wave length will give the speed of light. To determine the length of antenna.

transistor should be as small as possible. 3. If the sound is clear. If the sound clarity is good and there is sufficient range. 2. Check again. move the FM radio and assess the range. The pin assignment is E-B-C (Emitter – Base – Collector) from the front side (Flat side on which the number is printed). . 6. slightly pull the coil to separate the windings. resistors. connect 9 volt battery. Coil should be closely wound. Coil should stand horizontally above the Emitter of transistor. Check the pins of 2N 2222 A. Adjust the shaft of the Trimmer slowly with a preset screwdriver. trimmer and coil to prevent unwanted oscillation. The following tips should be considered while assembling the circuit 1. A battery operated FM pocket radio is necessary for testing. Tune the FM receiver to a “Dead Air space” (around 108 MHz where there is no station). The FM transmitter is ready to use. 5. Assemble the components as close as possible. 7.Assembling and Testing The circuit can be assembled on a Dot type common PCB or Perf board. Solder the MIC directly on the PCB ( use the trimmed leads of the resistors to connect MIC) 4. especially the transistor. If no sound is heard. stick the coil with nail polish or glue to avoid frequency change. Lead length of capacitors. Place the FM radio 2 feet away from the transmitter. tapping sound will be heard in the radio. Gently tap on the MIC. Observe the polarity of MIC. Try again by adjusting the trimmer and position of aerial of both transmitter and FM radio. If the tank circuit is properly tuned. How to test After assembling the circuit. AC powered FM players will give lesser performance than the battery powered FM receivers due to noise.

CHAPTER FOUR .

Result and conclusion: +9V Ground Amplifier (Transmitter Side) VCO chip (Transmitter Side) LM741 MC14046B) Audio input -9V Figure 8) Transmitter Circuit (top view) Transmitter Output Figure 9) Transmitter Circuit (back view) .

 Lower the center frequency and utilize the VCO configured with a less steep frequencyvoltage input curve. .FM Receiver Ground +9V Receiver unit PLL Chip: MC14046B) Figure 10) Receiver circuit (top view) Receiver output Receiver Input Figure 11) Receiver circuit (back view) Conclusion  Increase the input impedance of the speaker’s power amplifier stage to reduce the current sinked by that circuit.

com/SiteFiles/Image/Grafica/Frequency-modulation.uk/courses/ami4428_ahdl/u03/images/ad_ma_img03. However we learned that simply utilizing a VCO already built on an IC was much easier and quicker to implement.ac. For instance.bpm-music.onsemi.PDF . Additionally.png 2) http://www. using an RLC circuit). Improve techniques on soldering wires.gif www. we discovered the ill effects of impedance mismatching. Lessons Learned From The Course Initially. References 3) 1) http://www.e. These are issues to keep in mind when doing future circuit designs. since we worked more in-depth with AC circuits versus previous courses. Also. wires soldered onto the PC board have a tendency to detach if the soldering was not sufficient.com/pub/Collateral/MC14046B-D. in this course we learned practical design and implementation issues that were not explicitly taught in previous lab courses such as the effects of ground loop.ami. for our FM transmitter design we considered using some type of analog oscillator circuit (i. This is because this course required the connections of separately designed circuits.