“In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate.

First, I praise Allah, continuously, though the praise of the fervent does not do justice to His glory. Second, I invoke the blessing of Allah upon His Apostle, the lord of mankind, as well as upon the other messengers. Third… I proceed to enlighten you, who are the most self- righteous of those who reject belief, and you, who are the most immoderate of the thoughtless unbelievers.” (Ghazali, 1962)

Imam Ghazali’s Contribution:
Imam Ghazali has written more than 70 books on Jurisprudence, Theology, Philosophy and Sufism. One of Imam Ghazali's major contributions is the book Ihya al-Ulum al-Din (The Revival of Religious Sciences). It covers almost all fields of Islamic sciences, namely, Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence), Kalam (Theology) and Sufism and contains four major sections (with 10 books in each section):
• • • •

Rub' al-'ibadat (Acts of worship) Rub' al-'Adatat (Norms of Daily Life ) Rub' al-'Muhlikat (The ways to Perdition) Rub' al-'Munjiyat (The ways to Salvation)

He wrote most of his works in Arabic and few in Persian. The following is a short list of his major works divided in the relative area of study:


Al-Munqidh min al-Dalal (Rescuer from Error) Hujjat al-Haq (Proof of the Truth) Al-Iqtisad fil-I`tiqad (Median in Belief) Al-Maqsad al-Asna fi Sharah Asma' Allahu al-Husna (The best means in explaining Allah's Beautiful Names) Jawahir al-Qur'an wa Duraruh (Jewels of the Qur'an and its Pearls)

• • •

Fayasl al-Tafriqa Bayn al-Islam wa-l-Zandaqa (The Criterion of Distinction between Islam and Clandestine Unbelief) Mishkat al-Anwar (The Niche of Lights) Tafsir al-Yaqut al-Ta'wil

• • • •

Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din, (Revival of Religious Sciences) Mizan al-'Amal (Criterion of Action) Bidayat al-Hidayah (Beginning of Guidance) Kimiya-ye Sa'ādat (The Alchemy of Happiness) [A brief version of Ihya'ul Ulum, in Persian] Nasihat al-Muluk (Counseling for Kings) [in Persian] Minhaj al-'Abidin (Methodolgy for the Worshipers) Pand-Nāma (Book of Counsel) [Persian] Zād-e Ākherat (Provision for the hereafter) [Persian]

• •


Maqasid al falasifa (Aims of Philosophers) Tahafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers) Miyar al-Ilm fi fan al-Mantiq (Criterion of Knowledge in the Art of Logic) Mihak al-Nazar fi al-Mantiq (Touchstone of Reasoning in Logic) Al-Qistas al-Mustaqim (The Correct Balance)

• •


Fatawy al-Ghazali (Verdicts of al-Ghazali) Al-Wasit fi al-Mathab (The medium [digest] in the Jurisprudential school)

• •

Kitab Tahzib al-Isul (Pruning on Legal Theory) Al-Mustasfa fi 'ilm al-Isul (The Clarified in Legal Theory) Asas al-Qiyas (Foundation of Analogical reasoning)

Social Ethics:
The following text has been taken and assembled from different excerpts from Imam Ghazali’s book Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din’s (Revival of Religious Sciences) second quarter Rub' al-'Adatat (Norms of Daily Life ) that consists of 10 books; all of these combined gives the ethical way of leading one’s life. Imam Ghazali thought that the best character a person can ever have is that of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), therefore in the last book of this quarter (Etiquettes of living and the Prophetic Mannerism), he has given the character of Prophet (SAW) - on the basis of Sunnah, Hadith and Quran- which of course is a role model for each and every individual living in this world not just Muslims. Therefore, considering the social aspect, we have taken this book “Etiquettes of living and the Prophetic Mannerism,” translated by L. Zolondek Leiden and E. J. Brill in 1963, and taken many excerpts from it and joined them together in this one document to first give the ethical ways of living in general and then used the other 9 books in the second quarter of Ihya (Translated by different scholars) to give specific mannerism in different aspects of human life: “Praised be Allah, who created the universe, embellished its form and order, and caused His Prophet Muhammad-may Allah praise him and grant him peace-to be well mannered; and who, having adorned his conduct and purified his qualities and character, selected him as His chosen and His beloved. Praised be Allah who guides the copying of Muhammad’s attributes by them whose refinement he desires, and who prevents the assuming of his character by them whose debasement He desires. May Allah bless our lord Muhammad, the lord of the messengers, his good and chaste family, and may He grant (them) peace. To begin: Verily one’s external manner is the mark of one’s inner manner, and the movements of the productive members of the body are the results of passing thoughts. Moreover, actions are the result of character, and fine breeding is the distillate of knowledge. Indeed, actions are rooted and originate in the innermost thoughts of the heart. Verily the innermost lights of the heart shine upon one’s external behavior, adorning and embellishing it, and substitute good qualities for disliked and evil ones. Furthermore he whose heart is not humbled, his external members are not humbled; and he whose chest is not the niche of the divine lights, there does not spread over his external features the beauty of the prophetic manner… The Apostle of Allah was very humble and supplicatory of Allah, continuously asking Him to adorn him with fine qualities of breeding, and the noble qualities of character. While praying he

