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INTRODUCTION

FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS


Financial statement is an organized collection of data according to logical and
consisted accounting procedures. Its purpose is to convey an understanding of
some financial aspects of a business form. It may reveal a series of activities over
a given period of time, as in the case of an income statement.
The focus of the financial analysis is on key figures in the financial
statements and the significant relationships the exists between them. The analysis
of financial statements is a process of evaluating relationships between component
parts of financial statements to obtain a better understanding of the firms position
and performance.

Financial Analysis:
Financial analysis is the process of identifying the financial strengths and
weakness of the firm by property establishing relationships between the item of
the balance sheet and the profit and loss account. Financial analysis can be
undertaken by management of the firm, or by parts outside the firm.

USERS OF FINANCIAL ANALYSIS:

Management
Trade creditors
Investors
Government
Others

Management:
Management of the firm would be interested in every aspect of the financial
analysis. It is their overall responsibility to see that the resources of the firm are
used most effectively and efficiently and that the firms condition is sound.

Trade Creditors:
The trade creditors are to be paid in a short term solvency of the concern. The
current ratio and acid test ratio will enable the creditors to assets the short term
solvency position of the concern.

Investors:
The Investors are interested their money in the firms shares, are not
concerned about the firms earnings. They restore more confidence in those firms
that show steady growth in earnings. As such, they concentrate on the analysis of
the firms present and future profitability. They are also interested in the firms
financial structure to the extent it influences the firms earning ability and risk.

Government:
The financial statements are used to asses tax liability of business
enterprise. These statements enable the government to find out whether the
business is following various regulations or not.

Others:
Trade associations, stock exchange and public at may also analyze the
financial statements to judge the financial position of different concerns.
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Definition
According to Myres Financial statement analysis is largely is a study of
the Relationship among the various financial factors in a business as disclose by a
single set of statement and a study of the trend of these factors as show in a series
of statements.

Financial statements are indicators of the two significant factors:


1. Profitability
2. Financial Soundness

Analysis and interpretation of financial statements therefore refers to such a


treatment of the information contained in the income statement and the balance
sheet so as to afford full diagnosis of the profitability and financial soundness of
the business.
The term analysis means methodical classification of the data given in the
financial statements. The term interpretation means explaining the meaning
and significance of the data so simplified.

Types of financial Analysis


Financial analysis can be classified in to different categories depending
upon.
(a) The material used
(b) The modus operand of analysis
On the basis of materials used. According to this basis financial analysis can be of
two types.

a) External Analysis
Those who are outsider for the business do this analysis. The outsiders
include investors, credit agencies. government agencies and other creditors who
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have no access to the internal records of the company. These persons mainly
depends upon, the published financial statements. Their analysis serves only a
limited purpose. The position of this analysis has improved in recent times on
account of increased governmental control over companies and governmental
regulations regulations requiring more detailed disclosures of information by the
companies in their financial statements.

b) Internal analysis:
This analysis is done by persons who have access to the books of account
and other information to the books of accounts related to the business., Executives
and employees of the organization or by officers appointed for this purpose by the
government or the court under powers vested in them can therefore do such an
analysis. The analysis in done depending upon the objective to be active
depending upon the objective to be achieved through this analysis.
On the basis of modus operandi according to this, financial analysis can
also be two types.

a) Horizontal Analysis
In case of this type of analysis financial statements for a number of years
are reviewed and analyzed. The current years figures are compared with the
standard or base year. The analysis statement usually contains figures for too or
more years and the changes are shown regarding each item from the base year
usually in the form of percentages. such as analysis given the management
considerable insight into levels and areas of strength and weakness. Since this

type of analysis is based on the date from year to year rather than on one date, it is
also termed as Dynamic Analysis?

b) Vertical Analysis:
In case of this type of analysis a study is made of the quantitative
relationship of the various items in the financial statements on a particular type,
such an analysis is useful in comparing the performance of servral companies in
the same group, or divisions or departments in the same company. Since this
analysis depends on the data for one period, is nor very conductive financial
position. It is also called Static Analysis as it frequently used to ratios developed
on one date or for one accounting period. Tools or Techniques used for Analysis:
1. Ratio Analysis
2. Method of least Squares (Trend Values)
3. Comparative statement Analysis.
These are explained in bring as follows.
1. Ratio Analysis:
Ratio Analysis is widely used tool of financial analysis. It is defined as the
systematic use of ratio to interpret the financial statements so that the strength and
weakness of a firm as well as its historical performance and current financial
condition can be determined. The term ratio refers to the numerical or quantitative
relationship between two items/ Variable. This relation can be expressed as.
a. Percentages
b. Fractions
c. Proportion of numbers.
Accounting ratios showed the relationship in mathematical terms between
two interrelated accounting figures. This is the most important tool available to
financial analysis for their work.
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Ratio analysis is a process of identifying the financial strengths and


weakness of the firm. This may be accomplished either through a trend analysis of
the firms ratios over a period of time or through a comparison of the firms ratios
with its nearest competitors and with the industry averages. The four most
important financial dimensions which a firm would like to analyze are: liquidity,
Leverage, Activity and Profitability.
Nature of Ratio Analysis:
A Financial ratio is a relationship between tow accounting numbers. ratios
help to make a qualitative judgment about the firms financial performance.

Financial Ratio:
Financial Ratio is a relationship between two financial variables. It helps to
ascertain the financial condition of a firm.

Types of financial Ratios:

Liquidity ratios
Leverages ratios
Activity ratios
Profitability ratios

Liquidity Ratio:
Liquidity Ratio measure the firms ability to meet current obligations, and
are calculated by establishing relationships between current assets and current
liabilities.
Leverage ratio:
Leverage ratios measures the proportion of outsiders capital in financing
the firms assets, and is calculated by establishing relationships between borrowed
capital and equity capital.
Activity Ratio:
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Activity ratio reflects the firms efficiency in utilizing its assets in


generating sales and is calculated by establishing relationships between sales and
assets.
Profitability Ratio:
Profitability ratios measure the overall performance of the firm by deterring
the effectiveness of the firm ingenerating profit, and are calculated by establishing
relationships between profit figures on the one hard, and sales and assets on the
other.

