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Johann Jakob Froberger

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Johann Jakob Froberger (baptized 19 May 1616 7 May 1667) was a German
Baroque composer, keyboard virtuoso, and organist. He was among the most famous
composers of the era and influenced practically every major composer in Europe by
developing the genre of keyboard suite and contributing greatly to the exchange of
musical traditions through his many travels. He is also remembered for his highly
idiomatic and personal descriptive harpsichord pieces, which are among the earliest
known examples of program music.
Only two of Froberger's many compositions were published during his lifetime,[1] but
his music was very widely spread in manuscript copies and he was one of the very few
17th-century composers who were never entirely forgotten. His works were studied in
the 18th century (although perhaps not very extensively), and certainly not without
influence on the emerging Classical style by Handel, Bach and, extraordinarily, even
Mozart and Beethoven.


1 Life
1.1 16161634: Early years in Stuttgart
1.2 16341649: Court service in Vienna and voyages to Italy
1.3 16491653: Years of travels
1.4 16531667: Last years in Vienna, retirement and death
2 Works
o 2.1 General information
o 2.2 Harpsichord suites and programmatic pieces
o 2.3 Polyphonic keyboard works
o 2.4 Other works
3 Posthumous influence
4 Notable recordings
5 Media
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References and further reading
9 External links

16161634: Early years in Stuttgart
Johann Jakob Froberger was baptized on 19 May 1616 in Stuttgart. The exact date of
his birth is unknown. His family came from Halle, where his grandfather Simon lived[2]
and his father Basilius (15751637) was born. In 1599 Basilius moved to Stuttgart and
became a tenor in the Wrttemberg court chapel. At some point before 1605 he married
Anna Schmid (15771637), who came from a Schwabian family living in Stuttgart. By

the time Johann Jakob was born, his father's career was already flourishing, and in 1621
Basilius became court Kapellmeister. Of his eleven children with Anna, four became
musicians (Johann Jakob, Johann Christoph, Johann Georg and Isaac; all but Johann
Jakob served at the Wrttemberg court in Stuttgart[3]), and so it is likely that Johann
Jakob received his first music lessons from his father.
Although the Thirty Years' War which started in 1618 undoubtedly made life in
Stuttgart somewhat more difficult, the city's musical life was rich and varied, influenced
by musicians from all over Europe, so already at the very beginning of his life
Froberger must have been exposed to a wide variety of musical traditions. Little is
known about his actual education, though. His teachers possibly included Johann Ulrich
Steigleder, and he might have met Samuel Scheidt during the latter's visit to Stuttgart in
1627; it is possible that Froberger sang in the court chapel, but there is no direct
evidence to that; and court archives indicate that one of the English lutenists employed
by the court, Andrew Borell, taught lute to one of Basilius Froberger's sons in 1621
22[2] it is not known whether this son was Johann Jakob, but if so, it would explain his
later interest in French lute music.
Basilius Froberger's music library probably also helped in Johann Jakob's education. It
contained more than a hundred volumes of music, including works by Josquin des
Prez,[4] Samuel Scheidt and Michael Praetorius, as well as pieces by the lesser known
Johann Staden, founder of the Nuremberg school, and Giovanni Valentini, the thenfamous Viennese Kapellmeister who later taught Johann Kaspar Kerll.[5]

16341649: Court service in Vienna and voyages to Italy

The Hofkapelle Stuttgart was disbanded in 1634 in the wake of the Protestants' defeat in
the Battle of Nrdlingen. In Grundlage einer Ehrenpforte (1740) Mattheson writes that
a certain Swedish ambassador was so impressed with Froberger's musical skills that he
took the 18-year-old musician to Vienna and presumably recommended him to the
imperial court. This seems unlikely, however, because at the time Sweden was allied
with Lutheran Wrttemberg against the imperial forces; so exactly why Froberger left
for Vienna at around 1634 and how he managed to find employment as a singer in the
imperial chapel, remains a mystery.
In 1637 Basilius Froberger, his wife and one his daughters died of plague. Johann Jakob
and his brother Isaac sold their father's music library to the Wrttemberg court (this is
how the contents of Basilius' library became known through the court archives); the
same year Johann Jakob became court organist in Vienna, assisting Wolfgang Ebner. In
June he was granted a leave and a stipend to go to Rome to study under Frescobaldi.
Froberger spent the next three years in Italy and, like many other musicians who went to
study there, apparently converted to Catholicism. He returned to Vienna in 1641 and
served as organist and chamber musician until the fall of 1645, when he took a second
trip to Italy. It was previously thought that Froberger went to study under Giacomo
Carissimi, but recent research shows that he most probably studied with Athanasius
Kircher in Rome.[6] If so, Froberger's intention must have been acquiring mastery of
vocal composition of the prima pratica (Frescobaldi, who taught him instrumental
writing, died in 1643). Sometime during 164849 Froberger might have met Johann
Kaspar Kerll, and possibly taught him.