used to say, “O Allah, embellish my external and internal natures;” and, “O Allah, cause me to shun the disapproved qualities of character.” Thereupon Allah answered his prayer-faithful to his statement, “If you will call me, I will answer you” -by sending down the Qur’an and disciplining him through its teaching, so that Muhammad’s nature was the Qur’an… “Verily Allah ordered justice, the doing of good, and the giving of gifts to kindred, and He forbade wickedness, wrongdoing, and oppression.” “And who masters his anger and forgives others-Allah loves the doers of good.” Abu Burda ibn Niyar arose and said, ‘O Apostle of Allah, does Allah love the noble qualities of character?’ And Muhammad replied, ‘By Him in whose hands is my life, no one shall enter paradise except he who is of good character.”’ And on the authority of Mu‘adh ibn Jabbel it is related that Muhammad said, “Verily Allah encompasses Islam with noble qualities of character and with fine deeds.” Now amongst these qualities are : Having pleasant social relations, doing noble actions, being submissive, bestowing favor, feeding others, extending greetings, visiting the sick Muslim whether he be pious or profligate, escorting the bier of a Muslim, protecting your neighbor whether he be a Muslim or a disbeliever, honoring the aged Muslim, answering the invitation to food, the inviting of others, bestowing pardon, making peace between people, liberality, nobility of character, forbearance, being the first to extend greeting, repressing anger, pardoning people, shunning what Islam forbids, namely, frivolous sport, vanity, song, all musical instruments, revenge, guile, slander, falsehood, avarice, niggardliness, rudeness, artifice, deception, calumny, wronging friendship, forsaking blood kindred, bad moral character, haughtiness, boasting, selfconceit, arrogance, pride, immoderation, foulness of language, rancour, envy, levity, injustice, oppression, and tyranny. Mu’adh ibn Jabal said, “The Apostle of Allah commanded me saying, ‘O, Mu‘adh, I command you to fear Allah, to report truthfully, to fulfill the oath, to act loyally, to avoid perfidious actions, to care for the neighbor, to have mercy on the orphan, to be soft spoken, to be liberal of extending greeting, to perform fine acts, to limit expectation, to cleave to the faith, to study the Qur’an, to love the other life, to be anxious in regard to the reckoning, to act humbly; I forbid you to abuse the learned, to accuse an honest man of lying, to obey the sinner, to disobey a just man, to put a land in disorder; and I command you to fear Allah at every stone, tree, or village, and that you show repentance for every sin, secret or public.” Thus Muhammad disciplined the servants of Allah and urged them to be well mannered and to possess the noble qualities of character.” (Ghazali, Etiquettes of Living and Prophetic Mannerism (Book XX of Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din), 1963) Now let us consider different aspects of human life through the sight and writing of the great Imam Ghazali.

Morals of Eating:
“Muhammad never found fault with food. If he was pleased with it, he ate of it; if he disliked it, he neglected it; if he discarded it, he did not render it hateful to another person. When he finished he said, “Praise be to Allah! Allah, Thou art worthy to be praised. Thou hast fed, sated, given drink, and quenched thirst; praise belongs to Thee, who cannot be denied, who is eternally present, and who is indispensable.” When he ate bread and especially meat, he washed his hands vigorously and wiped his face with the excess water. He used to drink in three portions, invoking Allah thrice. When he finished he praised Allah thrice. He sucked the water and did not gulp it. Muhammad gave the excess of his food to him who was on his right side. If there was someone on his left, who was more illustrious as to rank, he said to him who was on his right, “It is the custom that it be given to you, but if you wish I will prefer them?” In his house he was more modest than his freed servants. He did not ask them for food, nor did he importune them with requests for food. If they fed him, he ate. He ate whatever they fed him, and drank whatever they gave him to drink. He often rose and took that which he ate and drank (i.e., he served himself).” (Ghazali, Etiquettes of Living and Prophetic Mannerism (Book XX of Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din), 1963) One usually has two circumstances while eating, i.e. eating alone and eating with others. The ethics to be followed in both cases in view of Imam Ghazali’s learning are discussed below:

Rules of Eating Alone:
The rules of eating alone are three kinds:
(a) Rules before eating

(b) Rules at the time of eating (c) Rules after eating. Rules before Eating: There are seven rules before eating stated as follows:
(1) The food must be lawful. God enjoined eating good and lawful food and prohibited bad

and unlawful food.
(2) The hand shall be washed before eating.