Utility of Ratio Analysis


Assessment of the firms financial conditions and capabilities.
Diagnosis of the firs problems, weakness and strengths.
Credit analysis
Comparative analysis
Time series analysis
Cautions in using ratio analysis
Standards of comparisons
Company differences
Prices level
Different definition
Changing situations

Past data
Standard of Comparison:
Time series analysis
Inter-firm analysis
Industry analysis

Preformed financial statement analysis

Advantages of Ratio Analysis:


1. It helps in analysis of the situation i.e. analysis on the financial situation and
performance.
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2. Inter-firm and Inra-firm comparison is both possible on the basis of accounting


ratio
3. Accounting Ratio not only indicates the present position but they also indicate
the cause leading up to the position of a large extent
4. It helps in obtaining best result when ratios for a number of years are put in
tabular form so that the figure for one year can be easily compoared with those
of other year
5. It indicates the trend of the change, which helps in preparation of estimates for
the future.
6. They provide simplicity to the complex accounting information presented by
the financial statements
7. They are very helpful to outsiders as well as for internal management
8. It is very helpful to internal managements, discharge of the basic managerial
functions.
9. It also helps in planning, policy making & controlling the activities.
10. They are helpful in establishing the standard casting system.

Limitations of ratio analysis


1. Ratio provides only guidelines to the management they are only the means.
However They scratch surfaces and raise question. The limitation of the ratio
may force the management to have detailed investigation of the situation under
question.
2. single accounting ratio is not useful at all unless it is studied with other
accounting ratios
3. They are based only on the quantitative information. Hence, qualitative
information puts limit on the ratios
4. Ratios are subject to arithmetical accuracy of the financial statements.
Moreover financial statement also include estimated date like provision for

depreciation, bad and doubtful debts etc. hence, result revealed by ratios are
subject to such estimates.
5. Ratios are computed on the basis of financial statements which are historical in
nature.
6. Knowledge of ratios only is meaningless unless it is also found how it is made
up.
7. Lack of homogeneity of data, personal judgment lack of consistency etc. is the
factors which limit the conclusion to be derived on the basis of accounting
ratios.

METHODS OF LEAST SQUARES (TREND VALUES)

By the method of lease square, a straight line trend can be fitted to the
given time series of data. It is a mathematical, as well as, analytical method. With
its help, economic and business time series data can be fitted and this helps in
forecasting and predicting. The trend line is called the line of best fit. The sum of
deviations of the actual

values of Y and the trend value (Yc) is 0 and sum of

square of deviations of the actual value and the trend value is the least.

(Y-Yc) = 0 and (Y- Yc) = least. So this method is called the least squares method
or the line of best fit.
The method of least squares cab be used to explain the linear and non
linear trend i.e. a straight line trend or parabolic trend.
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The straight line trend or the first degree parabola is represented by the
mathematical equation.
Yc = a + bx
Yc = require trend value
X = unit of time

Here a and b are constants or unknowns.


In the equation for the first degree parabola Yc = a + bx, the values of the
unknown or constants can be calculated by the following two normal equations.
Y

Na +bx

xY =

ax +bX2

the numbers or months for which data are given

When x = 0, the equation will take the form of


Y

Na

bx

xY =

bx2

bx2 =

by these equation we can know the values of a and b i.e


a

Y/N and

xY / x2

the mean value of Y values


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rate of change

3. COMPARATIVE STATEMENT ANALYSIS :


Comparative statement is those statements, which have designed in a way,
so as to provide time perspective to the consideration of the various elements of
financial position embodied in such statements. In such statements figures for
two or more periods are placed side by side to facilitate comparison. The two
statements are proposed for comparison. They are comparative income statement
and comparative Balance Sheet.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Nowadays due to the policy of the changing government and also due to the
competition in the globalize era, the financial performance of the BHEL is not
appreciable. Though the company developed well, it could not earn much profit as
like the other private sectors company invilved in similar business. There is no
proper instruction from the authorities and from the ministry. Further there is
considerable delay in implementing the new system because of more formalities to
change the existing system. The financial performance of the BHEL should be

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analyzed well increase the profit and make the company to compete with others
doing similar business.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:


Every company must consider their liquidity position, profitability and
solvency position and also the main attention should be on smooth working
capital position.
For this analysis the ratios, working capital requirements for the next five
years period to enables meaningful planning for the future.
Researcher worked and applied various tables in relevant ratio from the
data collection in Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Researcher giving
more suitable idea to the management and developed the company in
various way. Researcher analysis some table in statistical approaches of
trend line.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:


The study has the following objectives.
To provide a strong theoretical framework for analyzing financial
statements.
To study the growth profile of the company during the study period.
To study the financial position of the company and operation of Bharat
Heavy Electricals Limited
To appraise financial soundness of the company.
To offer suggestions for improvement in the company.

SCOPE OF STUDY:
The study mainly attempts to analyze the financial performance of the
company selected for the study. The financial authorities can use this for
evaluating their performance in future, which will help to analyze financial
statements and help to apply the resources of the company properly for the
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development of the company and IT employees to bring overall growth. The


present study attempt to develop a trend analysis model for Sales and Working
Capital and Profit and Loss Accounts. There can be forecasting to evaluate the
overall performance of the Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited in future.

RESEARCH METHODOLGY
Methods of data collection;Secondary data
The secondary data is derived from the annual reports, Business line and
finance newspapers websites and

the internal auditing books of BHEL

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES USED:


To analyze and interpret the financial statements of the study unit the
following tools are used in the study.
1. Ratio Analysis.
2. Trend Analysis. (Least square Method)
3. Comparative statement Analysis
The interpretations are also printed graphically using trend line graphs and
sub-dividing bar diagram.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Financial Statement Analysis
The Hershey Company engages in the manufacture, marketing, distribution,
and sale of various types of chocolate and confectionery, refreshment and snack
products, and food and beverage enhancers in the United States and
internationally. The Hershey Company sells its products through sales
representatives and food brokers, primarily to wholesale distributors, chain
grocery stores, mass merchandisers, chain drug stores, vending companies,
wholesale clubs, convenience stores, dollar stores, concessionaires, department
stores, and natural food stores. The company was founded in 1894 and is based in
Hershey, Pennsylvania. The Hershey Company went public on the New York
Stock Exchange (NYSE) in 1922 (http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=HSY).

Tootsie Roll Industries, Inc., through its subsidiaries, engages in the


manufacture and sale of confectionery products. The company sells its products
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under the registered trademarks. It distributes its products through candy and
grocery brokers to wholesale distributors of candy and groceries, supermarkets,
variety stores, dollar stores, chain grocers, drug chains, discount chains,
cooperative grocery associations, warehouse and membership club stores, vending
machine operators, the U.S. military, and fund-raising charitable organizations.

Tootsie Roll Industries operates in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
The company was founded in 1896 and is based in Chicago, Illinois. The Tootsie
Roll Industries, Inc. went public on the NYSE in 1927 (http:// finance. yahoo.
com/q/pr?s=TR).

