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Making Projects Sing

Making Projects Sing

A Musical Perspective of Project
Raji Sivaraman and Chris Wilson
Michael Brown and DannyMcCormack
Contributing Authors

Making Projects Sing: A Musical Perspective of Project Management

Copyright Business Expert Press, LLC, 2016.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
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except for brief quotations, not to exceed 400 words, without the prior
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First published in 2016 by
Business Expert Press, LLC
222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017
ISBN-13: 978-1-63157-459-7 (paperback)
ISBN-13: 978-1-63157-460-3 (e-book)
Business Expert Press Portfolio and Project Management Collection
Collection ISSN: 2156-8189 (print)
Collection ISSN: 2156-8200 (electronic)
Cover and interior design by Exeter Premedia Services Private Ltd.,
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First edition: 2016
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Printed in the United States of America.

Music is concerned with harmony and rhythm

Plato, The Laws, Book II (360 BCE).
Progress is not possible without deviation
Frank Zappa (VPRO-TV February 1971)
With forewords by Jim Snyder, Founder of the Project Management
Institute (PMI),
Reinhard Wagner, President of the International Project Management
Association (IPMA).

This book explores project management (PM) from a musical perspective. Seeking ways of understanding PM in musical ways, distinctive
approaches to the management of risk, experimentation, the conception
and practice of teams, and the realization of imagination, are explored to
highlight both the synergies and distinctions between musical practice
and p
roject management in the wider corporate and industrial sectors.
The intention being to surface insights of value, capable of adaptation and
practical application in a range of contexts, a series of conceptual models
and thinking exercises are presented, each designed to structure a more
musical approach to project management and capable of application at
every scale of project management, and every possible project management environment.
The contention of this book is that music provides an interesting
context through which to consider project management practice, and
therefore a unique opportunity to approach project management from
both a different viewpoint and a different mindset. Music is a vibrant field
of activity incorporating distinctive approaches to the development and
maintenance of expertise, the transfer of knowledge, and the realization
of remarkable cultural creativity. Synergies between musical practice and
the wider project management profession are many and varied, and more
musical approaches to project management may not only be possible,
but may also be an engaging means of developing creativity in project

agile, code, collaboration, creativity, music, musicality, project management, team, technique

Foreword by Jim Snyderxi
Foreword by Reinhard Wagnerxiii
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Chapter 1 What Has Music Got to Do With Project Management?....1
Chapter 2 Locating Project Management Insights in Music................9
Chapter 3 Project Management Insights in Musical Creativity.........43
Chapter 4 Applying a Musical Perspective to Project Management....71
Chapter 5 A Project Management Perspective for Music..................95
Chapter 6 A Resolution of Sorts.....................................................115
About the Authors121
Bibliography and Discography123

Foreword by Jim Snyder

It is all so simple when you stop to think about itall aspects of music
relate to projects and the management of all aspects of music requires
project management. Music composition is certainly a project. There is a
definable start point and a definable end point to every composition. The
properties of sound such as duration, pitch, dynamics, and tone color are
the activities. Arranging the activities in various ways make up complex
ever-changing projects.
The study of both vocal and instrumental music certainly has many of
the characteristics of any project. No serious person undertakes the mastering of a new instrument without first setting a course from the desire
to learn, to mastery of the instrument. Some of these projects demand a
lifetime of dedication and can lead to tremendous success or failure. Their
objectives are often much like those of an architect or builder who sets
out to plan, schedule, and implement a project to create a unique and
beautiful structure. The great bridges of the world are certainly related to
a wonderful musical composition superbly executed!
The whole world of music performance from assembly of talent to
booking of event and the final performance is without doubt a large and
complex project. Can you picture taking the orchestra of a major city
on a tour of multiple cities, in a number of countries, without a project
plan? Every aspect of a tour from selecting the program and musicians to
thwarters, planes, trains, and automobiles involves sets of complicated
activities that contribute to the success of the project.
In this book we have a unique opportunity to explore both the world
of projects, as we know them, as music; and music as a project. By taking
this unique approach to looking at music and project management the
authors have opened a whole new vista of understanding of both the
project management profession and music. Through an understanding of
the dynamics of music we are led to seeing the loudness and vibrations of
our projects. Likewise, understanding of timecost trade-offs and project


risk can become tools for the management of music composition and
performance projects.
By exploring the ways music relates to projects and looking at the
teaching of music we are introduced to the synergies that exist between
project management and music. Looking at the teaching of music in the
UK exposes the lack of direct teaching of project management and the
opportunities to bring the two disciplines together to the benefit of both.
Enjoythis is a new approach to both project management and to
the understanding of music and how the two are closely related. See how
the inclusion of project management education in music curriculum can
benefit both music and PM.
James R Snyder
Founder of the Project Management Institute (PMI)