(3) Food shall be placed on the ground as it is the way of the Prophet. (4) One should take food sitting straight.
(5) One shall make Niyyat before eating. If the niyyat or intention is true, one should not

extend his hand towards food if he is not hungry. (6) Be satisfied with the food served and don't be greedy for varieties of curries. (7) The more are the people to partake food, the better.

Rules at the Time of Eating: There are 8 rules at the time of eating that should be followed according to Imam Ghazali’s study of Sunnah of Prophet (SAW). These are as follows:
(1) Being eating reciting 'Bismillah'-in the name of God and end it reciting

'Alhamdollah'-all praise is due to God.
(2) Eat with the right hand and begin and end it with salt. (3) Take little morsels and chew each morsel well.

(4) Don't extend your hand to a morsel till you swallow the previous one.
(5) Don't speak of the defects of cooking. The Prophet never did it. When he liked a food,

he ate; and when he did not like it, he did not eat it. Except fruits, he used to take from the nearest side of the dish. The Prophet said: “Eat from the side of your front and not form every side, nor from the middle. (6) Don't cut bread or meat with knife. The Prophet said: “Cut meat with your teeth.” He said: “Honour the principal foods as God sent them from the blessings of heaven.” The Prophet said : “If any morsel of food falls down, take it up and clear off the dust attached to it and don't leave it for the devil.” (7) Don't wipe out your hands with handkerchiefs till you like lick your fingers, because you don't know in which food there is blessing.' (8) Don't blow breath in hot food as it is prohibited, but be patient till it becomes cold. Eat odd number of dates, grapes and such other fruits which can be counted. Rules of Drinking Water:

Following are the five rules of drinking water: (1) Don't drink water at the time of eating except when thirsty. It is better and keeps stomach sound.
(2) Take the name of God and drink slowly. The Prophet said: “Drink water drought by

drought and not a time.”
(3) Don't drink water standing or lying as the Prophet prohibited it except for an excuse.

(4) Don't throw breath into pot or yawn.
(5) Drink water with three breaths and at the end recite 'Alhamdolillah' - all praise is due

to God and at the beginning 'Bismillah'-in the name of God.

Rules after Eating: Following are the five rules to be followed after eating: (1) Lift up your hand before the stomach is filled up and lick up the fingers. Then wipe them with a towel and then wash them. Lift up the remnants of food. (2) Express gratefulness to God sincerely for what God has given you to eat and take food as His gift. (3) Don't rise up till the dining cloth is lifted up.
(4) If you take food in the house of another person, pray for him and say: “0 God, give

him abundant good and give him blessing in what Thou hast provided him.”
(5) Wash your hands.

Rules for Eating with Others:
There are seven rules of eating with others, which are as follows:
1. If there is any elderly or honorable man with you, don't begin eating till he begins. 2. Don't remain silent at the time of eating and hold talks. 3. Don't wish to eat more than your friend.

4. It is not lawful for you to eat more when food is equally disturbed unless your friends give you out of their own accords.
5. Eat in such a way that there remains not necessity of saying to your companion 'eat.

Eat.' Eat according to your habit.
6. One should not look at the eating of his companions and should withdraw his hand

before his companions finish eating. 7. One should not do what appears bad to his companions and talk not such words as may offend them.

(Ghazali, Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din (Rub' al-'Adatat - Norms of Daily Life ))

Rules Related to Marriage:
Conditions for a Woman being Lawful for a Man:
There are four conditions of a woman being lawful for a man.
1. Permission of guardian is necessary in case of marriage of minor boy and minor girl,

without which, the marriage is void. 2. The consent of a grown up girl is necessary for her marriage, whether she is unmarried or widow.
3. Two major witnesses are necessary. They will inform the audience of the girl's consent.

4. Proposals and acceptances of the bride and bridegroom are necessary.

Basic Duties at the Time of Marriage:
1. Proposal of marriage is to be submitted to the guardian of the girl.
2. Khutba must be recited before marriage along with proposal and acceptance. The

guardian of the girl will say: “All praise is for God and blessing on God's Apostle, I give my daughter in marriage to you.” Bridegroom will say: “All praise is for God and blessings on His Prophet, I accept her in marriage on this fixed dower.”
3. The bride should be informed of the condition of the bridegroom. It is better that they

should see each other before marriage. 4. Two witnesses are necessary for marriage. 5. One should have intention to establish sunnat of the Prophet by marriage and to seek issues. 6. It is good to perform it in the month of Shawal. The Prophet married Ayesha in Shawal and took her in his house in Shawal.

7. The bride must be in pure state at the time of marriage. This means: She must not be the

wife of another man. It cannot be performed during period of waiting. She must not be infidel or retrograde. She must not be a slave of another. She must not be within the prohibited degrees of the husband-mother, mother's mother, daughter, sister, father's sister, foster mother, foster sister, wife's previous husband's daughter, grand daughter, fifth wife, sister of wife who is alive or her mother's sister, a woman who cursed her husband, a woman no in Ihram state.