The Hershey Company and the Tootsie Roll Company both are
companies in confection industry; they specialize in a wide variety of chocolate
candy products. I compared both companies for the years 2002, 2003, and 2004
against each other and against the industry averages in order to make a decision
about which company investors would choose to invest in. The comparisons I used
to make this decision were ratios for liquidity, solvency, and profitability.

Review Of Financial Statements


It is said that companies will come and go, and those that survive and left
standing will teach other companies, how their survived.

We will take two

companies; UPS and Ebay, Inc break them down and show you how they got their
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start. In our paper, it will also be discussed and show a review of their financial
statements from each one. The point is to get a better picture of where a company
started, the competition it endured, and the money that was possibility projected
for the start. This paper will also show how auditors are essential to the running
company.
Review of Financial Statements Brief overview UPS, a delivery service, has been
around for about 100 years.
James E. Casey started the company on $100 borrowed from a friend of his.
Casey, who was 19 years old when he started UPS, had worked for delivery
services before and wanted to start a better delivery system of his own.
The American Messenger company, what UPS was previously called,
started in Seattle, Washington and had many competitors in the beginning. His
business not only survived among them, but thrived (UPS, n.d.). Today the
company serves over 200 countries delivering goods, funds, and information
(UPS, n.d., 1). UPS has several stores located in these countries, including the
United States, where people can not only have their packages sent, but they can
also buy delivery products from them as well.
On September 5, 1995, Piere Omidyar founded eBay sitting in his living room.
eBay got it first start with a lie stating that it was founded to help Omidyars
finacee trade Pez candy dispensers and that lie was back by a public relations
manager in 1997. (eBay, n.d., 2) In 1997 Jeffery Skoll became the first president of
eBay. eBay original name was Auction Web Omidyar did not like that name so he
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changed it to Echo Bay.com but that name was taken so he change it to Ebay.com
and on September 21,1989 Omidrar and Skoll went public and became
billionaires.

COMPANY PROFILE
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in
the energy related/infrastructure sector.

BHEL was established more than four

decades age ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment ushering in


the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India. BHEL has built
over the years, a robust domestic market position by becoming the largest supplier
of power plant equipment in India, and by developing strong market presence in
select segments of industrial sector and the Railways. Currently, 80% of the
Nuclear power generated in the country is through BHEL sets.

BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation
and Transmission. Industry, Transportation, Renewable Energy, Defence, etc. The
wide network of BHELs 14 manufacturing divisions, 4 power sector regional
centres, 8 service centres, 15 regional offices, one subsidiary co., Joint Ventures
and a large number of Project Sites spread all over India and large number of
Project Sites spread all over India and abroad enables the Company to promptly
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serve its customers and provide them with suitable products, systems and services
efficiently and at competitive prices.

BHEL, where Quality Systems as per ISO-9000 have taken deep roots, has
now made significant achievements in Total Quality Management by adopting the
CII/EFQM model for Business Excellence. BHEL became the first Public Sector
Company in the country to win the coveted PRIZE through Haridwar unit under
the CII Exim Award Scheme. BHELs Bhopal & Jhansi Units and Power Sector
Northern and Eastern Regions have also won the Commendations for Significant
achievement/Strong commitment to TOM during 2008-09. Also BHELs insulator
plant at Jagdishur won the commendation by R K Bajaj Quality award. BHEL
shares the growing global concern on issues related to Environment and
Occupational Health and Safety. Major Units of BHEL have been accredited to
ISO-14001 Environmental Management Systems and to OHSAS-18001 for
Occupational Health and Safety Systems.

For the third consecutive year, BHELs performance was recognized by the
prestigious publication Forbes Asia, which featured BHEL in its fourth annual
Forbes 50 list of the best of Asia-Pacifics publicly-traded companies with
revenues or market capitalization of at least US$ 5 billion, having highest longterm profitability and sales & earnings growth. Significantly, BHEL is the only
India PSU to figure on the elite list, since the list was conceived. BHEL is the
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only Indian PSU to figure on the elite list, since the list was conceived. BHEL and
its 4 units were awarded ICWAI Awards for Excellence in Cost Management for
2008 the highest among both public and private sector companies. BHEL won
EEPCs top Export Award for the eighteenth year in succession.

POWER GENERATION
BHEL manufactures a wide range of products and systems for thermal,
nuclear, gas and hydro-based utility power plants to meet customer requirements
for power generation. BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing power
projects from Concept to Commissioning. BHEL-built power generating sets
account for nearly two-third of the overall Installed capacity and around threefourth of the power generated in India. BHEL supplies steam turbines, generators,
boilers and matching auxiliaries upto 800 MW ratings including supercritical sets
of 600/800 MW. BHEL has facilities to go up to 1000 MW unit size. BHELmake steam turbines are designed to achieve higher efficiencies. To make efficient
use of high ash content coal available in India. BHEL also supplies circulating
fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boilers for thermal plants. BHEL manufactures
220/235/500/540 MWe Nuclear turbine-generator sets. BHEL is the only India
company capable of manufacturing large-size gas-based power plant equipment,
comprising advanced-class gas turbines up to 289 MW (ISO) RATING for open
and combined-cycle operations. BHEL engineers and manufactures custom-built
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hydro power equipment. Its range covers turbines of Francis, Pelton and Kaplan
type, pump turbines, bulb turbines and mini-micro hydro plants, with matching
generators, for different head-discharge combinations.

The Company has proven expertise in Plant Performance improvement


through Renovation, Modernization and Uprating of variety of power plant
equipment, besides specialized know-how of residual life assessment, health
diagnostics and life extension of plants. It has retained 100% share of R&M
market of Thermal sets in the country in 2008-09.
BHEL built thermal sets consistently exceed the national average efficiency
parameters, and have achieved the highest-ever Plant Load Factor (PLF) of 80.5%
(overall) during 2008-09, which is 3.5% higher than the national average. Overall
Operating Availability (OA) was also the higher-ever at 88.4%.
BHEL is the one of the few companies worldwide, involved in the
development of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology
which would user in clean technology.

BHEL offers a large variety of control equipment and solutions, for power
stations ranging from simple control systems to single push-button automation.
Company has expertise of supplying complete Systems for entire power stations
comprising Boiler, Turbine and Balance of Plant (BoP).
INDUSTRIES
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BHEL is a leading manufacturer of a variety of electrical, electronic and


mechanical equipment, to meet the demands of a number of industries, like
metallurgical, mining, cement, paper, fertilizers, refineries & petro-chemicals, etc.
other than power utilities.