In 1649 Froberger travelled back to Austria. On his way back he stopped in Florence
and Mantua to show the arca musurgica, a powerful compositional device Kircher
taught him, to some of the Italian princes. In September he arrived in Vienna and
demonstrated the arca musurgica to the Emperor, an avid amateur musician; he also
presented him with Libro Secondo, a collection of his own compositions (the Libro
Primo is now lost). Also in September, Froberger played before William Swann, an
English diplomat.[2] Through Swann he got to know Constantijn Huygens, who became
Froberger's lifelong friend and introduced the composer to works by contemporary
French masters Jacques Champion de Chambonnires, Denis Gaultier and Ennemond

16491653: Years of travels

Following the Empress Maria Leopoldine's death in August the court's musical
activities were suspended. Froberger left the city and travelled widely for the next four
years, likely entrusted by the Emperor with some extra-musical duties in the fields of
diplomacy and possibly espionage (as for example John Dowland and Peter Paul
Rubens were doing during their travels). Not much is known about these voyages.
Dresden was probably one of the very first cities Froberger visited: he played before the
electoral court of John George I and presented the Elector with a collection of his
works. He also met Matthias Weckmann while in Dresden, and this encounter turned to
another lifelong friendship; the two continued to exchange letters and Froberger even
sent some of his music to Weckmann to illustrate his style. According to a pupil, after
Dresden Froberger visited Cologne, Dsseldorf, Zeeland, Brabant and Antwerp;[2] we
also know that he also visited Brussels at least two times (in 1650 and 1652), London
(after a disastrous voyage during which Froberger got robbed, an event he described
musically in Plainte faite Londres pour passer la mlancholie) and, most importantly,
Paris (at least once, in 1652).
In Paris Froberger most probably became acquainted with many major French
composers of the era, including Chambonnires, Louis Couperin, Denis Gaultier and
possibly Franois Dufault. The latter two were famous lutenists writing in the
characteristic French idiom of style bris, which influenced Froberger's later
harpsichord suites. In turn, Louis Couperin was profoundly influenced by Froberger's
style; one of his unmeasured preludes even bears the subtitle " l'imitation de Mr.
Froberger". In November 1652 Froberger witnessed the death of the famed lutenist
Blancrocher (who was his friend and reportedly died in his arms). Although
Blancrocher himself was not an important composer,[7] his death left a mark on the
history of music, as Couperin, Gaultier, Dufaut and Froberger all wrote tombeaux
lamenting the event.

16531667: Last years in Vienna, retirement and death

In 1653 Froberger passed through Heidelberg, Nuremberg and Regensburg before
returning to Vienna in April. He remained with the Viennese court during the next four
years, producing at least one more collection of music, the Libro Quarto of 1656 (Libro
Terzo is now lost). Froberger was apparently deeply saddened by Emperor Ferdinand
III's death on 2 April 1657 and wrote a lamentation dedicated to the memory of the
Emperor [5]. His relationship with Ferdinand's successor, Leopold I, was strained for a
number of political reasons (numerous forces were opposed to Leopold's election, and

among them were the Jesuit order and Johann Philipp von Schnborn, ElectorArchbishop of Mainz; Froberger's mentor and friend Kircher was an important figure in
the former, and Froberger had strong ties with the court of the latter.[2] Froberger did,
however, dedicate a new volume of his works to Leopold), and on June 30, 1657
Froberger received his last salary as a member of the imperial chapel.
Little is known about Froberger's last 10 years. Most of the information comes from the
letter exchange between Constantijn Huygens and the dowager Duchess of Montbliard,
Sybilla (16201707). Since the death of her husband Lopold-Frdric of WrttembergMontbliard in 1662 the Duchess lived in Hricourt (near Montbliard, then territory of
the house of Wrttemberg; now dpartement Doubs), and Froberger became her music
teacher at around the same time (this indicates that Froberger must have maintained a
link with the ducal family of Wrttemberg since his Stuttgart years). He lived in
Chteau dHricourt, the dower house of Duchess Sibylla. The Huygens-Sybilla letters
indicate that in 1665 Froberger travelled to Mainz, where he performed at the court of
the Elector-Archbishop of Mainz and met Huygens in person for the first time; and at a
certain point in 1666 the composer had plans to return to the imperial court in Vienna.
As far as is known, though, he never did, and lived in Hricourt until his death on 6 or 7
May 1667. Froberger apparently knew that he was going to die soon, as he made all
necessary preparations a day before he died.