Foreword by Reinhard
If you read the book title you might thinkhow does music and project
management go together? They do, in a very symbiotic way! I have benefited a lot from my musical education, starting to play flute at the age of
5, switching to clarinet at 9, playing in an orchestra at 12, and starting
a career as conductor of an orchestra with 17. But how can we make use
of all this in project management? Very simple, as a musician you learn
to experience a world of harmonies, beat, rhythm, and teamwork. Each
piece is unique, it develops a melody over time; you feel the rhythm and
develop the music into the future, together with your colleagues of the
orchestra. You are not alone, you are dependent on others, you need to
listen to them, you need to notice them about your next moves, sometimes you are in the middle of the piece with your solo, sometimes others
are, and you move into the background. Music requires the players (or
singers) to be passionate, patient, disciplined, and highly cooperative.
Transfer this into the context of projects, and you will understand the
great synergies.
Sometimes we can read comparisons between the conductor of an
orchestra and project managers, mainly highlighting leadership and communication. Often this comparison is building on a strong, sometimes
authoritarian, leadership style. However, a conductor with a poor orchestra is not performing at all. The conductor is choosing the piece, interpreting it to fit the context and the audience, and guiding the orchestra
through. Each member of the orchestra is important to perform. All are
linked through self-organization and close coordination based on harmonies, beat, and rhythm. Once, we organized a conference in Germany
under the motto Beyond Agile Management. We chose the improvisation in music to make clear, how difficult it really is to be agile, and
reach better performance in a dynamic and complex environment. As a
musician, you may understand the difficulties to ignore all the harmonies,


beats, and rhythms you have learned so far, and finding a new way forward. Now you need to use intuition, all sensors, and create your own,
unique way forward. It is very difficult to write about this in such a foreword, I strongly recommend you to experience it in person.
Certainly, musicians can profit from our know-how of managing
projects. Each performance needs to be organized, the way of studying
and learning can be managed in a systematic way. However, the project management processes and methodologies may be too sophisticated
for this specific domain. We need a more pragmatic way of managing
projects, programs, or portfolios, easy to apply in education and music.
Daniel Defoe, famous author of Robinson Crusoe, wrote in his first book,
An Essay upon Projects in 1697 about the skills needed: the honest projector is he who, having by fair and plain principles of sense, honesty, and
ingenuity brought any contrivance to a suitable perfection, makes out
what he pretends to, picks nobodys pocket, puts his project in execution,
and contents himself with the real produce as the profit of his invention.
This brings me back to the book and why it is such a great bridge
between the field of music, the project management domain, and the
way of learning. Music is great to explore your own capabilities, to set a
theme into scene, to be co-creative with other people and express yourself
in an emotional way. It is a great way of personal development and holistic growth. Through the experience of music we can also overcome the
formal processes, methods and tools of project management, imposed by
industry and challenged by the complex environment we are faced with
nowadays. People are not a means to projects, on the contrary, projects
are a means for our own development. This is why I strongly recommend
to read this book, perform more research on the topic, and advance the
concept of project management from the industrial into a more humanistic era.
Reinhard Wagner
President of the International Project Management Association (IPMA)