Qualifications of the Bride:
The following qualifications of the bride should be sought.
1. Religion: The bride should be religious and possess good conduct. This is the main

quality of the bride.
2. Good Conduct: If the wife is harsh and rough and ungrateful, her harms are more than her

benefits. One Azdi met Prophet Was who ordered him to marry and prohibited him to have recourse to mockery. Then he said to Azdi : Don't marry four kinds of women- (1) a woman who always seeks dresses without any reason, (2) a woman who boasts before other women regarding her wealth and riches, (3) a woman who is a sinner and unchaste and who has got friends (God says of such women Don't marry such women who take friends secretly) and (4) a woman who takes pride before here husband with haughty words.
3. Beauty: Beauty is also to be sought of a girl as it saves one from fornication. For this

reason, it is mustahab or commendable to see a bride before marriage. The Prophet said : When any of you wishes in his mind to marry a women, let him look at her, as it generates mutual love.
4. Dower: The Prophet said: The best woman is she who is beautiful and whose dower is

little. He prohibited dower beyond limit and one's capacity.
5. Bride should not be barren if it is known. The Prophet said: “Marry lovely and child-

bearing women.”
6. Bride should be virtuous. 7. She must come of a respectable family: If she comes of a good family, she can educate

her issues good manners and good conduct. 8. Bride should not be a near relative as in that case sexual passion becomes less. The Prophet said: Don't marry a near relative as in that case a child is born weak. The Prophet said: he who gets his daughter married to a transgressor, cuts of his blood tie.

Rules after Marriage:
Duties of Husbands: The husband shall observe the following rules after marriage:
(1) Marriage feast is commendable. The Prophet said: “Feast on the first day is a duty, feast

on the second day is sunnat and feast on the third days is for show. If a man who does an act for show, God will disgrace him.”
(2) The husband should treat well with his wife. (3) Make plays and sports with the wife after bearing hardships given by her. This gives

pleasure to the wife. The Prophet used to cut joker with his wives and come down to the level of their intelligence in their manual labors.
(4) Don't sport with wife so much that her conduct is ruined and fear goes out of her mind,

but take to middle course. Don't give up your duties and strike some sort of fear in her mind at the time of doing evils.
(5) Take middle course in case of anger. Don't make excess in enquiring into their secret

matters. The Prophet prohibited following the secrets of women. In another narration, he prohibited to go suddenly to them
(6) Just expense: Don't make your hand of expense narrow in case of women, nor spread it,

but keep the balance between the two.
(7) A husband will teach his wife religious matters, as all men have been given orders to save

the members of their families from fire. (8) If there is more than one wife, the husband should be mete out equal treatment to all. If the husband wishes to take one wife with him in journey, he should select her by casting lottery as the Prophet used to do it.
(9) Appoint two judges from the side of the husband and the wife to arbitrate between them

in case of disputes. If they have got willingness to settle, God will settle between them. The wife should be separated gradually and not all at once. At first she should be given advice. If it does not bear fruit, she should be separated from bed. This should be done for one to three nights. If it does not bear fruit, beat her mildly but don't inflict physical torture on her, don't shed her blood or slap her on the face. Duties of the Wife: The wife shall observe the following rules after marriage:

(1) If the husband wants to enjoy her body, she should not refuse. The Prophet said: “If the wife of a man dies while he is pleased with her, she will enter Paradise.” (2) Don't spend extravagantly the properties of your husband but protect them. (3) She would engage herself in good works in the absence of her husband and make enjoyment in the presence of her husband. (4) Don't express sorrow for more than four months and ten days when your husband dies. The Prophet said: “It is not lawful for a woman who believes in God and the next world to grieve for more than three days except in the case of the death of her husband for whom she should grieve for four months and ten days and she should stay in her husband's house during this time.” (5) She should do all household affairs to her utmost capacity.

(Ghazali, Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din)

Matters at the Time of Divorce:
The following four rules should be followed at the time of Divorce. (1) The husband will divorce the wife in her pure state and not at the time of menstrual discharge.
(2) Don't unite three divorces at a time. If he is repentant within the period of waiting, she

maybe taken back. (3) After divorce, give maintenance to the wife and presents. This is compulsory on the husband.
(4) Don't disclose the secrets of wife at the time of divorce. There is such prohibition in

authentic hadith.

The Rights in Friendship (Brotherhood):
The tie of friendship and brotherhood is like that of husband and wife. As some rights and obligations arise out of wed-lock, so also some rights and obligations arise out of the tie of friendship and brotherhood. These rights are eight.

