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Recommended practice questions: Chapter 12 of Gallian, exercises

30, 31, 32, 33

Chapter 13 of Gallian, exercises

1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 15, 18

Assigned questions to hand in:

(1) (Gallian Chapter 12 # 43) Let R Z Z Z and S

or disprove that S is a subring of R.

a, b, c R : a b

c. Prove

Solution: We will prove that S is not a subring of R. Recall that the operations on the

external direct product are componentwise. Consider 1, 0, 1 and 0, 1, 1, both of which

are elements of S. Then multiplication gives

since 0 0 1. Thus, S is not closed under multiplication and hence is not a subring of R.

(2) (Gallian Chapter 12 #44, special case) Suppose that a2

ring. Show that

a a for all a in the ring.

aa

a a2 a aa a

a2 a2 a2 a2

0

a a,

that is,

a a a a.

a.

a

a2

a

a Thm 12.1.3 aa

a2

a. By assumption,

a.

This solution generalizes to prove the bonus once a general version of Theorem 12.1.3. is

proved.

(3) (Gallian Chapter 13 #10) Describe all zero-divisors and units of Z Q Z.

Solution: We will prove that for x

a, c 1,

1 and b 0, and x is a zero divisor if and only if at least one of a, b, c is 0

(and not all of them are).

First, we prove that 1, b, 1 is a unit (for any choice of b 0) by finding its

multiplicative inverse. Note that the unity of this ring is 1, 1, 1. It is easy to verify that

1, b, 11 1, 1b , 1,

1, b, 11

1, 1b , 1,

1, b,

11 1, 1b ,

1,

1, b,

11

1, 1b ,

1.

Suppose x n, b, c with n 1,

1. Then n is not a unit in Z and so there is no

m Z such that nm 1. But, if y m, d, e is the inverse of x in Z Q Z, then

xy 1, 1, 1 so in particular nm 1. Thus, no such y can exist.

Suppose x a, 0, c. Then for any y n, d, e, the second component of xy is 0 so

xy 1, 1, 1. Thus, x has no multiplicative inverse and is not a unit.

Similar to the first case.

a, 0, 0 for a 0. Then y 0, 1, 1 0, 0, 0 but xy 0, 0, 0.

Consider x

Similarly, if x has at least one zero component then we can find a nonzero element of

Z Q Z whose product with x is 0, 0, 0. Conversely, suppose x is a zero-divisor in

this ring. Then since multiplication is component-wise and Z and Q are each integral

domains, x must have at least one zero component.

(4) (Gallian Chapter 13 #28) Let R be the set of all real-valued functions defined for all real

numbers under function addition and multiplication.

(a) Determine all zero-divisors of R.

(c) Show that every nonzero elements is a zero-divisor or a unit.

Solution:

(a) A function f : R R is a zero-divisor of R if and only if there is some x0 R such

0 if x x0

and notice that f g 0.

that f x 0. In this case, consider g x

1 if x x0

If f has no zeroes then any choice of g such that f g 0 would need f xg x 0

for each x, but f x R and R is a field so no appropriate g x exists.

(c) Suppose f is a nonzero function and is not a zero-divisor. By part (a), that means

that f x 0 for each x R. We will prove that f is a unit. Consider the

1

function g x

, a well-defined real-valued function by our assumption. Then,

f x

f gx

f xg x

Thus, f is a unit.

f x

f x

(5) (Gallian Chapter 13 # 54) Let R be a ring with m elements. Show that the characteristic

of R divides m.

Solution: Let n be the characteristic of R. That is, it is the smallest positive integer

such that na 0 for each a R. Since R is a finite group (under addition), Lagranges

theorem says that the order of each element of R divides m. In particular, for each a R,

0.

ma

By the division theorem, let q

For each a R,

0

ma

m nq r.

q na ra

2

q 0 ra

0 ra

ra.

Thus, the rth multiple of each ring element vanishes. By definition of the characteristic

and since r n, r cannot be positive. Therefore, r 0 and n divides m.

(6) (Gallian Chapter 13 #32) Let R

ulo 10. Prove that R is a field.

Solution: Addition and multiplication modulo 10 are associative and commutative operations, which also satisfy distributivity. Thus, it remains to prove the following:

R is closed under 10 , 10:

10 0 2 4 6 8

10 0 2 4 6 8

0 0 2 4 6 8

0 0 0 0 0 0

2 2 4 6 8 0

2 0 4 8 2 6

4 4 6 8 0 2

4 0 8 6 4 2

6 6 8 0 2 4

6 0 2 4 6 8

8 8 0 2 4 6

8 0 6 2 8 4

R has a unity: 6 acts as the unity of this ring.

Every nonzero element is a unit:

21

41

8,

61

4,

81

6,

2.

(7) (Gallian Chapter 13 #60) In a commutative ring of characteristic 2, prove that the idempotents form a subring. Recall (from question 18) that a is idempotent if a2 a.

Solution: We use the Subring Test.

Nonempty? The additive identity 0 is always idempotent, 0 0 0.

Closure under subtraction? Suppose a2 a and b2 b. Consider

a

b2 a

ba

b

a2

ba a

b b2

Thm 12.1

a

b

ab

a2

ab ab b2

0 for each x, so x

a

b

a

b

b is idempotent.

Closure under multiplication? Suppose a2 a and b2

and we have proved that ab is idempotent.

ab,

Char 2

a

0b

a b.

b. Consider

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