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Submitted to:
Mr. Kamal Preet

LPU Submitted
Sahil Gandhi

1. Pin Diagram of 8085 Micro Processor

2. Components of Microprocessor

3. Different types of system designs

4. References
The below Picture describes the Pin
Diagram of 8085 microprocessor

Following are signal conditioners
lowpass filters No matter

the what electrical levels are

produced by input
components of transducers, they seldom
microprocessor are appropriate for the
digital system, which
: commonly needs voltages in
the 0 V to 5 V range. The
Processor The processor is signal conditioner is
at the heart of any digital responsible for altering the
system that uses one at all. input analog signal to this
It accepts analog data in range. In addition, high-
digital format, manipulates frequency components of
the data in some suitable the input signal are usually
way, and then generates regarded as noise and are
more analog data as output. stripped off by a lowpass
In addition to this signal- filter in order to minimize
processing function, the their effects on the system.
processor will handle Furthermore, the digital
interactions with the user sampling done subsequently
through input and display absolutely requires this step
devices, it will store data in in order to avoid aliasing.
memory and then retrieve it
again, and it may
communicate with other
systems as well. Analog-to-digital
converter (ADC) This
Memory The memory is component converts the
used to support the analog signal generated by
system’s functions. It is the Signal Conditioner and
common for the system to Lowpass Filter into a digital
store large amounts of signal. It does this by
analog data in digital form sampling the analog signal
and manipulate the stored at a uniform rate first.
values. The amount of Shannon’s sampling
memory needed is strongly theorem[2] states that if a
dependent on the purpose signal has no frequency
of the system. Input components above fmax =
transducers The transducers fs/2 then it can be
convert some physical completely recon structed
variable into an analog from samples taken at
electrical signal. As an frequency fs. Turning this
example, a strain gauge around, we can get useful
may generate a voltage samples at frequency fs by
proportional to the force ensuring no frequencies are
applied to the gauge. Input present at f > fs/2, and we
can accomplish this with a computer users: mice,
lowpass filter whose band- digitizing pads, joysticks,
width B = fs/2. The output and light pens.
of the analog-to-digital
conversion process, then, is Digital-to-analog
a digital representation of a converter (DAC) After
band-limited analog signal. manipulating the signal in
Microprocessor program The some fashion appropriate to
program is responsible for the application, it is
the processing of the analog common for the system to 2
data stream (the signal create an analog signal. An
processing) and for the example of this is the
operation of the system generation of a video signal
itself. It is common for there for operating a CRT or an
to be two (or even more) audio signal to operate a
microprocessors in a system loud speaker.
so that signal processing
and system operating By feeding signal samples to
programs are then distinct. a DAC at regular intervals,
an analog signal can be
Communications It is completely reconstructed
also common for a system from the samples if it
to have the ability to pass represents a band- limited
data to another device, signal. The analog output
often another system. A may represent a
common interface for complicated signal, such as
systems is the IEEE an audio signal or it may be
488.2/GPIB/HP-IB something much simpler,
instrumentation bus, such as a control signal for
specially designed for positioning a mechanical
instruments. arm.