(1) Rights in wealth and properties: The Prophet said: “Two friends are like two hands, one of which washes the other.” There are three stages of self- sacrifice for each other. (a) The lowest stage is to bring down his friend to the level of a servant and to give him charity at the time of his need from his excess wealth. When a friend falls in want, he should give charity to him without asking from the excess of his wealth. (b) The second stage is to bring his friend down to his stage and remain satisfied by making him sharer in his properties. He will also come down to his stage till he becomes equal partner with him. (c) The third stage is to place the needs of a friend above his own needs. This is the rank of the truthful and is the last limit of the three stages of friendship. The result is I'sar or the sacrifice of one's need for the other. (2) To help a friend before asking in times of needs. (3) Right about tongue: Sometimes you will talk with a friend and sometimes not. Don't disclose any secret talk which your friends tell you, even to their close friends. Don't disclose any secrets of your friend even though' there is separation from him, as it is sign of bad conduct. Don't speak of any bad thing about his friends, wives and children. The Prophet said: “Don't disclose the serest of one another, dont seek the secrets of one another, and don't cut off the connections of one another and unite the servants of God in brotherhood.” (4) One should accord good treatment to your friends in words and deeds. The Prophet said: “One Muslim is brother to another Muslim. He does not treat him bad; he does not spoil his honour and does not surrender him to the hands of his enemy.”
(5) Forgive the faults of friends. If your friend commits sin and continues therein, advise him

with sweet words.
(6) Pray for your friend in his life time and even after his death. The Prophet said: “If a man

prays for his friend in his absence, the angels says, ‘similar prayer is for you’”.
(7) Wafa and Ikhlas: Wafa means to remain firm on the rights of friendship, to keep it lasting

till the death of friend and to keep it even after his death with his wife, children and friends and relatives and to take care of them. Ikhlas means to fulfill the duties of friendship selflessly, for the sake of God.
(8) Don't inflict trouble to your friend and give up the giving of trouble and taking of trouble.

Don't ask anything from his wealth and properties. Don't hope to get any benefit from his name and fame. (Ghazali, Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din (Rub' al-'Adatat - Norms of Daily Life ))

Duties towards Muslims:

The following duties towards Muslims should be observed:

Love for the believers what you love for yourself and dislike for the believers what you dislike for yourself. The Prophet said: “The Muslim society is like a body in respect of mutual love and sympathy. If a limb of the body suffers pain, the whole body responds to it by sleeplessness and fever.”
2. Don't give trouble to a Muslim by your words and actions. The Prophet said: “A Muslim

is he from whose tongue and hands other Muslim remain safe.”
3. Be modest to every Muslim. Don't treat him harshly. Don't take pride near him as God

does not love the proud and the self-conceited. If anybody shows pride to you, keep patience. God ordered the Prophet Take to pardon and enjoin good and keep away from the illiterate.
4. Don't hear back-biting and don't take it to others. The Prophet said: “The back-biter will

not enter paradise.”
5. Give up disputes and quarrels. When you get angry with another, don't give up his

association for more than three days. The Prophet said: “It is not lawful for a Muslim to remain aloof from his brother for more than three days, nor should he turn away his face from another if both of them meet. The better of the two is one who greets first with salutation.” The Prophet said: “If a man pardons the faults of a Muslim, God will forgive his faults on the resurrection day.”
6. Be good to every one either deserving or undeserving. The Prophet said: “Do good to

everyone, pious, or impious-If you do good to one who is fit to receive, it is good. If he is not fit to receive it, you are fit to do good.” 7. Treat well with all and speak to everyone according to his intellect. If you go to meet an illiterate person with words, of wisdom and with theology and dispute with the fools, you will get trouble.
8. Honor the dead and show affection to the juniors. The Prophet said: “He who does not

show affection to our juniors is not of us.” He said: “To honour an aged Muslim is to honour God.”
9. Live with all men with smiling face and kind heart. 10. Fulfill promise with the Muslims.

11. Do justice to the people willingly and come to them with what they love.

12. Honor those to whom honour is due. Honor one who is understood to be honorable in

rank from his nature, conduct, appearance and dresses and his status and rank.
13. Compromise disputes among the Muslims if you have got means. Dispute between two

persons is destructive. The Prophet said, “To settle dispute between two persons is the best charity.”
14. Keep the secrets of Muslims secret. The Prophet said, “If a man keeps the guilt of a

Muslim secret, God will keep his guilt secret both in this world and the next.” He also said, “If a man keeps the sin of a man secret in this world, God will keep all of his sins secret on the Resurrection Day.” 15. Keep away from places of slander and back-biting so that the minds of the people remain free from cherishing evil ideas about you. 16. Intercede for everyone. Make intercession to one who has got authority, to remove the needs of a Muslim and try hard to meet his requirements.
17. Greet every Muslim with Salam before talk and before greeting handshake with him. 18. Help the distressed. Save your Muslim brother from oppression on his honour, wealth

and life, remove it and help him, because it is binding on account of the brotherhood of Islam.
19. Respond to sneezing. The Prophet said: “He who sneezes will say, ‘God's praise in all

circumstances’ and one who hears it will say, ‘May God have mercy on you.’ The sneezer will then say, ‘May God guide you and make your mind pure.’
20. Help at the time of distress and calamities.