BHEL has supplied systems and individual products

including a large number of co-generation Captive power plants, Centrifugal


compressors, Drive Turbines, Industrial boilers and auxiliaries, Waste heat
recovery boilers, Gas turbines, Pumps, Heat exchangers, Electrical machines,
Valves, Heavy castings and forgings, Electrostatic precipitators, ID/FD fans,
Seamless pipes, etc. to a number of industries other than power utilities. BHEL has
also emerged as a major supplier of controls and instrumentation systems,
especially distributed digital control systems for various power plants and
industries. BHEL is the leading company in the world having mastered the art of
burning Naptha in Gas turbines. Industry sector is fully geared to execute EPC
contracts for captive power plants from concept of commissioning.
TRANSPORTATION
Today, over 70% of Indian Railways, one of the largest railway networks in
the world is equipped with traction equipment built by BHEL.

BHELs

involvement in the transportation sector has been marked with rapid growth. Most
of the trains in Indian Railways, whether electric or diesel powered, are equipped
with BHELs traction propulsion system and controls. The range includes traction
motors, traction generators/alternators, transformers, substation equipment,
vacuum circuit breakers, locomotive bogies, smoothing reactors, exciters,
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converters, inverters, choppers and associated control equipment, viz., master


controllers, chopper controllers, brake and door equipment, electronic controls
including software based controls extending to rolling stock and other transport
applications.
BHEL has manufactured and supplied a large number of 3000 HP electric
locomotives and 4700 HP AC/DC locomotives to Indian Railways and dieselelectric locomotives ranging from 350 HP to 2600 HP to cement, steel and
fertilizer plants, thermal power stations, coal fields, ports and other medium and
large industries and urban transportation projects. Diesel Multiple Units,
underground Metro-rail system at Kolkata, Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) service
at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Delhi are all operating on drives and controls
supplied by BHEL. BHEL has also established itself as a leading supplier of stateof-the-art propulsion equipment to Indian Railways for 3-phase drive 6000 HP
electric locos, 4000 HP diesel-electric locos, electrical multiple units, etc.
BHEL has also diversified into the area of track maintenance machines and
coach building for Indian railways and undertakes retrofitting and overhauling of
rolling stock.
Development of 3-phase IGBT based propulsion system for AC-EMU and
AC-DEMU is also underway in association with technology partner.
RENEWALBLE ENERGY
BHEL has made rapid strides in this strategically important area of nonconventional energy, which holds the key to the problem of burgeoning energy
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needs, on the one hand and rapidly depleting fossil-based energy sources, on the
other.

Range of Renewable Energy product and systems manufactured and

supplied includes a number of solar water heating systems, solar photo-voltaic


(SPV) systems for both Domestic and Industrial application and wind electric
generators all over India. BHEL also has the capability to set up Grid-connected
and Hybrid SPV Power Plants. In addition, BHEL fabricates space-grade solar
panels and space-quality batteries for satellites launched by ISRO. BHEL is also
supplying small hydro power plants (up to 25 MW station capacity) for distributed
power generation.

OIL AND GAS


BHEL possesses expertise to design, manufacture and service various types
of onshore rigs to suit the Indian service conditions. The range of equipment
covers onshore deep drilling rigs, super- deep drilling rigs, heli-rigs, work-over
rigs, mobile rigs and desert rigs with matching draw works and hoisting
equipment. The diesel-electric oil rigs for onshore drilling made by BHEL are
suitable for depths up to 9,000 metres.

BHEL is supplying onshore drilling rig equipment viz. Draw works,


Rotary-table, Travelling block, Swivel, Mast and sub structure, Mud systems and
Rig electrics, Well & X-Mas tree valves upto 10,000 psi rating for onshore as well
as offshore application to ONGC, Oil India Ltd. and Private drilling Companies.
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BHEL has also supplied casing Support System, Mudline Suspension System and
Block Valves to ONGC for refurbishment and up-gradation of onshore Oil Rigs.
BHEL has supplied GT driven centrifugal compressor packages to GAIL
India Ltd for their gas compressor stations.

TRANSMISSION
BHEL is present in the field of power transmission in India with a wide
range of transmission systems and products. The products manufactured by BHEL
include Power transformers, Instrument transformers, Dry type transformers,
Instrument transformers, Dry type transformers, Shunt reactors, vacuum and SF6
switchgear, Gas insulated switchgears, Ceramic insulators, Gas insulated
switchgears, Ceramic insulators, etc. Major critical hardware such as capacitor
banks, circuit breakers, control and protection equipment and thyristor valves are
in its manufacturing range.

BHEL has developed and commissioned indigenous 36KV and 145KV Gas
insulated Substation (GIS). HVDC Disc insulators of rating 320kN/420kN base,
the company undertakes turnkey execution of substations up to 400KV and has the
capability to execute 765 KV substations. High voltage Direct Current (HVDC)
systems have been supplied for economic transmission of bulk power over long
distances have been developed and supplied for the first time in the country for use
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in _+800KV HVDC application. BHEL has indigenously developed and


commercialized state-of-the-art controlled shunt reactor for reactive power
management of long transmission lines.

With string engineering the Company accepts full project responsibility for
feasibility / system studies, execution and commissioning of fixed Series
Compensation / controlled shunt Reactor schemes. BHEL has a team of experts
with extensive on the job exposure for design and applications relating to Power
System Studies, Feasibility Studies, Insulation Coordination etc.

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
BHEL has, over the years, established its references in 70 countries across
the world. These references encompass almost the entire range of BHEL products
and services, covering Thermal, Hydro and gas based turnkey power projects,
Substation projects, Rehabilitation projects, besides a wide variety of products like
Transformers,

Compressors,

Valves,

Oil

field

equipment,

Electrostatic

Precipitators, Photovoltaic equipment, Insulators, Heat Exchangers, Switchgears,


Castings and Forgings etc.

The company has taken significant steps towards globalisation with successful
forays in new markets and new product areas, apart from firmly establishing the
companys presence in existing export markets and areas.
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Some of the major successes achieved by BHEL have been in Gas-based


power projects in Oman, Libya, Malaysia, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Bangladesh,
Sri Lanks, China, Kazakhstan; Thermal power projects in Cyprus, Malta, Libya,
Egypt, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Sudan, Syria, Ethiopia, Senegal, New
Calendonia ; Hydro power plants in New Zealand, Malaysia, Azerbaijan, Bhutan,
Nepal, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Afghanistan, Vietnam, Rwanda; Compressors
in Oman, Iraq, France and Substation projects & equipment in Philippines,
Ghana, Tanzania, Laos, Malaysia, Libya, Zambia, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Ethiopia,
Nepal, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan, Execution of these overseas projects has also
provided BHEL the experience of working with world renowned consulting
organizations and inspection agencies.

