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TOPOLOGIES

A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by

JAYASIMHA.G
In partial fulfillment for the module 3
Of

NAME OF THE COURSE


JCHNP-P
BATCH OF STUDY
J-797

RJ NO
0395/09

NAME OF THE FRANCHISEE


RAJAJINAGAR
JETKING : BANGALORE
APRIL 2011

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that JAYASIMHA.G of module-3, have been successfully


completed the project work of entitled TOPOLOGIES in a fulfillment of
the requirement for the award of module-3 in Jetking Institute.

Place: Bangalore
Date:

Signature of guide:

Signature of Examiner:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my sincere thanks to Mr. Shamshuddin director of Jetking,


Rajajinagar for providing us an opportunity to do the project.
I thank our faculty Mr. Vishnu Theertha for providing us all the technical
support
to complete the project.

JETKING RAJAJINAGAR
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that this project report TOPOLOGIES is the bonafide work of
JAYASIMHA.G who carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE (Center Manager)

SIGNATURE (Project Guide)

SUPERVISOR

(Full address of the franchisee)


NO. 12/69, 2nd Floor, 59th Cross,
Opp. M.E.I.Polytechnic, 4th Block
Rajajinagar, Bangaluru-560 010
Tel. No.: 080-231582825

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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TOPOLOGIES

CHAPTER NO
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3.
4.
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TITLE
Introduction Of Topology
Types Of Topologies and description
Single Node Topology
Bus Topology
Star Topology
Ring Topology
Mesh Topology
Tree Topology
Hybrid Topology
Conclusion
Bibliography

INTRODUCTION
TOPOLOGIES

PAGE NO

A network is a group of two or more computer systems linked


together to communicate and share with each other.
Topology refers to the way that your computer network is arranged. The
network can have a physical or a logical topology.
Physical Topology : Describes the layout of computers and where the
workstations are positioned.
Logical Topology : Describes how the information or data flows through the
network.

Types of Topologies

Single Node Topology


Bus Topology
Star Topology
Ring Topology
Dual Ring Topology
Mesh Topology
Tree Topology
Hybrid Topology

Single Node Topology


A single node network topology has a single device which is connected to the
server. The server is having all the information for the network in single node
topology. A node is known as a dumb terminal. It does not contain files and
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information required for operation. A dumb terminal relies on the server for
resources.
BASIC STRUCTURE OF SINGLE NODE TOPOLOGY

Advantages & Disadvantages of Single node Topology:


Advantages:
Easy to install, configure and manage.
Least expensive.
Single cable is required.
Disadvantages:
Only a single device is connected in the entire network.
Dumb terminal is dependent on server.

Bus Topology
In a bus topology, all of the computers are attached to a single
cable known as backbone cable or trunk using terminators. The
terminators work is to absorb the energy from the signals in the
network. A thick Co-axial cable is used to connect all devices and it
works in daisy chain fashion.
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BASIC STRUCTURE OF BUS TOPOLOGY

Advantages and Disadvantages of bus Topology


Advantages:
Installation of devices is easy.
Works better for smaller network.
Less expensive.

Disadvantages:
If backbone breaks, entire network gets down
Difficult to isolate problems
Limited number of devices can be attached

Star Topology
A star topology is designed with each node connected directly to a central
network hub or switch. Data on a star network passes through the hub or switch,

before continuing to its destination. The hub or switch , manages and controls
all functions of the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow.

BASIC STRUCTURE OF STAR TOPOLOGY

Advantages & Disadvantages of Star Topology


Advantages:

Easy to install and wire.


No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
Hub provides a centralized management.
Easy to detect faulty device.

Disadvantages:

Requires more cable length than a linear topology.


If the hub or switch fails, lead to network failure.
More expensive .
Increased devices makes the network slow.

Ring Topology
In a ring topology the devices are connected in a closed loop. All the devices
have equal access to media. Devices wait for there turn to transmit data.
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Dual ring: Consists of two independent primary and secondary rings.


Secondary ring is redundant, used only when primary stops functioning.

BASIC STRUCTURE OF SINGLE RING TOPOLOGY

BASIC STRUCTURE OF DUAL RING TOPOLOGY

Advantages & Disadvantages of Ring Topology

Advantages:
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Reliable and offers greater speed.


No collisions.
Handles large volume of traffic.

Disadvantages:
More cabling is required compared to bus topology.
One faulty device affects the entire network.
Addition of devices affect network.

Mesh Topology
Mesh topology is a type of computer network setup, where each of the
computers and devices in the network are interconnected to one another. And
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used in WANs to inter connect LANs. And router decides the shortest path to
transmit data.

There are two different types of mesh topologies, they are:


Full Mesh Topology : All devices are connected to each other. And it
is more expensive to implement and also yields great amount of
redundancy.
BASIC STRUCTURE OF FULL MESH TOPOLOGY

Partial Mesh Topology : Some devices are connected to only those


with whom they exchange most of the data. And it less expensive and
also less redundancy.

BASIC STRUCTURE OF PARTIAL MESH TOPOLOGY

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Advantages & Disadvantages of Mesh Topology


Advantages:
Improves fault tolerance.
Failure of one link does not affect entire network.
Centralized management is not required .

Disadvantages:
Difficult to install and manage.
It requires lot more hardware cables as compared to other topologies.
Expensive.

Tree Topology
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Tree Topology is one of the local area network (LAN) topologies, In which, the
network nodes are arranged as a tree, which resembles an interconnection of
star and linear bus topology. Devices are wired to root the hub.
BASIC STRUCTURE OF TREE
TOPOLOGY

Advantages & Disadvantages of Tree Topology

Advantages:
Easy to expand the network.
Point-to-point wiring for each device.
Fault detection is easy.
Disadvantages:
Difficult to configure.
If backbone breaks, entire network goes down.
More expensive.

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Hybrid Topology
A hybrid is a combination of two or more basic network topologies, such as a
star-bus, or star-ring. In a hybrid topology, central and distributed topologies are
combined to meet the needs of an organization.

BASIC STRUCTURE OF HYBRID TOPOLOGY

Advantages & Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology


Advantages:
Used for creating larger networks.
Handles large volume of traffic.
Fault detection is easy.

Disadvantages:
Installation and configuration is difficult.
More expensive than other topologies.
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More cabling is required .

CONCLUSION
I conclude here that the project will be useful to know about topologies how the
systems are arranged physically and how the data transfer logically I completed
my project with more information.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
I was able to complete my experiment by reading the network essentials books
With the guidance of our faculty and also the books provided by the institute
And also express my thanks to the faculty providing such a good coaching
Which were useful for me to complete my project successfully.

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