Display devices Output signal

These can range from conditioners and
simple light-emitting diode
lowpass filters The
(LED) indicators to cathode
output of a DAC commonly
ray tubes (CRT). They can
entails voltages between 0
indicate the status of the
V and 5 V. This is often an
system or render the signal
in- appropriate level for
into a graphical form.
operating a particular
device. The signal
Input devices
conditioner makes the
Common input devices are
adjustments necessary for
keypads, potentiometers,
getting the analog output
optical shaft encoders, and
signal into the right range of
switches. More elaborate
values. A lowpass filter is
devices are those familiar to
also necessary in this stage
in order to remove the system as controlled
vestiges of the sampling equipment which itself
process. If this is not done, contains multiple output
then frequency components transducers.
of the output signal will
include the sampling DIFFERENT
frequency fs. The lowpass DESIGNS OF
filter should remove this
frequency and everything
above the band-limited SOR:
signal whose maximum
frequency is f = fs/2. An
excellent book on modern
filter design is Schaumann 8-bit designs
and van Valkenburg.
The Intel 4004 was followed in
Output transducers 1972 by the Intel 8008, the world's
(actuators) These first 8-bit microprocessor.
devices convert an analog According to A History of Modern
electrical signal into some Computing, (MIT Press), pp. 220–
other physical form. For
21, Intel entered into a contract with
example, a loud speaker is a
transducer which converts Computer Terminals Corporation,
an analog electrical signal later called Datapoint, of San
into an audible sound wave Antonio TX, for a chip for a terminal
by using an electromagnetic
they were designing. Datapoint
to move a large cone back
and forth rapidly. As another later decided not to use the chip,
example, a fan may and Intel marketed it as the 8008 in
interpret analog control April, 1972. This was the world's
signals of varying currents first 8-bit microprocessor. It was the
by turning the blades of the
basis for the famous "Mark-8"
fan faster or slower. Finally,
a piezoelectric crystal such computer kit advertised in the
as quartz will change its size magazine Radio-Electronics in
when subjected to different 1974.
voltage levels and so can be
used to move items over a
very small distance. 12-bit designs
Controlled The Intersil 6100 family consisted
equipment Sometimes
of a 12-bit microprocessor (the
the distinction between an
6100) and a range of peripheral
output transducer and
controlled equipment is support and memory ICs.
blurred. However, one might The microprocessor recognised
well regard an entire robotic the DEC PDP-8 minicomputer
instruction set. As such it was 16-bit designs
sometimes referred to as
The first multi-chip 16-
the CMOS-PDP8. Since it was also
bit microprocessor was the National
produced by Harris Corporation, it
Semiconductor IMP-16, introduced
was also known as the Harris HM-
in early 1973. An 8-bit version of
6100. By virtue of its CMOS
the chipset was introduced in 1974
technology and associated
as the IMP-8. During the same
benefits, the 6100 was being
year, National introduced the first
incorporated into some military
16-bit single-chip microprocessor,
designs until the early 1980's.
the National Semiconductor PACE,
which was later followed by
an NMOS version, the INS8900.

32-bit designs a 16-bit external data bus to reduce

pin count, and supported only 24-
bit addresses. Motorola generally
described it as a 16-bit processor,
though it clearly has 32-
bit architecture. The combination of
high performance, large
(16 megabytes or 224 bytes)
memory space and fairly low cost
made it the most popular CPU
design of its class. The Apple
Lisa and Macintosh designs made
use of the 68000, as did a host of
Upper interconnect layers on an Intel
other designs in the mid-1980s,
80486 DX2 die.
including the Atari
16-bit designs had only been on the ST and Commodore Amiga.
market briefly when 32-bit The world's first single-chip fully-32-
implementations started to appear. bit microprocessor, with 32-bit data
The most significant of the 32-bit paths, 32-bit buses, and 32-bit
designs is the MC68000 introduced addresses, was the AT&T Bell Labs
in 1979. The 68K, as it was widely BELLMAC-32A
known, had 32-bit registers but
used 16-bit internal data paths and
64-bit designs in Special-purpose
personal designs
Though the term "microprocessor"
While 64-bit microprocessor has traditionally referred to a
designs have been in use in single- or multi-chip CPU
several markets since the early or system-on-a-chip (SoC), several
1990s, the early 2000s saw the types of specialized processing
introduction of 64-bit devices have followed from the
microprocessors targeted at the PC technology. The most common
market. examples
are microcontrollers digital signal
processors (DSP) and graphics
Multicore designs processing units (GPU). Many
examples of these are either not
programmable, or have limited
programming facilities. For
example, in general GPUs through
the 1990s were mostly non-
programmable and have only
recently gained limited facilities like
programmable vertex shaders.
Pentium D dual core processors There is no universal consensus on
what defines a "microprocessor",
A different approach to improving a
but it is usually safe to assume that
computer's performance is to add
the term refers to a general-
extra processors, as in symmetric
purpose CPU of some sort and not
multiprocessing designs, which
a special-purpose processor unless
have been popular in servers and
specifically noted.
workstations since the early 1990s.
Keeping up with Moore's Law is
becoming increasingly challenging
as chip-making technologies
approach the physical limits of the
1. Microprocessor Architecture Programming
and applications with 8085 by Ramesh


3. en. Wikipedia. Org.