The company has been successful in meeting the demanding requirements


of international markets in terms of complexity of work as well as technology,
quality and other requirements viz. HSE requirements, financing packages and
associated O&M services, to name a few. BHEL has proved its capability to
undertake projects on fast- track basis. The company has also established its
versatility to successfully meet the varying needs of different sectors, be it captive
power, utility power generation or the oil sector. Besides undertaking turnkey
projects on its own, BHEL also possesses the requisite flexibility to interface and

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complement other international companies for large projects, and has also
exhibited products.
The company is taking a number of strategic business initiatives to fuel
further growth in overseas business. Strategic alliances has been established in
Rwanda-AIL, Ethiopia-OIA. Senegal Nykomb, Indonesia MFI, for taking up
EPC on partnership basis. Reference for large Unit size rating has been created by
securing an order for Steam Turbine based Tishreen Thermal Power Plant on EPC
basis from Syria for 2x200MW Units. International visibility is also exhibited by
participating in International exhibitions in Egypt, Vietnam, Syria & South Africa
and wining best exhibitor award.
Technology Up-gradation, Research & Development
To meet the Customers expectation of contemporary technologies and
faster deliveries company lays great emphases on the continuous up- gradation of
products & related technologies, and development of new products. The Company
has upgraded its products to contemporary levels through continuous in house
efforts as well as through acquisition of new technologies from leading
engineering organizations of the world.

The corporate R&D Division at Hyderabad leads BHELS research efforts


in a number of areas of importance to BHELS product range. Research and
product development centers at each of the manufacturing divisions play a
complementary role. Centres of excellence have been set up for Simulators,
28

computational Fluid Dynamics, Permanent Magnet Machines and Surface


Engineering. As the fifth in the series, BHEL has established a centre of
Excellence for Intelligent Machines and Robotics (COEIMAR ). Centre of
excellence is being established for Compressors & Pumps.

In addition to the Corporate R&D Division, BHEL has four specialized


institutes, viz., Welding Research Institute at Trichy, ceramic Technological
Institute at Bangalore, Centre for Electric Traction and Hydro lab at Bhopal and
Pollution Control Research Institute at Haridwar.
BHEL has introduced, several state of the- art products viz. 60MW
Bubbling Fluidised

Bed Combustion Boiler for power generation, 260 MW

steam turbine designed to suit combined cycle power plants, Bypass Over Fire Air
(BOFA) system for reduction of NOx from coal based thermal power plants, highefficiency Frances and Pelton hydro turbines, new LP turbine variant which can be
retrofitted in old Russian (LMW) 210MW thermal sets, Automatic Storage &
Retrieval system (ASRS) for storage and inventory management system of the
Indian Army, Solar Panels with 5500 watts output consisting of high-efficiency
multi-junction solar cells, satellite batteries for NSAT 4A, Controlled Shunt
Reactor (CSR) for 400KV Transmission lines, Flexible AC Transmission Systems
(FACTS), STATCOM, Phase Shifting Transformer (PST), 145KV Gas Insulated
Switchgear (GIS), Micro controller based flame scanner, a more energy efficient
single cylinder non reheat Steam turbine in 100-140 MW application, single
29

cylinder reheat Steam turbine in 120-150MW range, Deaerator for 1000 MW


power plants, combined HP-IP module in the output range of 500-650 MW with
subcritical parameters, IGBT based 3-phase drive system for 700HP diesel electric
locomotives, technology for manufacture of

400KV long- rod composite

insulators with improved properties by adding nano materials, performance


Analysis,

320kN/420kN

Porcelain

insulators,

800KV

hollow

insulator,

Diagnostics and Optimization (PADO) package for power plants, 91 ton BHEL
280 Bowl Mill, etc. Design has been developed for new module THRI brushless
exciter for adoption of advance feature for 800 MW exciter.

Reinforcing its position as a total solution provider, BHEL has developed


and successfully commissioned a Maintenance Controller (an Integrated Asset
Management and Decision Support System) at the Western Mountain Power
Project, Libya. Based on Power Pac-G, software jointly developed by BHEL and
TCS, this is a system for complete power plant maintenance for Combined Cycle
Power Plant application and takes care of all the maintenance needs of a power
station.
The company is also engaged on research on futuristic areas like fuel cells
for distributed environment-friendly power generation, clean coal technology
applications, standardization of electrode making process, development of process
for addition of Nano/Micro particles for improving material characteristics, super
conductivity applications in transformers, generators/motors etc. With an array of
30

new technologies at its command, BHEL is confident of meeting the challenges


ahead and fulfilling its responsibilities as the premier engineering and
manufacturing enterprise of India.
Human Resource Development Institute
The Human Resource Development Institute (HRDI) situated in Noida, is
the corner stone of BHELS learning Infrastructure, along woth the Advanced
Technical Education Centre (ATEC) at Hyderabad and the Human Resource
Development Centres (HRDCs) at different units. Through various organizational
developmental efforts, these centres

ensure that the prime resource of the

organization the Human Capital is always in a state of readiness to meet the


dynamic challenges posed by the fast changing environment. it is their constant
Endeavour to take the HRD activities to the strategic level of becoming an active
partner in achieving the organizational goals.
Guided by the HRD Mission statement To promote and inculcate a valuebased culture utilizing the fullest potential of Human Resources for achieving the
BHEL Mission, the HRDI through a step by step strategic long term training
process and several short term need based programmes based on comprehensive
organizational research, enables the human resources to unearth and polish their
potential. HRDI is spearheading the HRD initiatives in the company and focusing
on competency, commitment and culture building.
Some of the Core programmes, Strategic need based programmes;
Competency based programmes and Functional Programmes like Advanced
31

Management Programmes,

General Management Programmes,

Strategic

Management Programmes, Senior Management Programmes, Missle Management


Programmes, and Young Managers Programmes.
In addition, the HRDI provides professional support to Corporate HR and HRDCs
at Units/Divisions. HRDI is also accepting consulting assignments from other
organizations in a selective manner.

