REST-Based Mobile Web Learning Collaboration Tools using Twitter , bit.

ly , and twitpic APIs
Panggi Libersa
Indonesia’s Computer University (UNIKOM) Jalan Dipatiukur 112-114 , Bandung Indonesia

Irawan Afrianto
Indonesia’s Computer University (UNIKOM) Jalan Dipatiukur 112-114 , Bandung Indonesia

root@malcoder.info

Irawan_afrianto@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Microblogging is a new form of communication in which users can describe their current status in short posts distributed by instant messages, mobile phones, email or the Web. Twitter, a popular microblogging tool has seen a lot of growth since it launched in October, 2006. In this paper,the author presents his observations of the microblogging phenomena and show the ability of this to become the learning collaboration tools by combining the power of some REST-Based APIs available on the Internet.

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Keywords
Twitter, Social Media, Collaboration Tools. REST Architecture, Learning

1. INTRODUCTION
Twitter is a social-networking and microb-logging service developed in San Francisco and first launched in October 2006. Twitter posts, or, ‘tweets’, are no longer than 140 characters in length and can include hyperlinks. One becomes a Twitter user, or twitterer, by creating a personal account and by posting tweets to a personalised online news feed, or, as it is more commonly known, a 'timeline' which displays them in reverse chronological order (i.e. most recent at the top). The default setting for Twitter accounts is that user timelines are public unless the account holder decides to make them private, in which case, they are only accessible to approved followers of that account. If a Twitter user decides to follow another twitterer, then they will receive that person's tweets on their timeline. Twitter timelines, therefore, comprise of both tweets by the account holder as well as the users they are following. Part of Twitter's popularity is its ease of use and versatility; although Twitter a was developed initially as a web-based platform, tweets can be sent via a computer or via a mobile phone as an SMS message. On some mobile phone networks in some countries, users can receive tweets from selected users they are following as text messages. In Indonesia, for example, both AXIS, allow tweets to be received as SMS messages. There are now many free desktop clients (i.e software users download and install) for Macs and PCs (e.g. Tweetdeck, Seesmic ) and mobile ‘apps’ (e.g. UberTwitter, Snaptu) for various types of 'smart' phones (e.g. iPhone,BlackBerry, Nokia) that make sending, organising and reading tweets easier. Due to their brevity, tweets have much in common with the short textmaking practices associated with SMS messages, instant messaging or Facebook status updates. However, it is blog posts. Unlike blog posts, there are distinct categories of tweets, each with their own user generated conventions:

Tweet – something written on Twitter @ - a symbol written before the username to make the tweet appear in the username’s “Mention” page Reply – the reply to specific status message Following – other user which their tweet will always be shown in our timeline Follower – other user which our tweet will always be shown on his/her timeline ReTweet (RT) clasic and new ReTweet Direct Messages – Personal message that can only be viewed by specific user. Favorites – save a favorited tweet Hash Tags (#) – a symbol written before the particular topic to make the topic searchable in other tweets in Twitter Trending Topics – topics that are being talked about most on Twitter in particular time

By default twitter don’t have Picture upload for the tweets and URL shortener features , so we add one using Twitpic API for the Picture Upload and bit.ly API for the URL Shortener.

2. EXAMPLE OF THE USAGE IN CSI CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION
The good example taken from Langwitches Blog: Approach : • • took images of skeleton with the Cellular Phone uploaded to Twitpic, which sent automatic tweet to Twitter network

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REST-Based Mobile Web Learning Collaboration Tools using Twitter , bit.ly , and twitpic APIs

Figure 2. Tweet Suggestion After the upload : comments were left by other Flickr users

Figure 3. Comment Another Flickr user can tag the picture with captions

Figure 4. Tag Picture The Twitter network also jumped in and retweeted (RT) the request for help onward to their network:

Figure 1. Example Pictures Over the next three hours the “shout out” for help in identifying the skeleton received over 50 Twitter responses with

Figure 5. Retweeted Guesses and further questions :

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links to resources to further investigate guesses on what it could be help to get experts involved questions to help further narrow the answers down advice where else to publish questions and take advantage of the power of social networking

The Tweet suggested to upload the image to ID-Please group on Flickr:

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Figure 6. Question Suggestion of getting in touch with experts who could help our investigation along or expert’s guesses:

Figure 9. Aplication at a glance Figure 7.. Suggestion of getting in touch with experts

Links to more Resources:

Figure 8. More Resources

3. APPLICATION AT A GLANCE
This the user interface of application

Figure 10. Work Of System The Application is made using PHP programming language that can be supported in most web servers so it can be installed almost anywhere .

RESTful Web Services
A RESTful web service (also called a RESTful web API) is a simple web service implemented using HTTP and the principles of REST. Such a web service can be thought about as a collection

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REST-Based Mobile Web Learning Collaboration Tools using Twitter , bit.ly , and twitpic APIs

of resources. The definition of such a web service can be thought of as comprising three aspects:

REST example in twitpic METHOD: http://twitpic.com/api/uploadAndPost

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The base URI for the web service, such as http://example.com/resources/ The MIME type of the data supported by the web service. This is often JSON, XML or YAML but can be any other valid MIME type. The set of operations supported by the web service using HTTP methods (e.g., POST, GET, PUT or DELETE).