21. Give up the company of the rich and take the company of the poor and show kindness on the orphans. 22. Give advice to every Muslim.
23. Call on the diseased. If a Muslim falls ill, call on him and nurse him. The following rules

must be observed when you go to see a patient. (1) Sit for a short while before the patient. (2) Ask him few questions. (3) Take information of his health with soft mind, and (4) Pray for his recovery.
24. Join the funeral prayer of a Muslim.

25. Visit the graves of the dead. The object is to pray, to take lessons and to make the mind soft.

(Ghazali, Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din (Rub' al-'Adatat - Norms of Daily Life ))

“When he dressed, he dressed from his right side saying, “Praise to Allah who clothed me with that which I conceal my nakedness and with which I adorn myself amongst the people.” When he took off his clothing, he removed it from his left side. If Muhammad put on a new garment, he gave his shabby garment to a poor man and said, “There is not a Muslim who clothes another Muslim with his worn out clothes, doing so for the sake of Allah, but that he (the giver) partakes in the security, refuge, and benefit of Allah, whilst living or dead.” (Ghazali, Etiquettes of Living and Prophetic Mannerism (Book XX of Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din), 1963)

“Muhammad used to visit the sick, follow the funeral bier, answer the call of the slave, and patch his shoes and garments. In his house he did the family duties together with the rest of the family. His companions did not rise for him because they knew that he disliked that. When he passed young boys, he greeted them. When a man frightened by his reverential fear of Muhammad was brought to him, Muhammad said to him, “Be at rest. I am not a king. I am only the son of a woman of Quraysh, who eats dried meat.” He sat amongst his companions conversing with them, as if he were one of them. When a stranger came, not knowing which one of them was Muhammad; he asked concerning him until the companions asked Muhammad to sit in a way in which the stranger could distinguish him from the rest. Later he sat on a mud bench which they built for him. ‘Aisha said to Muhammad, “Eat, may Allah make me thy ransom, reclining; it is easier for you.” Muhammad replied, inclining his head until his forehead almost touched the ground, “On the contrary, I eat as the slave eats sit as the slave sits.” Muhammad, until he died, did not eat off a tray, from a saucer, or from a bowl.” (Ghazali, Etiquettes of Living and Prophetic Mannerism (Book XX of Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din), 1963)

Religious Ethics:
“Praise belongs to Allah, Who overwhelms His creatures with His favors, and fills their hearts with the lights and duties of religion, whose descent (The descent of Allah from the highest heaven to that nearest earth takes place in the last third of the night; the tradition in part of the one immediately following. It is an encouragement to the Tahajjud, Night Worship, one of the most excellent of the acts of religious service. The descent is not to be understood literally.) from

the throne of majesty to the nearest heaven is, of the degrees of mercy, one of His kindnesses. He differs from kings, for all His unique majesty and grandeur, in inspiring His creation to ask and supplicate, for He says: “Is there any who supplicates? I will answer him!” and, “Is there any who asks forgiveness? I will forgive him!” He differs from sultans in opening the door and lifting the veil, and permitting His creatures confidential communion, by the performances of Worship; however their circumstances may change, whether in congregations or solitary places. Moreover, He does not limit Himself to permission, but rather shows favor and kindness by inspiring desire and by calling. Any other than He is of the weak kings, who do not freely grant private audience, except after the presentation of a gift or a bribe. So-O His praise! How great is His state and strong His authority and complete His kindness and general His beneficence!” (Imam Al-Ghazali ‘Ihya Ul Uloom Ud Din,’ translated by Edwin Elliot Calverley)

Muhammad said, “The Worship is the support of the religion, so whoever abandons it has thrown over the religion.” He said, “Allah has not prescribed upon His creatures, after the confession of the unity, anything more beloved to Him than the Worship. If there were anything more beloved to Him than it, His angels would devote themselves by means of it, but some of them bow, some of them prostrate, and some stand and sit.” Abu Bakr used to say, “Whenever the Worship time comes, stand up to the fire which you have ignited, and put it out!” He said, “On Resurrection Day, Allah will not look at the creature who does not straighten up his backbone between his bowing and his prostration.” He also said, “Does he, who turns his face round in the Worship, not fear that Allah will turn his face into the face of a donkey?” “Do not offer the Worship while you are intoxicated, so that you may know what you are saying!” (Qur’an, iv, 46). It is said, “Intoxicated from the great amount of care,” and it is said, “From love of this life.” Wahb (Successor, d. 110 A.H) said, “The thing meant by it is its literal meaning. Anyway, there is a warning in it against being intoxicated with this life, since He shows the defect in it for He said, “so that you may know what you say,” and how many a worshipper there is who has not drunk wine, and yet does not know what he says in his Worship! And whenever you perform the Worship, make it the Worship of one bidding farewell, i.e. of one bidding farewell to his passions, bidding farewell to his life, and journeying to his Lord, as Allah said, ‘O man, you are toiling on toward your Lord indeed, for you are one who shall encounter Him!’ ” (Qur’an lxxxiv. 6).