Health, Safety and Environment Management


BHEL is an environment friendly company in all its activities, products and
services, providing safe and healthy working environment to all stakeholders, In
fact this aspect has become an integral part of the companys business
performances. Environment improvement Administrative ministry. Some of the
major EIPs at BHEL plants & townships included tree plantation drives,
installation of rain water harvesting plants, Energy and Conservation Projects
utilizing efficient technologies, reduction in noise level, improvement in chemical
storage & handling systems, improvement in fumes extraction systems, Resource
conservation Plants (Lubricants/ Metals/Coolants), utilization of Non-conventional
energy resources etc.
Significantly, BHEL has also taken initiatives on Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM) projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in amore focused
way and vigorous efforts are being made to achieve milestones in this area. A
broad reference list of CDM activity projects both of in house implementation
32

and joint claim projects with customers has been generated. CDM is a planned
activity for each unit and carbon credit forms part of budgeted activity.
In conformity with BHELs concern for society and environment, a mote
energy efficient single cylinder non- reheat steam turbine for 100-140MW
application has been developed, suitable for plants where large amount of waste
heat is available and reheat option is not feasible This is the largest single cylinder
steam turbine engineered so far by BHEL.
All manufacturing Units/Regions of the company are accredited to international
standards viz. ISO-14001 certification for environmental management and
OHSAS-18001 certification for occupational health safety management systems.

Corporate Social Responsibility


BHEL has developed a CSR scheme and its mission Statement of CSR isBe a Committed Corporate Citizen, alive towards its Corporate Social
Responsibility.
Thrust is being given in eight areas-Self employment generation,
Environment

protection,

Community

development,

Education,

Health

management & medical aids, Orphanages & Old-age Homes, Infrastructural


development

and

Disaster/

Calamity

Management.

Quarterly

and

Disaster/Calamity Management. Quarterly and annual CSR reports are prepared


containing the activities carried out, benefits accrued to neighboring communities,
the number of people benefited and the amount spent etc.
33

BHEL adopted 56 villages having nearly 80,000 inhabitants. In addition ,


BHEL provides financial assistance to various NGOs/ Trusts/Social Welfare
Societies that are engaged in social activities throughout the country.

Participation in the UNs Global Compact Programme


The company reiterate its commitment to United Nations Global compact
programme and the set of core values enshrined in its ten principles and the intent
to advance Global Compact principles within the companys sphere of influence
on human rights, labour standards, environment and anti corruption. As the
worlds largest global compact is the first and the citizenship initiative, the Global
Compact is the first and the foremost concern which is exhibiting and building the
social legitimacy of

business and markets. BHEL has made these a part of the

strategy, culture and day-to-day operations. As part of this programme, BHEL


continues to play a lead role in the activities of the Global Compact Society in
India, which acts as an apex level nodal agency representing Indian corporate
bodies and institutions / organizations that are committed to UNs Global Compact
Programmes. Company publicly advocates with its employees and other
stakeholders and regularly incorporates its commitments towards Global compact
programme through its Annual report, press conferences and other public
documents.

BHEL - AN OVERVIEW
34

BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in


the energy, related/ infrastructure & sector today. BHEL has built over the years,
robust domestic market position by becoming the largest supplier of power plant
equipment in India, and by developing

a strong market. Presence in select

segments of the industries sector, and the Railway.

BHEL was established more than 40 years ago whering in the indigenous
Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India, a dream which has been more that
realized

with a well recognized

track record of performance. Defying

the

scourge of worldwide recession, in 2008-09, BHEL save a spectacular top line


growth of 31% with a turnover of Rs.28,033 crore and net profit rising by 9,8%
toRs.3,138 crore over the privies year. Order inflow diving 2008-09 was at record
high of Rs.59, 618 crore with total orders in hand in the 2 nd quarter of 2009 at
Rs.1,25,800 crore. The
worldwide

cumulative capacity of BHELs

projects installed

stands at around 1,05,000 mw BHELs manufacturing

capacity

expansion from 10000 MW.pa.to 15000 MW pa. is proceeding apace and plans
are afoot to hike this further to 20006 MW pa by 2011-12.

Global Liknks :The achievements have earned an international reputation

of BHEL,

Trichy. The plant has so far supplied boilers for around 1350 MW of power
generation capacity to Malaysis, Libya, Iran, Eqypt etc. BHELs valves have
35

been exported to Malts, Cyprus, Malaysia , and Indonesia while pressure part
equipment and spares have been exported to the USA, boiler components have
been supplied to China and secemles steal Tubas have been exported to Malaysia.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA


In this an attempt has been made to analysis how efficiently the analysis
of Financial statement is managed in Bharat Heavy Electricals limited. Financial
tools such as schedule of changes in ratio analysis, least squares, comparative
statements have been used for the purpose of analysis.
The financial statement involves recording classifying and summarizing of
various business transactions. It is prepared for the purpose of presenting a
periodical review or report of the progress made by the concern and deals with
the state of the investment, in the business and result achieved during the
accounting period. Financial statement, income statement and position statement
are the outcome of accounting process.
Ratio analysis is a technique of analysis and interpretation of financial
statements. It is used as a device to analysis and interpret the financial health of a
firm. Analysis of a financial statement with the aid of ratio helps to arrangements
in decision making control.

36

1) Current Ratio
Current ratio may be defined as the relationships between current assets and
current liabilities. It is the most common ratio for measuring liquidity. It is
calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities. Current assets are
those, the amount of which can be realized within a period of one year. Current
liabilities are those amounts which are payable within a period of one year. A
current ratio of 2:1 is considerable ideal.
Current Assets
Current Ratio =
Current liabilities

TABLE 4.1 Current Ratio

Year
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

Current Assets
13343
16331
21063
27705
36901

Current liabilities
8446
10321
14420
19821
28333

37

Current Ratio
1.57
1.58
1.46
1.39
1.30

Interpretation
Current ratio during the year 10-11 is the 1.57. In the next year 2011-12 it
was maximum 1.58 and in the year 2012-13 it was 1.46. In the year 2013-14 the
current ratio is 1.39 and in the last year 2014-15 the current ratio decreased to
1.30.

The ideal value of current ratio 2:1, but during the period of study, the
current ratio is lesser than the standard. This shows the current ratio to shows a
do down ward which indicates the inefficiency of the company to meet its current
obligations

2) Liquid Ratio:The teem Liquidity refers to the ability of a firm to pay its short term
obligations as and when they become due. The term quick assets or liquid assets
refers current assets, which can be converted into cash immediately. It comprises
38

all current assets except stock and prepaid expenses. It is determined by dividing
quick assets by quick liabilities.
Liquid Assets
Liquid Ratio =
Liquid Liabilities

TABLE 4.2 Liquid Ratio


(in crores)
Year
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

Current Assets
10427
12587
21021
27648
36823

Current liabilities
8446
10321
14420
19821
28333

39

Current Ratio
1.23
1.21
1.45
1.39
1.29

Interpretation
Liquid ratio during the year 2010-2011 it attains the maximum value of
5.20. in the above year it was slightly reduced to 2011 12 to 1.23. In the next
year, 2012-13 it further decreased to 1.21 and in the next year 2014-15 1.39.