Why Music Might Make You a Better Project Manager
This book is, ultimately, about the intersection and exchange of ideas, the
celebration of similarity and difference, and a story of a search for insight.
The product of a dialogue between and across disciplines, we have sought
to explore the relationship between two apparently distinct fields of practice in music and project management (PM) as a means of developing
new ideas. This text documents the story of this dialogue and presents the
ideas developed through this conversation.
Music, as ubiquitous and diverse as language in human culture,
represents a distinctive activity through which to consider PM from a
different perspective. A remarkable cultural project in and of itself, music
represents a highly sophisticated and codified space through which
significant aspects of human experience are imagined, explored, and
negotiated. Indeed, in considering precisely how it is that music appears
to convey meaning and evoke emotional reactions, Ball (2010, 355)
explores the intriguing potential for music and spoken language to share a
common evolutionary origin. What better context to consider PM in new
ways? To develop new approaches to PM capable of application in other
sectors, than to focus on something that speaks directly to our emotions?
The book is intended to entertain and to inform, and to empower
readers to enrich their PM practices through more focused consideration
of techniques derived from music. Providing an in-depth look at the areas
of musical knowledge and experience of most relevance to the field of
PM, and PM processes and knowledge areas that are of most significance
and most value for music, readers will gain readily adaptable and s calable
concepts and ideas capable of enriching understanding and p
whether beginning to learn to play a musical instrument, seeking to
develop professional careers, or preparing to implement major business
projects. If you have ever been moved by music, or enjoyed its presence,
there is something of relevance and hopefully of profound interest here.

xvi Preface

Do you know what it takes to be a musician? It requires only a decision to be one. It takes a bit of work to become a good one. But as soon
as you decide you are one, you are one.

We are extremely honored to have Jim Snyder, the founder of the Project
Management Institute (PMI), provide the introductory foreword to our
book. We are particularly grateful both for his professional insights and
his perspective of project management and music. We are also really
grateful to the current president of the International Project Management
Association, Reinhard Wagner, for his thoughts about the subject, and
particularly for his personal insights about musical experience.
We would also like to acknowledge the support of the publishers
of this book for their willingness to entertain unusual and unconventional ideas, and to Tim Kloppenborg in particular, for his guiding hand
throughout the project, and important advice at key points in the process.
Our thanks also goes out to executive director of Project Consultancy,
Paul Hodgkins, for his contribution (presented as the final comments
in this book), to Jimmy Thomas, and countless other musicians who
preferred to remain incognito, for sharing their musical insights, and
to colleagues from PMI Global, and the PMI Poland Chapter for their
wonderful hospitality and enriching opportunities for related p
dialogue. Authors are also grateful to PMI chapters in Montreal, P
New York, Romania, and many others for their encouragement and
passionate support. A special salute is also extended to the American
Creativity Association for providing the germinal moment at which this
book first began to develop in Maine, New England, in 2013.
Finally, we would like to thank our families, friends, colleagues, fellow
musicians, and respective organizations, for providing the space and time
for this dialogue to develop, and through which this story could be told.


What Has Music Got to Do

With Project Management?
Music is concerned with harmony and rhythm, so that you may speak
of a melody or figure having good rhythm or good harmony-the term
is correct enough; but to speak metaphorically of a melody or figure
having a good colour, as the masters of choruses do, is not allowable,
although you can speak of the melodies or figures of the brave and the
coward, praising the one and censuring the other.
Plato, in Jowett (1892)
Music is a unique form of human behavior. Common to all human
cultures and apparently evident throughout all human history, the project
of music, as with all aspects of human cultural activity, reflects increasing
complexity and diversity over time, and provides a distinctive context
through which to consider the development of codes and conventions,
techniques and technologies, processes and practices. If we think of
musical activity as project activity and in terms of project management
(PM), numerous processes become apparent as distinctly project like.
From individual technique in composition and performance, through to
the complexity of teams and musical leadership, the very conventions of
musical experience also reflect sophisticated cultural projects in and of
themselves. Decoding particular queues in the music, we even feel the
instinctive or often compulsive need to move in the presence of musical
experience and to become an integral part of the musical activity itself.
The Project Management Institute (PMI) defines a project as a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result, and
project managers as change agents using skills and expertise to develop
shared purpose in project teams. Evident at various scales of activity
throughout human history, PM has been codified as a discipline since first
emerging in the United States Armed Forces in the 1950s. Formalized


