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1. C

18. B

35. C

2. B

19. D

36. D

3. C

20. D

37. A

4. C

21. D

38. D

5. C

22. D

39. D

6. D

23. A

40. B

7. C

24. B

41. C

8. B

25. C

42. A

9. D

26. B

43. A

10. B

26. C

44. C

11. B

28. B

45. A

12. D

29. B

46. D

13. C

30. B

47. B

14. A

31. C

48. C

15. C

32. D

49. B

16. A

33. C

50. D

17. C

34. B


P- quartenary protein

Q- tertiary protein

R- secondary protein

S- primary protein


Condensation between 2 amino acids and water molecule is

eliminated during the reaction.




Essential amino acids are the amino acid that cannot be synthesized
by the body, and therefore have to be obtained from food sources.

Non essential amino acids are amino acids that can be produced in
human body.

P- haemoglobin

Q- myoglobin/

R- hormones/hair/kreatin/collagen/silk

S- insuline/ enzyme


P- carrier/ channel protein


Q- phospholipid bilayer

R- cholesterol

S- charbohydrate chain

S- involve in cell to cell recognition.

Q- act as a sellective barrier which only allows certain substances

through it.


Fluid Mosaic Model


Increases the flaxibility & stability of plasma membrane/ prevents the

membrane from solidifying during low temperatures/ disturb the
close packing of phospholipids & keeps the them more fluid.


Glucose- fasilitated diffusion

CO2- simple diffusion

Na+- active transport

P- mitochondria





Q- chloroplast


P has many folded inner mambranes called cristea and Q has many
granna seen in the organelle

1 +1


P- generate energy

Q- fotosynthesis

The cell will be unable to synthesise starch and eventually the cell
will die



Sperm cell/ muscle cell/ meristem cell/ palisade mesophyll cell/


P- glycerol


Q- fatty acids


P- 1

Q- 3




1 molecule of glycerol combines with 3 molecules of fatty acids and 3

molecules of water is eliminated.



Act as energy stores/ it serves as an insulator by triglyseride below

the dermis of hunan skin.



caused by the buildup of fatty plaques and cholesterol in the artery

and can cause blockage of blood vessel.


Exercise regularly/ practice healthy life style/ eat food with low fat.




1X 2m
2X 1m



A- Distilled water is hypotonic to the cell sap of mustard cell. Water

molecules moves into the vacuole by osmosis causing the vacuole to
expand outwards and press both the vacuole and the cell wall. The
cell becomes turgid and strip curved outwards.

D- 30% sucrose solution is hypertonic to the cell sap of mustard cell.

Water molecules moves out of the vacuole by osmosis causing the
vacuole to shrink. The cell becomes flaccid. The strip shrinks and
curved inwards.



Section B

Movement of water molecules from a region of less concentrated

solution to a region of more concentrated solution across a semipermeable membrane.
Active transport


Active transport needs


Osmosis does not need


Active transport involves

the movements of
molecules or ions against
a concentration gradient.

Osmosis transport
involves the movements
of water molecules along
a concentration gradient.

Active transport takes

Osmosis takes places
places through the plasma through a semi-permeable
membrane of a living cell. membrane.
Active transport needs
protein carriers


Osmosis does not need

protein carriers

1.Excessive use of chemical fertilisers will cause plants to wilt.

2. Fertilisers will dissolve in the soil and cause the soil water to be
hypertonic to the root cells of the plant.
3. As a result, water diffuses out of the root cells by osmosis.
Plasmolysis occurs and the plant cells become flaccid, causing the
plant to wilt.
4. Wilting commonly occurs in non-woody and herbaceous plants.
5. The cells in the plant will promptly recover when water is available.
However, if the period of plasmolysis is prolonged, a wilted plant will
eventually die.
6. Shortage of water in soil may also lead to wilting in plants.The
dried soil becomes more concentrated or hypertonic. Then the plants



lose water by osmosis and plasmolysis takes place.



1. Foods soak in salt solution which is hypertonic to the cell sap of

food cells.
2. Water diffuses out of the food cells by
osmosis into the salt solution.
3. Water from the cell
sap in the vacuole also diffuses out the salt solution through osmosis.
4. The cells lose water and not conducive for the growth of
5. Therefore, the food can last longer.