Muhammad said, “Allah does not look at the Worship in which a man does not present his heart along with his body.” Ibn ‘Abbas said, “A worship of two rak’ahs that are purposed in thought are better than standing a night with the heart heedless.”

It is fitting that the one performing the Worship, when he finishes the ablution and the cleansing from the uncleanness of body, place and clothing, and the covering of his nakedness from the navel to the knee, should rise, standing facing the Qiblah outwardly (and the Divine Presence inwardly), and pair his feet together without joining them, for that is one of the things by which they (the Fathers) used to infer a man’s legal knowledge. Muhammad prohibited Safn, “the raising of the foot,” and safd, “fettering,” in the Worship. “Fettering” is the uniting of the two feet, and this is the meaning of the saying of Allah, “Bound together in fetters” (Qur’an, xiv. 50). Safn is the lifting of one of the feet, and this is the meaning of the saying of Allah, “Raising the foot, fleet” (Qur’an, xxxviii. 30). This is what he is to be mindful of as regards his feet when he stands. He is to be mindful of straightness in his knees and waist, the place of tying his girdle. As for his head, if he will he may keep it erect, and if he will, he may incline it: to incline it appears more humble and more abasing. So let his gaze be fixed on the mat he worships on. If he has no worshipping-mat let him draw near to the encircling wall, or let him draw a line, for that cuts off the extent of his gaze and prevents the scattering of the thought. Let him restrain his gaze from exceeding the edges of his worshipping-mat or the bounds of the line. Let him continue so standing until the Bowing is to be done, without turning. Let him raise his hands opposite his shoulders in such a way that his palms will be opposite his shoulders and his thumbs opposite the lobes of his ears (and the tips of his fingers opposite the tops of his ears), so that he may combine the traditions which have come down concerning it. He turns his palms and thumbs towards the Qiblah, and opens up his fingers, not folding them and not taking pains to separate them or to keep them together, but he lets them be as they naturally are, since there is handed down in tradition both the spreading and the closing (of the fingers), and this is between the two, and so is preferable. The Messenger of Allah has forbidden:
1. The raising of the foot in the Worship. 2. The fettering. 3. Sitting on the shanks. 4. Enveloping.

5. Turning up. 6. Placing the hands on the sides. 7. Lacing the hands akimbo. 8. Merging. 9. The worship of one suffering with retention. 10. The worship of the costive. 11. The worship of the pinched. 12. The worship of the hungry 13. The worship of the angry and of the muffler (one who cover his face).

Know that for inner realities there are many modes of expression, but six phrases will comprehend them. These are: (a) the presence of the heart; (b) apprehension; (c) magnifying; (d) awe; (e) hope, and (f) shamefacedness. First, the presence of the heart; By this we mean that the heart is free from everything but what the worshipper is engaged in and what he utters, so that the work may be associated with both the acts and the words, and that the thought may not be wandering to other things. The apprehension of the significance of the word is a matter that comes after the presence of the heart. For it may be that the heart is present with the utterance, but not present with the significance of the utterance The magnifying is a matter which comes after the presence of the heart and the understanding, since a man addresses to his slave words in which his heart is present and of which he apprehends the meaning, but he does not magnify him. So magnifying is additional to them. The awe is something additional to magnifying; rather, it is an expression for fear whose source is magnifying, for whoever does not fear is not called full of awe As for hope, there is no doubt that it is additional. Shamefacedness is additional to the whole, for its basis is the feeling of deficiency and the supposition of guilt.


The Prophet -- the Blessing and Peace of God be upon him --said, "Whoever sets out on the Greater or Lesser Pilgrimage and dies [before completing the Pilgrimage], will until the Day of Resurrection be awarded with the award of a pilgrim. And whoever dies in one of the two shrines will not be exposed [to Judgment] or made to give an account. To him it will be said, "Enter into Paradise," And the Prophet -- the Blessing and Peace of God be upon him -- said, "One Pilgrimage which is accepted [in the sight of God] is better than the whole world and what is in it; a Pilgrimage which is accepted [in God's sight] has no reward but Paradise." (Ibrahim Umer) There are two criteria [that determine] the validity of Pilgrimage:
1. One must perform it at the proper time 2. One must be a Muslim.

The criteria [that determine] whether a [truly] required Pilgrimage has occurred are five:
1. One must be a Muslim 2. One must be free 3. One must be mature 4. One must be of a sound mind 5. One must perform the Pilgrimage on the [proper] time.