See also: List of compositions by Johann Jakob Froberger

General information

The fourth suite from one of the Vienna manuscripts.

Only two compositions by Froberger were published during his lifetime: the Hexachord
Fantasia, published by Kircher in 1650 in Rome, and a piece in Franois Roberday's
Fugues et caprices (1660, Paris). In addition to these, a comparatively large number of
works are preserved in authenticated manuscripts. The three principal sources for
Froberger's music are the following manuscripts:

Libro Secundo (1649) and Libro Quarto (1656), two richly decorated volumes
dedicated to Ferdinand III. Both were found in Vienna; the decorations and
calligraphy are by Johann Friedrich Sautter, Froberger's friend from his Stuttgart
years.[2] Each book has four chapters and contains 24 pieces. Both include six
toccatas and six suites; Libro Secundo adds 6 fantasias and 6 canzonas, whereas
Libro Quarto instead has 6 ricercars and 6 capriccios.

Libro di capricci e ricercate (c. 1658). 6 capriccios and 6 ricercars.

Also, in 2006 an autograph manuscript was discovered (and subsequently sold at

Sotheby's), reportedly containing 35 pieces of music, 18 of which were previously
unknown. The manuscript dates from Froberger's final years and may contain his last
compositions.[8] Three toccatas in Ms. Chigi Q.IV.25 very likely are early Froberger
compositions while he studied with Frescobaldi, as Bob van Asperen has argued in
2009.[9] Other than these, numerous manuscripts of various origin contain Froberger's
music. These include the well-known Bauyn manuscript, and a very large number of
less known sources, some reliable (such as the only unbowdlerized text for Mditation
sur ma mort future, presumably in Weckmann's hand, or the Strasbourg manuscript of
some couple of dozen of suites, possibly compiled by Michael Bulyowsky) and some
not very much so. Problems arise with many of the newly discovered copies: either
Froberger was constantly reworking his compositions, or the scribes were not attentive
enough, but many works exist in several variants, some of which even have whole
movements changed.
Two standard numbering systems are used to identify Froberger's works. These are:

the numbers used in the early 20th century Denkmler der Tonkunst in
sterreich series and the Guido Adler edition; commonly referred to as the DT
numbers or the Adler numbers. This catalogue has separate numbering for
different genres, with pieces identified as Toccata No. 4, Ricercare No. 2, Suite
No. 20, etc. The DT contains a few compositions falsely attributed to
Froberger, and some identical ones.
FbWV numbers from the Siegbert Rampe catalogue compiled in the early
1990s. Rampe's catalogue is more complete and includes newly discovered
pieces as well as pieces whose authorship is questioned. The Adler numbers are
incorporated, for example all Toccatas are numbered 1xx, hence Adler Toccata
No. 1 has the Rampe number FbWV 101. For more information, see List of
compositions by Johann Jakob Froberger.

Harpsichord suites and programmatic pieces

One of the toccatas from the Vienna manuscripts.

Froberger is usually credited as the creator of the Baroque suite. While this may be
misleading, French composers of the time did group dance pieces by tonality above
all, [10] and while other composers such as Kindermann did try to invent some kind of
organisation, their dances did not attain as high a degree of artistic merit as seen in
Froberger's suites. The typical Froberger suite established allemande, courante,
sarabande and gigue as the obligatory parts of a suite. However, there is some
controversy surrounding the placement of the gigue. In Froberger's earliest
authenticated autograph, Libro Secondo, five out of six suites are in three movements,
without the gigue. A single suite, no. 2, has a gigue added as a 4th movement (and a