A semi permeable membrane is a membrane that allows certain

types of molecules to pass through but blocks others/ that the barrier
controls what molecules can and cannot pass through it, based on
characteristics such as the molecules' size, chemistry, solubility, or
other specific properties.




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The fluid mosaic model for the structure of the plasma membrane.
Plasma Membrane Structure: The Fluid Mosaic Model
The fluid mosaic model was proposed by S.J. Singer and Garth
Nicolson in 1972. As per this theory, the cell membrane consists of
carbohydrates and different types of lipids and proteins. And the
model is named in accordance to the structure of the plasma
membrane, which is not rigid, but more of a fluid type, containing
various molecules like a mosaic pattern. Nevertheless, these
molecules are arranged in a specific manner, so as to allow selective
movement of the substances from inside to the outer side of the cell,
and vice versa.
Lipid Bilayer: The fundamental part of the cell membrane structure is

the lipid bilayer. Types of lipids present in the plasma membrane are
phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids. However, majority of
molecules are of the phospholipid type (containing a phosphate
group). Hence, the two lipid layers of the cell membrane are better
known as phospholipid layers.
The lipid tails are water repelling (hydrophobic), while the phosphate
heads are water-attracted (hydrophilic). Accordingly, the phospholipid
bilayer is arranged in a specific fashion, with the non-polar,
hydrophobic tails orienting towards the core (facing each other) and
the polar hydrophilic heads aligning to the outer side of the layers.
Thus, both sides of the plasma membrane, one that faces the cytosol
and the other facing the outside environment, are hydrophilic in
Membrane Proteins: Another key component of the plasma
membrane is proteins, which help in selective transport of the
macromolecules like sucrose, amino acids, and ions. They remain
embedded in the lipid layer. Based on the actual location of proteins
with reference to the phospholipid bilayer, two types of proteins are
Integral membrane proteins attach to the lipids of the bilayered
structure. Those integral proteins that traverse the phospholipid
bilayer are called transmembrane proteins.
Peripheral membrane proteins are indirectly or loosely attached to
the membrane. They are non-covalently connected with the lipids or
ends of the integral proteins.
Carbohydrates: In addition to phospholipids and proteins, the cell
membrane also consists of carbohydrates, basically glycoproteins
and glycolipids. These molecules are exclusively arranged in the
outer side of the cell membrane attaching to the proteins or
phospholipids, wherein the carbohydrate portions are exposed to the
external surface of the cell.

Plasma Membrane Function:

It must compartmentalize the cell from its environment. In other
words, it must separate the cell from the environment around it
and maintain all the intracellular contents within the cell. It has to
keep the stuff that is inside the cell inside the cell.
It must protect the cell. It isn't like armor or anything-- actually, it
is pliable and moveable. But it has to keep stuff that is supposed
to be outside the cell outside the cell. It can't just let anything in.
And it also has to bend so that it isn't rigid and so that it won't
break open.
It must allow for selective permeability so that certain needed
materials from the environment can enter the cell and waste

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materials can leave the cell. "Selective" because not ALL things
should be able to cross the membrane
A recognition and response function. Because the outermost part
of the cell is the plasma membrane, it would be the first part of the
cell to come into contact with items in its environment. These
items could be: toxins, food substances, hormones, other
organisms, etc. You should be able to see the importance of
noticing such items in your environment. For example, if a cell
noticed food in its environment, it should be able to then grab hold
of the food and take it inside of the cell. Or if a protist notices
toxins (poisons) in its environment, it should be able to swim away
from that location into a safer one. This can be considered
analogous to a communication function, and it is called signal
There are other functions of the plasma membrane that can be
described... these are not listed in your book, but some of them
have already come up in our conversations and study:
Cell adhesion to other cells or to the world. This is how cells stick
to one another or how they stick to other materials in their world
(which can also be within a human body).
Attachment of the cytoskeleton to the membrane. This is the
problem in some forms of MD... You see, the cytoskeleton (which
is inside the cell) has to attach to the membrane to allow the
entire cell to move. If the cytoskeleton were to move without
being attached to the membrane, the cell itself would not move
anywhere or change at all from the outside. Dystrophin is one of
the proteins that attaches the cytoskeleton to the membrane.
Some cells can wrap their membranes around other cells to help
with an insulation function. This can happen in the nervous
system to insulate the cells that transmit electrical signals.