through the foundation of professional bodies and organizations since the

1960s (International Project Management Association 1965, IPMA; The
Project Management Institute 1969, PMI), and operating with widely
recognized professional accreditation frameworks for PM professionals
for nearly 50 years, PM is both an overarching term to describe areas of
collective activity and a professionalism and discipline. Successful PM
not only involves good leadership, but also represents a range of other
professional attributes and abilities.
From Adamieckis Harmonogram (1896, in Marsh 1975) to Henry
Gantts Gantt chart (1912, in Wilson 2003) as the scale and sophistication of projects in civil engineering, military, manufacturing, and the
emerging high-tech sector, increased PM techniques such as DuPont and
Rands critical path method (1957, in Armstrong-Wright 1969), program
evaluation review technique (PERT 1958, in Roman 1962), work breakdown structure (1962, in Cleland and Lavold 2008), Royces waterfall
method (1970, in Larman and Basili 2003), Scrum project management
(1986, in Pries and Quigley 2011), PRINCE2 (1996, in Bentley 2010),
and more recently, agile project management (Cobb 2011), have become
more common features of professional activity far beyond the industrial
contexts from which they first emerged. PM is nevertheless a quintessentially industrial and corporate process, and far divorced from musical
practice both as a competency and as a field of terminology.

Differently Similar
It is reasonable to consider PM of a major civil engineering project as very
different from the composition of a song or learning to play the piano.
Indeed, there is, as observed by Weaver (2007), a very clear distinction
between generalized approaches to PM, and the professional discipline of
PM. As well as the obvious difference of scale of activity and the number
of agents involved, there is also the significant cultural difference between
an industrial and pragmatic context of PM as a field of professional activity, and the individualized, romanticized, and free context associated
with creative musical activities. Adopting a purposefully contrarian perspective, in PM terms, differences between the industrial and the musical,
the corporate and the artistic, are readily identifiable. As characterized in

What Has Music Got to Do With Project Management? 3

Table 1.1 Polarizing perspectives: Considering the differences between

PM and artistic practice
Project management Creative practice
Clear destination
Clear route (and fallbacks)
Certainty of aims/outcomes
Reducing uncertainty
Working with certainty
Removing uncertainty
Resolving problems
Measured progress
Focus on competence
Crisis-/opportunity-led deviation
Reducing/tackling risk
Risk as danger
Tried-and-tested (proven)
Familiar (known)
Early project completion

Uncertain destination
Unplanned/vague route
Uncertain aims/outcomes
Extending uncertainty
Working with naivety
Adding uncertainties
Generating problems
Uncertain progress
Exploring incompetence
Deliberate deviation
Increasing/embracing risk
Risk as opportunity
Novelty (unproven)
Unfamiliar (unknown)

Source: Adapted from Wilson and Brown (2014).

Table 1.1, stereotypical social perceptions of differences between creative

arts practice and PM lie in many areas.
Between friends differences in taste or opinion are irritating in direct
proportion to their triviality.
W.H. Auden, in Archer (2010)


Purpose, Process, and Product; Reason,

theMethod,and theOutcome
Surface differences between PM and creative practice can be broadly characterized as lying in the areas of purpose, process, and product; the reason,
the method, and the outcome. The purpose of many acts of what sub
sequently became recognized as significant creativity in the arts is often
simply that of personal fulfillment or recreation, at least initially. For most
musicians, the deeply established connection between discipline and self
dictates that the delineation between personal and professional remains
permanently blurred and ill defined. Core elements of PM practice such
as planning, scheduling, target setting, objective setting, and progress
monitoring, can also be subject to considerable variation in approach and
limited clarity or definition, and more idiosyncratic interpretation.
I practice and work hard at my music, but Im not saving lives here.
Harry Connick Jr.
Perhaps the most significant variation between PM and creative arts
practice relates to the stage at which outcomes are defined and to the scope
and tolerance for uncertainty of outcomes. In artistic terms, outcomes
can be characterized in part as merely the proverbial target drawn around
the final resting place of the arrow; any focus on artistic expression
bringing the inevitability of subjectivity in any final evaluation. Equally,
the implications of failed artistic endeavor are most commonly associated
with low and at least highly localized risk. While considerable investment
may be made by record companies in supporting the development of
creative projects with some uncertainty as to their final form, there is
greater flexibility in the application of melody, harmony, and rhythm,
and consequently less risk in terms of uncertainty of outcomes should
new approaches prove ineffective, than might be typically associated with
structural engineering or IT infrastructure systems where an equivalent
failure would prove unconscionable.
Without the element of uncertainty, the bringing off of even, the greatest
business triumph would be dull, routine, and eminently unsatisfying.
J.P. Getty