During the period of study, the value of liquid ratio is higher than the ideal
value

which indicates

the efficiency of the company to meet is immediate

requirements. The overall trend of liquid ratio shows up and down ward trend

3) Proprietory Ratio :
Proprietory ratio relates to the proprietors funds to total assets. It revels
the owners contribution to the total value of assets. This ratio shows the long
time solvency of the business. It is calculated by dividing proprietors funds by
the total tangible assets.
Proprietors Funds
Proprietary Ratio

------------------------------Total Tangible Assets


40

TABLE 4.3 Proprietory Ratio

Year
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

Proprietary Fund

Total

Proprietary

6027
7301
8788
10774
12939

Assets
14483
17498
22354
29344
39528

Ratio
0.41
0.41
0.39
0.36
0.32

Interpretation
Proprietory ratio during the year 2010-11 and 2011-12 it attains the
maximum value of 0.41. In the year2012-13 the proprietory ratio was slightly
reduced to 0.39. In the next year, 2013-14 It further reduced to 0.36. During the
year 2014-15 it further decreased to 0.32.

CHART NO.3
41

4) Fixed Assets to Net Worth Ratio:


This ratio shows the relationship between fixed assets and proprietors
funds. The purpose of this ratio is to fend out the percentage of the owners fund
invested in fixed assets.
Fixed Assets
Fixed Assets to Net worth Ratio

------------------------------Proprietors funds

TABLE - 4.4 fixed assets to Net worth Ratio


(in crores)

Year
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014

Fixed asset

Proprietory

Fixed asset to Net

1140
1167
1291
1639

Fund
6027
7301
8788
10774

worth ratio
0.18
0.15
0.14
0.15

42

2014-2015

2627

12939

0.20

Interpretation
Fixed asset to Net worth Ratio during the year 2010-11 was 0.18. it was
slightly reduced to 0.14 in the 2011-12 year. In the next year 2012-13 and 2013-14
the net worth ratio 0.15. The same is increased to a maximum of 0.20 in the year
2014-2015

CHART NO.4

43

5) Net Profit Ratio


Net Profit Ratio establishes a relationship between net profit (after taxes)
and sales. It is determined by dividing the net income after tax to the net sales for
the period and measures the profit per rupees of sales.
Net Profit
Net Profit Ratio

------------------------------- x 100

44

Sales
TABLE- 4.5 Net Profit Ratio
(in crores)

Year
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

Net Profit
953
1679
2415
2859
3138

Sales

Net Profit

10336
14,525
18739
21401
28033

Ratio
9.2%
11.6%
12.9%
13.4%
11.20%

Interpretation
From the table, it is found that the net profit has been fluctuating during the
study period. In the year 2010-11 the net profit ratio was 9.2%. In the year 201112 it was increased to 11.6%. In the next year 2012-13 it was further increased
12.9%. During the year 2013-14 there was a slight increases to 13.4%. During the
year 2014-15 the net profit ratio was 11.20%.

CHART NO.5

45

6) Stock Turnover Ratio:


This ratio Indicates whether investment in inventory is efficiently used or
not. It explains whether investment in inventories in within proper limits or not. It
also measures the effectiveness of the firms sales efforts. The ratio is calculated
as follows.
Cost of goods sold
Stock Turnover

------------------------------Average Stock
46

Cost of goods sold =

Sales- Gross Profit

Average stock

Opening stock + Closing stock


-------------------------------------2

TABLE 4.6 STOCK TURNOVER RATIO


(in crores)
Year

Cost of goods

Average

Stock

2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

sold
8673
11902
14960
16936
23153

Stock
2919
3653
4971
7097
9350

Turnover Ratio
2.97
3.25
3.00
2.38
2.47

Interpretation
From the table, it is found that the stock Turnover ratio has been fluctuating
during the study period. In the year 2010-11 it was 2.97, It increases during the
year 2011-12 was slightly to 3.25. In the year 2012-13 it was 3.00 and decreases
to 2.38 in the year 2013-14 and during the year 2014-2015 it was increased to
2.47.
CHART NO.6

47

7) Debtors turnover ratio


The purpose of this ratio is to discuss the credit collector power and policy
of the firm. This ratio is established between account receivable and net credit
sales of the period. The debtors turnover ratio is calculated as follows.
Credit Sales
Debtors Turnover Ratio

-------------------------------

Average Account receivables


48

Average account receivables

Total Debtors and B/R

TABLE No.4.7 Debtor Turn over (Rs in crores)


Year

Sales

Sundry debtors Debtors turn over ratio

2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

Rs
10336
14525
18739
21401
28033

Rs
5972
7168
9695
11975
15976

1.73
2.02
1.93
1.78
1.75

Interpretation
From the table, it is found that the Debtor Turnover ratio has been
fluctuating during the study period. In the year 2006-07 it was 1.73, It increases
during the year 2007-08 was slightly to 2.02. In the year 2008-09 it was
decreased to 1.93 and decreases to 1.78 in the year 2009-10 and during the year
2010-2011 it was further decreased to 1.75
CHART NO.7

49

8) Average debt collection period


The average number of days that lapsed between the receipt of the invoice
by customers and the actual payment of the invoice . When measured against the
50

credit terms obtained from suppliers, average the account period shows the
length of time during which the firm is financing the account receivable either
with its own funds or borrowed funds. The radio may be calculated as follows:

Debtors B/R
Average debt collection period

------------------------------Net Credit sales

ABLE - 4.8 Debt Collection Period


(in crores)
Year
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

Debtors
5972
7169
9695
11975
15976

Credit Sales

Debt Collection

10336
14525
18739
21401
28033

Period
210 days
180 days
188 days
204 days
208 days

Interpretation
Debt Collection period ratio in the year 2010-11 was 210 days. In next year
11-12 it further reduced to 180 days. In the next year 2012-13 it was 188 days.
In the next year 2013-14 it was 204 days. During the years 2014-15 it was 208
days.

51

From the above it is inferred that the debt collection period shows a fluting
trend, which indicates quick recovery of money from debtors and also indirectly
shows that the management in highly efficient in collecting debts promptly.

CHART NO.8

52

9) Creditors turnover ratio:


It indicates the number of times on the average that the creditors turnover
each year. Creditors turnover ratio indicates the number of items the accounts
payable rotate in a year. It signifies credit period enjoyed by the firm in paying its
creditors. Account payable include traded creditors and bills payable.
.