Animal Cell
Cell wall Absent


Plant Cell
Present (formed of cellulose)


Vacuole Many small vacuoles

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Rectangular (fixed shape)

One, large central vacuole taking up
90% of cell volume.

Centriole Present in all animal

Only present in lower plant forms.
Chloropl Animal
don't Plant
have chloroplasts
because they make their own food

Enzymes are macromolecules, usually proteins, produced in living

systems, which act as catalysts in physiological reactions.

Enzymes are highly specific. i. e., a particular enzyme can catalyze

only a particular type of reaction. The enzymes possess active sites
which are highly specific The active site possess a particular binding
site which complexes only with specific substrate. Thus a suitable
substrate fulfills the requirements of active site and closely fixes with

Enzymes are inactivated at low temperature and destroyed at high

temperatures. Enzymes only work best at an optimum temperature.

Enzymes are active in extremely small amounts e.g., one molecule of

enzyme (sucrose) can effectively hydrolyze 1,000,000 times its own
weight of sucrose

The enzyme is unchanged after the reaction.

Like a true catalyst enzymes have been found to accelerate the
chemical reaction in either direction i.e., onwards and backward
depending upon the availability of suitable energy sources.
Changes in the pH or acidity of the environment can take place that
would alter or totally inhibit the enzyme from catalyzing a reaction.
This change in the pH will affect the polar and non-polar intramolecular attractive and repulsive forces and alter the shape of the
enzyme and the active site as well to the point where the substrate
molecule could no longer fit, and the chemical change would be
inhibited from taking place as efficiently or not at all. Every enzyme
has an optimum pH range outside of which the enzyme is inhibited.
Some enzymes like many of the hydrolytic enzymes in the stomach
such as pepsin and trypsin effective operate at a very low acidic pH.
Other enzymes like amylase found in the saliva of the mouth operate
most effectively at near neutrality and some enzymes like the lipases
will function most effectively at basic pH values.


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The higher the temperature is, the higher the rate of the enzyme
reaction becomes, as it increases and heat is produced. It has an
optimum temperature of where it works best at 37 0 to 400 C, but after
400 C the enzyme gets denatured and no longer works properly,
particularly in animal ones.
When the temperature rises, there are more energetic collisions

between the enzymes within the reaction. The number of these per
minute will also increase, along with the heat of the molecules.
At low temperatures (say at around 00 C) the rate of enzyme reaction
is very slow. The molecules have low kinetic energy and collisions
between them are less frequent and even if they do collide the
molecules do not possess the minimum activation energy required
for the reaction to occur. It can be said that the enzymes are
deactivated at low temperatures.
An increase in temperature increases the enzyme activity since the
molecules now possess greater kinetic energy. The rate of enzyme
activity is highest between 00-400 C and this increase is almost linear.
After 400C the rate of reaction starts to decrease. This is because the
increase in temperature after 400C does not increase the kinetic
energy of the enzyme but instead disrupts the forces maintaining the
shape of the molecule. The enzyme molecules are gradually
denatured causing the shape of the active site to change.
Temperatures above 650C centigrade completely denature the

The relationship between enzymes and pH is tied to enzyme function.

Enzyme stability is greatest under certain environmental conditions,
with pH being the primary contributing factor. Maximum enzyme
activity and stability are reached at the optimum pH level. If the
environment pH is above or below the optimum pH level, the enzyme
will become inactive or less active.

When pH of a particular medium changes, it leads to alteration in the

shape of the enzyme. Not only on enzymes, the level of pH can also
affect the charge properties and shape of the substrate. When there
is a significant change in pH levels, the enzyme and the substrate
may undergo denaturation.
At this specific pH level, a particular enzyme catalyzes the reaction at
the fastest rate than in any other pH level. For example, the enzyme
pepsin that catalyzes proteins is most active at an acidic pH, whereas

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the enzyme trypsin performs best at a slightly alkaline pH. Salivary

amylase performs best at neutral pH. Thus, the optimum pH of an
enzyme is different from that of another enzyme.