What Has Music Got to Do With Project Management? 5

Equally, related to the more focused value evident with uncertainty in

musical creativity, creative processes typically associated with musicians
can vary enormously, and routinely reflect profoundly un-project-
management-like behaviors. While there are numerous examples of
industrialized musical creation, such as jingle writing, media composition,
and sound and music design for computer games, in which quite structured routines and deadlines are more common, the cultural perspective
of authenticity in musical creation more typically focuses on the activities of gifted individuals and often-chaotic creative circumstances. Music
commonly emerges through haphazard and unstructured processes of
inspiration and happenstance, and much of the music recognized as
among the most significant is the product of highly un-PM-like activities.
As with literature and the arts, most renowned composers, songwriters, and creative musicians are innovators who pioneer new creative
processes working in often highly individualized and idiosyncratic ways.
Indeed, for many artists, the creative process itself can be uncertain, and
difficult to a point of distress, the end of the creative process often more
one of abandonment than clear and satisfactory completion. Fundamentally, the focus on novelty and distinctiveness may be the key v ariation
between creative musical practice and professionalized PM. While
innovation is prized and indeed celebrated in PM, this is arguably more
closely associated with problem solving and is not a necessary prerequisite
for a judgment of excellence in PM terms. Technical competence and
assuredness may well be sufficient in most PM contexts to realize effective outcomes. In music, distinctiveness and originality are fundamental
requirements for success, novelty often featuring more prominently than
competency in the discourse of musical merit and value. While technical
competency clearly matters in musical expression, new musical ideas hold
particular attention.
Nevertheless, whatever the differences between music and PM
both superficial and profoundthere are also clear and evident synergies between the two fields and indeed a growing field of professionalized
musical PM evident in many sectors, notably in the hospitality sectors.
The parallels between music and PM are apparent more generally in shared
dynamics of inception, development, and completion, and more specifically in the areas of performance management, development activities,


collaboration, planning, organization, improvisation, and problem solving. The point at which the band begins the opening number of a gig
represents the culmination of a series of distinct but nevertheless integrated project elements. From the developmental process of refining
musical abilities, the creative process of producing new musical ideas,
the rehearsal of ensemble performance, through to the engagement of
audiences and logistical elements related to equipment, venues, and promotion, while the chorus of the song may only use one or two chords, the
point at which these are performed to an audience ultimately represents
a nexus of multiple project streams. While musicians may not widely
use PM terminology or consciously apply specific PM techniques, there
are numerous examples of musical practice that reflect sophisticated PM
dynamics, discipline, and practice.

Contents Overview and Summary: Key Questions

Notable musical accomplishments clearly represent the culmination of
successful project activities. Indeed, the process and impact of profound
musical ideas presents an opportunity for analysis of a unique form of
cultural communication, expression, and adaptation. Music is both the
product of, and the agent for, significant social and cultural change.
Recognizing an apparent disconnection between PM theory and musical practice, there remain enticing opportunities for the enrichment of
musical practice through proper attention to the PM body of knowledge
(PMBOK), and potential for additions to the PMBOK through study
and consideration of musical activity. This book is the result of an attempt
to distill the most interesting and most germinal outcomes of the purposeful collision between two conceptual ideas and two distinct areas of
creative and professional practice.
Both the PM inherent to musical learning, ensemble music making,
creative activity and musical leadership, distinctive approaches to the
management of risk, experimentation, and the realization of creativity in musical composition are explored to highlight the synergies and
distinctions between musical activity and more conventional PM in the
professional and corporate sectors. The arts and commercial music s ectors
then provide the basis for exploring PM within a creative-industrial