The essential elements without which no Pilgrimage is valid are five:
1. Ihram [the entering into sanctification] 2. Tawaf [the circumambulation of the Kabba]

3. Sa’y [running between the two eminence called Safa and Marwa]
4. Standing at [Mount] 'Araft 5. Head shaving.

Abu Dharr said, “I came upon the Apostle of God (SAW) sitting in the shadow of the Ka’bah, and when he saw me he said, ‘Verily they are the lost ones; by the Lord of the Ka’bah they are the lost ones.’ I asked, ‘Who are the lost ones?’ He replied, ‘Those who have the most of wealth except him who gives it to his fellowmen’ Whenever the giver’s aim in giving is fame, his good deed will prove useless since the purpose of Zakat is to banish niggardliness and weaken the love of wealth, yet the love of wealth.

Duties of the Giver: There are seven duties on the giver according to Imam Al-Ghazali’s Ihya Ul Uloom Ud Din book of Almsgiving.
1. The first duty is to understand the reason why the Zakat is obligatory, to comprehend its

significance, to find out how it constitutes a criterion wherewith man’s devotion to God is tested and tied, and finally why it has been made one of the pillars of Islam although it is merely a financial transaction and does not form a part of bodily worship.
2. The second duty concerns the time of payment. One of the signs of etiquette among

religious people is to pay (the Zakat) before it is already due, in order to show their desire to conform willingly to the law by bringing (relief and) happiness to the hearts of those in poverty. 3. The third duty is secrecy. The Apostle of Allah (SAW) said, “The most excellent Sadaqah is the secret effort of one of meager resources to relieve poverty-stricken individual.” 4. The fourth duty is that the giving of alms be made public, if in so doing men are induced to do likewise and give. 5. The fifth duty is that man should not make his alms (Sadaqah) void by taunts and injury.
6. The sixth duty is that man should belittle his gift because if he should make much of it,

he would be led to fell well-pleases with it, and vanity is one of the destructive matters of life and renders all good works useless. 7. The seventh duty is that the person should (when giving) select from his wealth the portion which is best and dearest unto him; for God is good and accepts nothing but the good. 8. The eighth duty is to seek for his Sadaqah one worthy of it. Duties of the Recipient: There are five duties of the recipient 1. The first duty is that the recipient should know that God has ordained the expenditure of (a portion of) Zakat on him for the purpose of removing his cares and to make all his worries into one single (concern).

2. The second duty of the recipient is that he should thank the giver, wish him good , and speak well of him. 3. The third duty of the recipient is that he should examine what he receives and if he should find out that it was not of a lawful source, he should abstain there from. 4. The fourth duty of the recipient is to guard against the pitfalls of doubt and ambiguity regarding the amount of the Zakat which he may take. He should not take anything except the amount permissible to him to take, and should not touch it unless he were certain that his claim to it was established. 5. The fifth duty of the recipient is to inquire of the owner of the money concerning the amount of his obligation. If the owner should offer him an amount higher than one eighth of the whole Zakat, he should refuse to accept.

Apostle (SAW) said, “Verily Paradise hath, (among others), a gate which is called Al-Raayyan and throught which no one shall enter except those who have observed the fast.” And again (Prophet (SAW) said), “Two joys are prepared for him who observes the fast; the joy of breaking the fast and that of meeting his lord.” On another occasion he said, “Everything hath a gateway and the gateway to worship is fasting.” And again he said, “The sleep of a fasting man is worship.” The Outward Duties of Fasting: The outward duties relative to fasting are six. 1. The first duty is to watch the beginning of the month of Ramadan (and announce it) at the observation of the new moon (Al-Bilal). But if the clouds should make the observation of the new moon impossible then the length of Sha’ban should be extended to thirty days. 2. The second outward duty is intention (Niyyab). Every night before the dawn of the following day, the person should specifically and deliberately entertain the intention to fast. 3. The third duty is that as long as he remembers that he is fasting, the individual should abstain (Imsak) from intentionally allowing any material substance such as food, drink, snuff, and enema to enter his body. 4. The fourth duty is abstinence (Imsak) from sexual intercourse.

5. The fifth duty is abstinence from deliberate seminal emission (istimna), either through

sexual contact or through no sexual contact. 6. The sixth duty is abstinence from vomiting, because it renders the fast invalid. But if one cannot help it, his fast remains intact and valid.

• Al-Ghazali. (n.d.). Retrieved November 14, 2007, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Ghazali

Ghazali, I. (1963). Etiquettes of Living and Prophetic Mannerism (Book XX of Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din).

Ghazali, I. (1962, January 11). Ihya Ul Uloom Ud Din. The Revival of Religious Sciences (The Book of Knowledge) . (A. F. Nabih, Trans.)

Ghazali, I. Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din. In Translation of Ihya'ul Ilum al-Din (Revival of the Religious Sciences) (F. Karim, Trans., Vol. II). Darul-Ishaat.

Ghazali, I. Ihya'ul Ulum al-Din (Rub' al-'Adatat - Norms of Daily Life ). In Translation of Rub' al-'Adatat (F. Karim, Trans., Vol. II). Darul-Ishaat.

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