Use this method to upload an image to TwitPic and to send it as a status update to Twitter. Fields to post in (post data should be formatted as multipart/form-data): - media (required) - Binary image data - username (required) - Twitter username - password (required) - Twitter password - message (optional) - Message to post to twitter. The URL of the image is automatically added. Sample response: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <rsp status="ok"> <statusid>1111</statusid> <userid>11111</userid> <mediaid>abc123</mediaid> <mediaurl>http://twitpic.com/abc123</mediaurl> </rsp> REST example in bit.ly

REST example in Twitter API : Method : trends Returns the top ten topics that are currently trending on Twitter. The response includes the time of the request, the name of each trend, and the url to the Twitter Search results page for that topic. URL: http://search.twitter.com/trends.format Format:

/shorten json HTTP Method: GET Requires Authentication (about authentication): false API rate limited (about rate limiting): Examples 1 call per request Given a long URL, /shorten encodes it as a shorter one and returns it. Additional Parameters

longUrl

A long URL to shorten, eg: http://betaworks.com Note: Long URLs should be URL-escaped.


Response (about return values): JSON example (truncated): {"trends":[{"name":"#amazonfail","url":"http:\/\/search.twi tter.com\/search?q=%23amazonfail"},... truncated ...],"as_of":"Mon, 13 Apr 2009 20:48:29 +0000"} Usage examples: cURL (about cURL): curl http://search.twitter.com/trends.json

http://api.bit.ly/shorten?version=2.0.1&longUrl=http://c nn.com&login=bitlyapidemo&apiKey=R_0da49e0a911 8ff35f52f629d2d71bf07

4. POTENTIAL EDUCATIONAL USES OF TWITTER
In this section, we’ll explore some pragmatic issues (the benefits, the drawbacks, the logistics) about Twitter as an educational tool, based on literature and some of our own experimentation with it [Gabriela GROSSECK Carmen HOLOTESCU , 2008]: Classroom community. Twittering in class or outside of it is about learning.

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Exploring collaborative writing: it promotes writing as a fun activity, it fosters editing skills, develop literacy skills; it can give our students a chance to record their cognitive trails and then use them to reflect on their work. Reader response: students can use tweets to send out questions and observations to the group while engaged in classroom activities. Explore the potential of microblogging in formal and informal settings: Twitter linked to a course/class blog can offer our students opportunities to discuss different kinds of asynchronous online discourse, considering voice, purpose, audience, to organize ideas, reflect, send notes, manage meet-ups, promote serendipitous discovery etc. Collaboration across schools, countries (for example, students can leave phone-tweets as they come across real-world examples of what they are studying in class). Project Management: if you set up a group working on a project the tweets can be picked up on cell phones (as can email) A tool for assessing opinion, examining consensus, looking for outlying ideas. Twitter also could be used in an academic setting to foster interaction about a given topic. A viable platform for metacognition (the practice of thinking about and reflecting on your learning) has been shown to benefit comprehension and retention. Conference or as part of a presentation or workshop. Twitter can provide a simple way for attendees at a conference to share thoughts about particular sessions and activities with others at the event and those unable to attend. Twitter works well for an undercurrent dialogues, being a way to organize, give quick updates, and rapidly point to resources. For reference or research (almost the entire edublogosphere is connecting via Twitter). Higher education (especially) is using the technology to relay important information to students in a more timely manner. Facilitating virtual classroom discussion by using @username. It directs the ‘tweet’ at the intended recipient whilst allowing every student to also see it. Creating a learning experience (Twitter can be used to impact on the student’s learning). Twitter facilitates a Personal Learning Network (PLN) in the edublogosphere. In this context students can ask questions of those they

only know online [Belshaw, 2007]. Exploring the language that students have used in the session, that other people would naturally use to describe an event’s probability. Reference services (in libraries). People could "follow" a Twitter account to learn about library events, new books, or get responses to library user questions.

5. CONCLUSIONS
Twitter can be an effective tool for professional development and for collaboration with students, that can change the rules of the courses and models good pedagogy responsive to student's learning needs. And with that ability of twitter and some additional features we discuss before , it will make the learning process becomes better.

6. REFERENCES
[1] Leonard Richardson and Sam Ruby, " RESTful Web Services ", O’Reilly, 2007. [2] Kevin Makice, " Twitter API : Up and Running ", O’Reilly, 2009. [3] Twitter Developer (10 February 2010), “Welcome to the Twitter API wiki. What are you coding?” , URL: http://apiwiki.twitter.com [4] bit.ly Developer (10 February 2010), “API Libraries and Documentation for bit.ly” , URL: http://code.google.com/p/bitly-api/wiki/ApiDocumentation [5] twitpic Developer (10 February 2010), “API DOCUMENTATION”, URL: http://twitpic.com/api.do [6] Langwitches(10 February 2010),” CSI Twitter- Crime Scene Investigation” ,URL: http://langwitches.org/blog/2009/12/04/csi-twitter-crimescene-investigation/ [7] Gabriela GROSSECK Carmen HOLOTESCU (16 February 2010),” CAN WE USE TWITTER FOR EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES”, URL: http://adlunap.ro/else/presentations/Grosseck_Can%20we%2 0use%20twitter.ppt

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