later copy adds gigues to suites nos. 3 and 5). The suites of Libro Quarto all have gigues
as the 2nd movement. The order that became the standard after Froberger's death, with
the gigue being the last movement, first appeared in a 1690s print of Froberger's works
by the Amsterdam publisher Mortier.
All Froberger's dances are composed of two repeated sections, but they are very rarely
in the standard 8+8 bars scheme. When symmetrical structure is employed, it may be
7+7 bars or 11+11 bars; more frequently one of the sections is longer or shorter than the
other (more often the second is shorter than the first). This irregularity may be
employed by Froberger in any dance, whereas in Chambonnires, who used similarly
irregular patterns, the sarabande is always composed in the 8+16 fashion. Froberger's
keyboard adaptation of the French lute style bris almost invariably shows itself in most
pieces written during and after his Paris visit.
Froberger's allemandes abandon the original dance's rhythmic scheme almost
completely, abounding in short gestures, figures, ornaments and runs typical of style
bris. Like Chambonnires, Froberger avoids emphasizing internal cadences, or indeed
anything that would hint at any sort of regularity;[11] unlike him, Froberger tends to use
faster sixteenth-note figurations and melodies. Most of the courantes are in 6/4 time
with occasional hemiolas and the eighth-note motion typical of the courante. Some of
the others, however, are in 3/2 time, twice slower and moving in quarter notes. Still
others are in 3/4 time and closely resemble the Italian corrente of the time. The
sarabandes are mostly in 3/2 time and employ a 1+1/2 rhythm pattern, rather than the
standard sarabande rhythm with the accent on the second beat. The gigues are almost
invariably fugal, either in compound (6/8) or triple (3/4) meter; different sections may
use different motifs, and occasionally the first section's subject is inverted for another
section. Bizarrely, a few gigues use dotted rhythms in 4/4 time, and a couple feature
exquisite rhapsodic 4/4 endings.
Some of the works feature written indications such as "f" and "piano" (to notate an echo
effect), "doucement" ("gently") an "avec discrtion" (expressive rubato). In some of the
sources such markings are particularly abundant, and the newly (2004) discovered
Berlin Sing-Akademie SA 4450 manuscript adds similar indications to free sections in
organ toccatas.[12] Some suites feature doubles; in a few, the courante is a derivative of
the allemande (although this is rare; more often Froberger unites the two dances by
giving them somewhat similar beginnings, but keeps the rest of the material different).
Suite no. 6 from Libro Secondo is actually a set of variations subtitled Auff der Mayerin,
and one of the more popular Froberger works, although it is clearly an early work and
not comparable to the late suites either in technique or in expression.
Apart from the suites, Froberger also wrote titled, descriptive pieces for the harpsichord
(some of the suites incorporate such works as their first movement). He was one of the
earliest composers to produce such programmatic pieces. Nearly all of them are very
personal; the style resembles Froberger's allemandes in its irregularity and style bris
features. Such pieces include the following (in alphabetical order):

Allemande faite en passant le Rhin dans une barque en grand pril. Note the 26
numbered passages with explanations of each.

Allemande, faite en passant le Rhin dans une barque en grand pril

Lamentation faite sur la mort trs douloureuse de Sa Majest Impriale,
Ferdinand le troisime, An. 1657 [6]
Lamentation sur ce que j'ay t vol et se joe la discretion et encore mieux
que les soldats m'ont trait
Lamento sopra la dolorosa perdita della Real Maest di Ferdinando IV R de
Mditation sur ma mort future
Plainte faite Londres pour passer la melancholie
Tombeau fait Paris sur la mort de Monsieur Blancrocher

These works frequently feature musical metaphors: in the lamentations on the deaths of
the lutenist Blancrocher and Ferdinand IV, Froberger represents Blancrocher's fatal fall
down a flight of stairs with a descending scale, and Ferdinand's ascent into heaven with
an ascending one; in the Ferdinand III lamentation he ends the piece with a single voice
repeating an F three times. Froberger would often supply such works with an
explanation, sometimes very detailed (see illustration), of the events that led to the
composition of the piece. For instance, the Allemande, faite en passat le Rhin contains
26 numbered passages with explanation for each; the Blancrocher tombeau features a
written preface in which the circumstances of the lutenist's death are recounted, etc. The
structure and style of Froberger's programmatic works, as well as his allemandes,
contributed to the development of the unmeasured prelude through the efforts of Louis

