You are on page 1of 28

part of Aker

Materialer / Korrekt Varmebehandling


Ventiler i Olje- og Gassindustrien
Stavanger 3. 4. mars 2010

Erling Ryengen
Aker Solutions
Oslo

2008 Aker Solutions

Materials / Correct Heat Treatment


This presentation includes,
Examples of faulty heat treatments by some case stories
Case 1: A DN valve in duplex SS material, A182 grade F51,

fractured after welding.


Case 2: Failure of a welding procedure qualification test using
a DN 2 flange in material A694 grade F65 as test material.
Case 3: Failure of a production test of a DN 8 weldolet in material
A694 grade F65 welded onto a vessel.
Case 4: Leakage in a 25Cr duplex SS elbow.

Summary of the case stories


Quality assurance/control of heat treatment

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 2

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty Heat Treatment


Case 1: DN valve in duplex SS material, A182 grade F51,
fractured after welding.
Description:
A DN valve in duplex SS material, A182 grade F51, fractured after
welding of one end. The fracture was partly in the weld and partly in the
base material.
Subsequent impact testing of the fractured valve body gave extremely
low values, 2J, 3J and 3J, when tested at specified test temperature
46 C.
Impact testing of additional valves showed impact values below
minimum specified, 45J/35J at 46 C, for more than 50 % of the total
number of valves tested. The whole delivery was questioned.
Material certificate:
The corresponding material certificate showed good results with
average impact value of 287J at -46 C.
Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 3

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty Heat Treatment


Case 1: DN valve in duplex SS material, A182 grade F51,
fractured after welding.
Results of investigations:
Further investigations concluded that the low impact values were
caused by improper forging and unsatisfactory (un-qualified) heat
treatment.
Test pieces for material certification was taken from special test
forgings and not from production forgings.
All delivered valves, 524 off, were replaced.
A general warning was issued to other developments to check valves
from this manufacturer.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 4

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty Heat Treatment


Case 1: DN valve in duplex SS material, A182 grade F51,
fractured after welding.
Results of investigations from another project
Due to the general warning being issued also other projects had to
check valves from the same manufacture.
The results of the original investigation were confirmed.
Inadequate heat treatment and use of unsatisfactory heat treatment
furnac(es) were considered to be the main reasons for the poor valves.
The problem proved to include valves also in materials
A182 grade F53 (super duplex SS)
A350 grade LF2 (low temperature carbon steel)
A350 grade LF3 (3 % Ni-steel)
More than 1000 valves already installed into the lines had to be
replaced at a late stage in the project.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 5

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty Heat Treatment


Case 1: DN valve in duplex SS material, A182 grade F51,
fractured after welding.
Microstructure in failed super duplex valves.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 6

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 2: Failure of a welding procedure qualification test using
a DN 2 flange in material A694 grade F65 as test material.
Description:
A DN 2 flange in material A694 grade F65 was used as material in a
welding procedure qualification test.
Impact testing at -40 C of the qualification weld showed lower and
lower values from FL to FL+5mm.
In unaffected base materials the results were between 7J and 13J at
-40 C.
Material certificate:
The corresponding material certificate showed good results with
average impact value of 150J at -40 C.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 7

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 2: Failure of a welding procedure qualification test using
a DN 2 flange in material A694 grade F65 as test material.
Results of investigations:
After a visit to the manufacturer and the heat treatment shop it was
concluded that the cause for the low impact values was un-satisfactory
stacking of the flanges during the heat treatment.

A test was made by re-heating some flanges with satisfactory stacking


resulting in impact values of 215J 255J at -40 C.
All flanges were returned to the manufacturer for re-heat treatment.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 8

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 2: Failure of a welding procedure qualification test using
a DN 2 flange in material A694 grade F65 as test material.
Stacking of flanges during heat treatment, which failed impact testing.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 9

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 3: Failure of a production test of a DN 8 weldolet in
material A694 grade F65 welded onto a vessel.
Description:
During a production test of a weldment between a DN 8 weldolet in
material A694 grade F65 welded onto a vessel in material x65 low
impact test results were experienced when tested at -46 C.
Subsequent impact testing of the base material of the weldolet gave as
results,
Longitudinal direction: 21-35-21 Ave 27J
Transverse 20-16-18 Ave 18J

Material certificate:
The corresponding material certificate showed good results with impact
values between 132J - 240J at -50 C.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 10

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 3: Failure of a production test of a DN 8 weldolet in
material A694 grade F65 welded onto a vessel.

Results of investigations:
It was concluded that the low impact values were caused by unsatisfactory heat treatment.
The DN 8 weldolets, which already were welded onto the vessel, were
scrapped resulting in major repairs (see figures) and delays.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 11

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 3: Failure of a production test of a DN 8 weldolet in
material A694 grade F65 welded onto a vessel.
Welding of weldolets onto the vessel.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 12

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 3: Failure of a production test of a DN 8 weldolet in
material A694 grade F65 welded onto a vessel.
Repair of vessels by removing the defective weldolets.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 13

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 4: Leakage in a 25Cr duplex SS elbow.