Credit Purchases
Creditors Turnover Ratio

------------------------------Average account payable

TABLE 4.9 Creditor Turnover Ratio


(in crores)
Year
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

Credit Purchase

Average Account

Creditor

4892
6866
10182
11821
17620

payable
2100
284
3538
4424
5852

Turnover ratio
2.32
24.17
2.87
2.67
3.0

The creditor Turnover ratio during the year 2010-11 was 2.32. In the year
2011-12 it was increased to 24.17. In the year 2012-13 creditors turnover ratio
53

slightly reduced to 2.87. In the year 2013-14it was reduced to 2.67. During the
year 2014-15 it was increased to 3.0
From the above it in inferred that the creditors turnover ratio shows an
upward trend which indicates that the company is highly efficient in making.
Speedy settlements of debts to its creditors.

CHART NO.9

54

10) Average Payment period :


The radio gives the average credit period enjoyed by the firm from its
creditors. It can be computed as follows.
Creditors + B/P
Average Payment period

------------------------------- X 365 (in

days)
Credit Purchase
A Lower Ratio shows that the creditors being paid promptly. The amount
payable depends upon the purchase policy, the quantum of purchase and suppliers
credit policy.
TABLE 4.10 Average Payment Period
(in crores)

year
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

Credit

Average

Average Payment

Purchase

Creditors

period

4892
6866
10182
11821
17620

2100
284
3538
4424
5852

156 days
15 days
126 days
136 days
121 days

55

The average payment period during the year 2010-11 was 156 days. From
the year 2011-12 it was heavily decreased 15 days. In the year 2012-13 average
payment period was 126 days. In the year 2013-14 it was 136 days. This last year
2014-2015 it was 121 days.

CHART NO.10

56

11) Fixed assets turnover Ratio:


The ratio indicates that extent to which the investments in Fixed assets
contributes towards sales. If compared with a previous year, it indicates whether
the investment in Fixed assets has been judicious or not. The ratio is calculate as
follows.
Sales
Fixed assets turnover ratio =

------------------------------Fixed assets

TABLE 4.11 Fixed asset Turnover ratio


(in crores)
Year
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

Sales
10336
14525
18739
21401
28033

Fixed asset

Fixed asset

1140
1167
1291
1639
2627

Turnover
9.06
12.44
14.51
13.05
10.67

Interpretation
The fixed asset turnover ratio during the year 2010-11 was 9.06. It is found
that the fixed asset turnover ration has been fluctuating during the study period. In
57

the year 2011-12 it was 12.44. In the year 2012-13 it was 14.51. During the year
2013-14 the fixed asset turn over ratio was 13.05. This, last year 2014-2015 it
was decreased to 10.67.
CHART NO.11

12) Capital Turnover Radio:

58

Managerial efficiency is also calculated by establishing the relationship


between cost of sales or sales with the amount of capital invested in the business.
Capital turnover Ratio is calculated with the help of the following formula.
Sales
Capital turnover ratio

--------------------------------------

Net worth (Or) Proprietors fund


TABLE 4.12 Capital Turnover ratio (in crores)
Year

Net worth (or)

2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015

Proprietors fund
6027
7302
8789
10775
12939

Sales

Capital Turnover

10336
14525
18739
21401
28033

ratio
1.71
1.98
2.13
1.98
2.16

Interpretation
It is inferred from the above table the capital turnover ratio for the year
2010-11 was 1.71. In the year 2011-12 it was 1.98. where as In the year was
2012-13 it was increased to 2.13. In the year 2013-14 it was slightly decreased to
1.98. But during the year 2014-15 it was increased further to 2.16.
CHART NO.12

59

FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION


FINDINGS
60

Current ratio shows a document trend indicating the company not able to
fulfill current obligations furthers this also indicate that liquidity position of the
company is less satisfactory.
In all the five years the current ratio is less than the ideals of 2. Creditors
term over ratio shows an upward trend and indicates better credit management.
In all the five years the liquid ratio is higher than the ideal ratio of 1
Common size financial statements clearly shoes the firm allocates half of the total
current assets to debtor.
The firms debt collection period have more than 180days it increased the
debt collection period year by year. It shows firms liberal debt collection policy.
2. Fixed assets turnover was 11% in the year 2010-11.
3. Capital turnover ratio was 2.16 in the year 2010-11.
4. Return on total assets that decreased from 15.09 in the year 2010-2011 to 12.26
in the 2011-2012.
5. Operating ration has increased from 79.1 in the year 07-08 to 82.5 in the year
2010-11
6. Asset turnover ratio was 1.4 in the year 2010-11.
7. Gross profit ratio has come down from 21% in year 2012-2013 to 17% in
2013-14.
8. Sales shows the increasing trend at the rate in every year
.

SUGGESTIONS
61

The current ratio of the company is below the standard ratio in all the 5
years under study , Hence it should be improved at least to the standard.
The debt collection period is more than 180 days which is to be reduced or
the debt collection policy of the company is to be changed.
Suitable training may be imparted to all the executives including labourers
as and when they are recruited.
The gross profit of BHEL has to be increased , this can be done by taking
steps to reduce the cost of sales , which have its own affect over the gross profit.
As the consumption of raw materials holds a wider part in the cost of sales.
Researcher who is in the hands of the company to adopt consistent pricing policy
regarding raw materials which ultimately reduce the cost of sales & which in
tern improves the gross profit in the subsequent years.
The company may take one of the measures for improving more profits,
sale should be enhanced from into end through innovative marketing techniques.
In a competitive business world, unless & other wise aggressive it is very
difficult to achieve its required sales.
The concern must take measures to avoid dead stock which has an
adverse.
Effect over the liquidity

of the concern. The concern is required to

develop an effective inventory management system.


Sales are to be increased to keep with increased in fixed Assets in order
improve its fixed Assets turnover ratio.
62

CONCLUSION
Bharat Heavy Electricals units bying in India come under the purview of
NAVARATNA units. There are 14 more Bharat Heavy Electricals units /
divisions. Of this Bharat Heavy Electricals limited Tiruchirappalli is one the unit
and it earns more profit for every year continuously.
The company has been successful in meeting the demanding requirements
of not only in India but also international markets in terms of complicity of work
as well as Technology etc. BHEL has over the year established its reference in
to700 countries across the world. This unit gives more

employment ie to

thousands and thousands of workers. It gives more protection and safety to the
staff working in it besides more concentration to the welfare of the workers.
BHEL

is developing corporate social responsibility such as self

Employment generation, Environment protection, Education Health management


and medical aids and so an. Its focus attention is on 56 adopted villages having
nearly 80000in habitations in addition to financial assistance.
Finally, I pray God requesting to develop the unit more and in day by day.
BHEL should run in successful manner in future also.

63