Polyphonic keyboard works

The rest of Froberger's keyboard works may be performed on any keyboard instrument,
including the organ. The toccatas are the only ones to employ free writing to some

degree; the majority are strictly polyphonic. In terms of organisation, Froberger's

toccatas are reminiscent of those by Michelangelo Rossi, also a student of Frescobaldi;
instead of being composed of numerous brief parts, they feature a few tightly woven
sections, alternating between strict polyphony and free, improvisational passages. They
are usually of moderate length and the harmonic content is not dissimilar to
Frescobaldi's, although Froberger's harmony favors softer, more pleasing turns[13] (not
without some notable exceptions, particularly in the two Da sonarsi alla Levatione
works), and his toccatas are always more focused on the original tonality, unlike those
by either Frescobaldi or Rossi. The fugal sections are present in most toccatas and are
quasi-imitative and are not as strict as later 17th century fugues; when a toccata features
several fugal inserts, a single motif may be used for all of them, varied rhythmically.
Whereas in Frescobaldi's oeuvre the fantasia and the ricercare are markedly different
genres (the fantasia being a relatively simple contrapuntal composition that expands, as
it progresses, into a flurry of intense, rhythmically complex counterpoint; the ricercare
being essentially a very strict contrapuntal piece with easily audible lines and somewhat
archaic in terms of structure), Froberger's are practically similar. A typical Froberger
ricercare or fantasia uses a single subject (with different rhythmic variations for
different sections) throughout the whole piece, and the counterpoint adheres almost
flawlessly to the 16th century prima pratica. Any of the standard contrapuntal devices
may be used; the main subject is sometimes paired with another theme for a section or
two, and there is usually a marked contrast between sections and much variety inside a
single piece.
Froberger's canzonas and capriccios are similarly conservative in terms of technique,
and they too are essentially the same even though Frescobaldi distinguished between the
genres. Froberger follows Frescobaldi's example in constructing these pieces as
variation sets in several sections (usually three in canzonas and any number as many
as six in capriccios). The subjects are always faster, much more lively that those of
ricercares and fantasias. A characteristic feature is the economy of themes: the episodes,
which are somewhat rare, are almost invariably based on the material from the subject,
somewhat like those in JS Bach's work some 6070 years later. The counterpoint and
harmony are very similar to the ricercares and fantasias; however, occasionally scale
degrees other than 1 and 5 are used.

Other works
The only surviving non-keyboard works by Froberger are two motets, Alleluia!
Absorpta es mors and Apparuerunt apostolis. They are found in the so-called Dben
collection, compiled by Gustaf Dben, a famous Swedish collector and composer. The
manuscript is kept in the Uppsala University library. These motets are quite similar in
style: both are scored for a three-voice (STB) choir, two violins and organ (which is
given a single melodic line, not polyphony, as was common in Italian motets of the
time), and cast in the early 17th century Venetian stile concertante,[14] in marked
contrast with Froberger's preference for older techniques in his polyphonic keyboard
works. Another connection to contemporary practice is that the small ensemble is
almost identical to one used by Heinrich Schtz in the second volume of Symphoniae
sacrae published in 1647.

Posthumous influence
Although only two of Froberger's works were published during his lifetime, his music
was widely spread in Europe in hand-written copies, and he was one of the most famous
composers of the era (interestingly, although he studied in Italy and obviously had
friends and former mentors there, no Italian sources of his music were found). Because
of his travels and his ability to absorb various national styles and incorporate them into
his music, Froberger, along with other cosmopolitan composers such as Johann Kaspar
Kerll and Georg Muffat, contributed greatly to the exchange of musical traditions in
Europe. Finally, he was among the first major keyboard composers in history and the
first to focus equally on both harpsichord/clavichord and organ.
Froberger's compositions were known to and studied by, among many others, Johann
Pachelbel, Dieterich Buxtehude, Georg Muffat and his son Gottlieb Muffat, Johann
Caspar Kerll, Matthias Weckmann, Louis Couperin, Johann Kirnberger, Johann
Nikolaus Forkel, Georg Bhm, George Handel and Johann Sebastian Bach.
Furthermore, copies in Mozart's hand of the Hexachord Fantasia survive, and even
Beethoven knew Froberger's work through Albrechtsberger's teachings. The profound
influence on Louis Couperin made Froberger partially responsible for the change
Couperin brought into the French organ tradition (as well as for the development of the
unmeasured prelude, which Couperin cultivated).
Although the polyphonic pieces were highly esteemed in the 17th and 18th centuries,
today Froberger is chiefly remembered for his contribution to the development of the
keyboard suite. Indeed, he established the form almost single-handedly and, through
innovative and imaginative treatment of standard dance forms of the time, paved the
way for Johann Sebastian Bach's elaborate contributions to the genre (not to mention
almost every major composer in Europe, since the vast majority composed suites and
were influenced by the "French style" exemplified by Froberger).