Description
After being welded into a pipe system a DN 2, sch 10s, elbow in
material 25Cr duplex SS, started to leak after the piping system had
been tested by means of circulating sea water for approximately 60
days.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 14

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 4: Leakage in a 25Cr duplex SS elbow.
Investigations carried out
Laboratory examination of the failed elbow showed a defective
microstructure with intermetallic phases as shown on enclosed pictures.
Subsequent investigations and verifications at the manufacturer
concluded that poor heat treatment due to a combination in first hand of
stacking and short holding times have caused poor metallurgical
properties in the fittings.
The poor heat treatment practice had started after installation of a new
heat treatment furnace and has been ongoing for approximately 2 years.
This means that many thousands of fittings may be affected.
For Aker Solution alone more than 30 different projects have been
affected resulting in replacement of a large number of 22Cr duplex and
25Cr superduplex fittings.
Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 15

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 4: Leakage in a 25Cr duplex SS elbow.

Material certificates
All material certificates showed acceptable results.

Microstructure of originally failed fittings

Centre of the bend, mid thickness

Adjacent to HAZ

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 16

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 4: Leakage in a 25Cr duplex SS elbow.
Stacking of components

Original stacking of components. Such


a load was also used for verification of
the holding times by placing
thermocouples in the middle of the load
and in two of the corners.

Satisfactory stacking

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 17

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Faulty heat treatment


Case 4: Leakage in a 25Cr duplex SS elbow.
Verification of heat treatment procedure

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 18

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Summary of Case Stories


The case stories shows that inadequate heat treatment affects,

All type of components


All type (grade) of materials
Properties of the materials in an adverse way
Brittleness
Carbon steel
Low alloyed steel
Ferritic/martensitic stainless steels (eg. 13 % Cr)
Duplex stainless steels
Corrosion
Ferritic/martensitic stainless steels (eg. 13 % Cr)
Duplex stainless steels
Austenitic stainless steel
Strength
All materials
But especially quenched & tempered steels
Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 19

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Summary of Case Stories

Acknowledgement: Statoil, Trondheim


Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 20

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Summary of Case Stories

All material certificates showed good test results well inside the

applicable specifications
All cases were detected BY CHANCE

Can we live with that ?

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 21

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Quality Assurance/Control of Heat Treatment

Assessment of heat treatment furnaces and facilities


Condition of heat treatment furnaces
Temperature uniformity check of heat treatment furnace
Ref. NORSOK standard M650, rev. 3, Annex B
Temperature control and calibration of thermocouples
Recording of heat treatment cycle
Capacity and stirring of quenching bath
Temperature measurement and recording of quenching bath
Layout of heat treatment facilities. Maximum transfer time of
components from furnace into quenching bath shall be 60s.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 22

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Quality Assurance/Control of Heat Treatment


Heat treatment procedure

Heat treatment parameters


Loading temperature of furnace
Heating rate
Holding temperature
Holding time

Stacking of components
Free circulation of air and water shall be ensured around each

component
Sketch

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 23

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Quality Assurance/Control of Heat Treatment


Free circulation of air and water shall be ensured around each component

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 24

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Quality Assurance/Control of Heat Treatment


Heat treatment procedure, cont.

Location of component for production testing within the heat


treatment load
Normally the component for production testing should be located in

the middle of the load

Documentation of heat treatment load


Sketch
Photograph

Traceability
Of components within each heat treatment load
Of the heat treatment load

Of component(s) used for production testing within each load

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 25

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Quality Assurance/Control of Heat Treatment


Verification of heat treatment procedure

The objective is to check that,


All components within a load reach specified temperature
The start and length of the holding time is sufficient
To be carried out on,
The heaviest load to be heat treated or
The most densed stacked load to be heat treated
To be agreed
The verification is carried out by fixing mobile thermocouples onto the
components at different locations in the load and compare with the
controlling thermocouple of the furnace
As a minimum thermocouples should be fixed onto a component in
the middle of the load and in the corner of the load closest to the
furnace door.
Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 26

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Quality Assurance/Control of Heat Treatment


Verification of heat treatment procedure

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 27

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker

Quality Assurance/Control of Heat Treatment


Witnessing of heat treatments

Heat treatment must be identified as a separate activity in the Inspection


and Test Plans
Witnessing is probably the most effective activity to ensure correct
heat treatment
Should be carried out to a larger extent than today
Heat treatment has a high focus in the ongoing revision work of

NORSOK standards
In M630, Material Data Sheets, requirements to stacking of
components will be included
The planned revision this year of M650, Qualification of Manufacturers
of Special Alloys, will probably include more strict requirements to both
heat treatment equipment and - procedures and require verification of
heat treatment procedures.

Revision 01.03.2010
Slide 28

2008 Aker Solutions

part of Aker