Plant cells will expand and becomes turgid. The rigid cellulose cell
wall expands slightly only which prevents it from bursting. This
occurs because osmosis takes place. There is higher water potential
(hypotonic) outside the cell than that inside of the cell sap therefore,
causing water to enter. Therefore, as water flows in, the cell presses
on the cell wall creating pressure on the cell wall also known as
Turgor pressure. This pressure keeps the plant tissues turgid.
If a red blood cell is placed into a hypotonic solution then the water
concentration inside the cell is lower than outside the cell. The salt
concentration is higher inside the cell than outside. So, due to the
process of osmosis (water will travel from an area of high
concentration to an area of low concentration) and the water will
enter the red blood cell, increasing the concentration) and the water
will enter the red blood cell, increasing the therefore cannot cope
with this high pressure and will eventually burst.
Since distilled water is hypotonic to the amoeba's cell sap water
moves into the amoeba through osmosis diluting its cell sap, the
contractile vacuole become more active in order to eliminate excess




The time taken for the 10% of albumen suspension to change

colourless is the fastest which is 7 minutes.

Time taken for complete hydrolysis of 10% albumen supension is

because rate of reaction increases with the substrate
Time taken for complete hydrolysis of 20% albumen supension is
slowest because rate of reaction decreases with the substrate



The time taken for the 20% of albumen suspension to change

colourless is the slowest which is 13 minutes.


Method to handle


Concentration of albumen Use different

concentration of albumen


Time taken for the

Measure & record the time
albumen suspension to
taken for the albumen
become clolourless/ clear. suspension to become
clolourless using a stop
Enzyme concentration/
Use the same
pH/ temperature/ volume concentration of enzyme/
of albumen or enzyme
pH / temperature of water
bath (370C)/ volume of
albumen (10ml) or
encyme (1ml)

The rate of enzymematic reaction increases with the increase in

substrate concentration.



10% - 7 minutes; 15% - 10 minutes; 20% - 13 minutes




10/7 = 1.43



15/10 = 1.50



20/13 = 1.54



Sigmoid curve graph: axis title with unit; smooth curve; correct
transfer of points



The rate of pepsin reaction increases with the percentage of the

albumen concentration and reaches a maximum value.



Apparatus = stopwatch, thermometer


Materials = albumen, pepsin 1%, water bath


The time taken for the albumen to completely hydrolysis will be

faster than 13 minutes. The rate of reaction increases with the
increase of enzyme concentration.



Enzyme/ pepsin hydrolysed/ digest/ act on albumen suspension and

the time taken for the cloudy albumen suspension to become clear/
colourless is affected by the concentration of albumen suspension.



Problem statement:
How is the concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to
the cell sap of plant tissues determined?

Aim of investigation :
To determine the concentration of an external solution which is
isotonic to the cell sap of potato?

When potato cells are immersed in isotonic solution, there is no net

gain in mass & saiz of potato stripes/ cores.

Manipulated variable: Concentration of sucrose solution

Responding variable: mass of potato stripes/ cores

Constant variable: surrounding temperature/ time

Materials: potato cores/stripes, distilled water, 0.1M, 0.2M,0.3M,

0.4M, 0.5M & 0.6M sucrose solution.



Apparatus: Razor blade/ sharp scalpel, electronic balance, tissue/

filter paper, ruler

2= 2M +
1= 1M +

Technique used:
Measure and record the initial and final mass of the potato cores by
using an electronic balance.

1. 7 petri dishes are prepared & labeled A,B,C,D,E,F &G.
2. Each peri dish is filled with the following solutions respectively:
Petri dish A: distilled water


Petri dish B: 0.1M sucrose solotion

Petri dish C: 0.2M sucrose solotion
Petri dish D: 0.3M sucrose solotion
Petri dish E: 0.4M sucrose solotion
Petri dish F: 0.5M sucrose solotion
Petri dish G: 0.6M sucrose solotion
3. Each potato stripe/ core is wipe dry with filter/tissue papers. The
mass of each stripe/core is measured & recorded.
4. The potato stripe/core is immersed inside the sucrose solution in
the petri dish.
5. After 1 hour, each core/stripe is removed from its respective petri
dish & wiped dry. The mass of each stripe/core is measured again &
6. The results are recorded in a table.
Concentration of sucrose
solution (M)

Mass of potato core




Based on the graph, the concentration of the potato cell sap is y M.