Notable recordings

Johann Jakob Froberger: The Complete Keyboard Works (1994). Richard Egarr
(organ, harpsichord). Globe GLO 60226025
o As of 2007, this is the only complete recording made. Organized by
manuscript and retains the original order of the pieces; works discovered
after 1994 are not included. Also includes several works by other
composers that were previously attributed to Froberger.
The Unknown Works (2003/4). Siegbert Rampe (organ, harpsichord, clavichord).
MDG 341 1186-2 and 341 1195-2
o A recording of some 20 newly discovered works (mostly suites) and
pieces of doubtful authorship.
The Strasbourg Manuscript (2000). Ludger Rmy (harpsichord). CPO 9997502
o Includes fourteen suites from the recently discovered Strasbourg
Manuscript, only three of them known from autograph sources.
Froberger Edition (2000). Bob van Asperen (harpsichord, organ). AE 10024,
10054, 10064, 10074 (harpsichord), AE 10501, AE 10601, AE 10701 (organ)
o The series is designed to be in 8 parts. Volume 4 makes use of the
newest discoveries from the manuscripts of the Berliner Singakademie.


See also

Stylus fantasticus

Froberger and his heiress forbade any printed edition: the composer himself was
against printing of any of his manuscripts to keep his "arcana" and "art" confident; and
restrict to his noble patrons / the friends-composers he personally knew, considered
worthy and trusted. Also this was a common practice among the composers of the
17th/18th century to avoid becoming copied without payment. In Frobergers case this
was handled particularly rigidly, probably following his very high esteem as artist and
his good standing/intimate relations with some of the Wrttembergs and Habsburgs who
had the factual power to execute these restrictions. After his death, the manuscripts
became property of Froberger's latter patroness Sibylla, Duchess of Wrtttemberg
(16201707) who declined any requests for manuscript copies, save a printed edition.
This may have been part of Forbergers last will (can anybody verify?). After her death
the manuscripts entered the music library of the Wrttemberg family estate and
somehow vanished. So the non-printing was not a sign of low quality or esteem quite
to the contrary. This may appear a paradox in our times, but was common practice back
then. Source: editorial notes of Bob van Asperen and Siegfried Rampe
Schott, Grove
See J. Sittard: "Zur Geschichte der Musik und des Theaters am Wrttembergischen
Hofe" (Stuttgart, 189091/R)
G. B. Sharp. "J. J. Froberger: 16141667: A Link between the Renaissance and the
Baroque". The Musical Times, Vol. 108, No. 1498 (Dec., 1967), pp. 1093-1095+1097
Siedentopf Henning. "Johan Jakob Froberger". Stuttgarter Verlagkontor, Stuttgart
1977, p. 26-30. See [1] for a complete list.
C. Annibaldi: Froberger in Rome: from Frescobaldis Craftsmanship to Kirchers
Compositional Secrets, CMc, no.58 (1995), 527
Bruce K. Burchmore. "Fleury, Charles, Sieur de Blancrocher [Blanrocher,
Blancheroche], Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy"
[2], [3], [4]
Bob van Asperen: >Drei Toccaten< in der Handschrift Chigi Q.IV.25, in: Concerto
224, Kln 2009, pp.34-41
Alexander Silbiger. "Keyboard Music to 1700". Routledge 2004, second edition, p.
Apel, 557
Johann Jakob Froberger, Toccaten, Suiten, Lamenti: Die Handschrift SA 4450 der
Sing-Akademie zu Berlin, Faksimile und bertragung, ed. Peter Wollny (Kassel:
Brenreiter 2004)
Apel, 553
14. Yves Ruggeri. Preface to "Johann Jakob Froberger: Alleluia, absorpta est
mors; Apparuerunt apostolis", ditions de l'Oiseau-Lyre, Monaco, 1990.


References and further reading

Howard Schott. "Johann Jakob Froberger", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, (subscription access).
Avo Smer. "The Keyboard Music of Johann Jakob Froberger." University of
Michigan, 1963, dissertation.
Willi Apel. The History of Keyboard Music to 1700. Translated by Hans
Tischler. Indiana University Press, 1972. ISBN 0-253-21141-7. Originally
published as Geschichte der Orgel- und Klaviermusik bis 1700 by BrenreiterVerlag, Kassel.

External links

Free scores by Johann Jakob Froberger at the International Music Score Library
Facsimiles of two motets in the Dben collection
Froberger at
Johann Jakob Froberger Lamentation faite sur la mort trs douloureuse de Sa
Majest Imperial Ferdinand III, et se joue lentement avec discrtion. An 1657.
Free scores at the Mutopia Project