What Has Music Got to Do With Project Management? 7

context to highlight the distinction between PM for, and PM of, creativity

and innovation, and the often loose connection between musical activity
and conventionally structured processes of planning and organization.
The remaining chapters of this book introduce a series of illustrative
examples and conceptual ideas drawing from a distinctly musical perspective to reframe and reconsider PM techniques as a process of exploration
and creativity through which experience of process can be considered as
significant as the realization of outcomes.
In Chapter 2, PM in music is explored through consideration of
musical development, ensemble practice, leadership, and performance to
highlight in more detail the connections between music and PM, and
the distinctive aspects of PM in musical practice. Chapter 3 explores PM
from a creative musical perspective and develops a technical case study
analysis of musical composition as a model of PM practice. Operation
within prescribed frameworks and successful navigation-specific codes
and competences in creative musical activity presents a unique aspect of
music in PM terms. Chapter 4, drawing from insights identified in the
previous chapters, presents a series of conceptual models and exercises
focused on musical perspectives of PM and musical approaches to PM.
The most practical of all chapters, the approach is very much that of
deliberate application of musical thinking in the context of PM. The penultimate chapter, Chapter 5, focuses on a PM perspective for music and
presents examples of PM methodologies and how they can be applied to
musical practice. The final chapter, Chapter 6, draws together the key
concepts and ideas from the book as a whole. The whole purpose of this
text being to outline the basis for considering music as a different way of
conceiving and constructing PM, the closing discussion centers on the
summarization of how you can become more musical in your approach
to PM in ways that can enrich experience and develop p
rofessional value.
The final word though, as is the fate of all ideas and expressions, is deferred
to the audience.

ABRSM. See Associated Board of the
Royal Schools of Music
Adaptation, 26
Adjourning stage model, 3637
Agile approach, 103107
Associated Board of the Royal Schools
of Music (ABRSM), 1920
Audience, 1112
Blues music, 90
Blurring process boundaries, 33
Cadences, 8284
Classical music, 89
Collaboration, musical networks,
3037, 41
Collective practice, 96
Color of music, 5962
Communication, 26
Composer, 12
Counterpoint, 7879
Creative convention and innovation,
Creative musical experience, 4749
Creative musical risk and innovation,
Creative music motivation, 4546
Creative practice vs. project
management, 3
Creative toolkit approach, 6265
Creativity and code, 42
Deliberate practice, 1718
EA. See Enterprise architecture
Emancipation of dissonance, 5658
Ensemble, 77
Enterprise architecture (EA), 107111
Experimental music, 9091
Extemporization, 81

Feel, 7980
Forming stage model, 3435
(FSNPA) model, 3336
Groove, 79
Harmony, 78
Imitation, 5254
Imperfect cadence, 83
Improvisation, 8082
Individuality/Individual responsibility,
Individual practice, 96
Interrupted cadence, 84
Intonation, 75
Jazz music, 8889
Knowledge transfer (KT), 3739
KT. See Knowledge transfer
Mega projects, 9697
Melody, 7778
30-minutes-per-day approach, 19
Musical awareness, 7273
Musical cadence, 8284
Musical composition
in context, 4344
creative convention and innovation,
creative musical experience, 4749
creative musical risk and
innovation, 4748
creative music motivation, 4546
functions of music, 44
practice of, 4449
risk assessment matrix, 49

132 Index

Musical Director, 3037

Musical elements
counterpoint, 7879
ensemble, 77
feel, 7980
harmony, 78
improvisation, 8082
melody, 7778
resolution, 8284
rhythm and groove, 79
structure and form, 8487
tempo, 76
timbre and tone, 7576
tuning and intonation, 75
Musical ensembles
adaptation, 26
communication, 26
individuality and individual
responsibility, 2627
Musical identity levels, 1516
Musical innovation
color of music, 5962
emancipation of dissonance, 5658
imitation of nature, 5254
syntax and systems, 4952
tonality, 5455
Musical leadership, 2729
Musical learning, 2122
Musical motivations, 1314
Musical networks, 3037
Musical opportunities, 1314
Musical project scales, 1012
Musicians mindset, 14
Musician stages
assessment and evaluation, 1921
development of practice, 17
musical environment, 1819
personal development, 1415
practice space, 1819
Musicians work breakdown structure
(MWBS), 97100
MWBS. See Musicians work
breakdown structure

Norming stage model, 35

Novice-student-master-teachersponsor journey, 38
Organizational structure, 111113
Perfect cadence, 83
Performer, 1011
Performing stage model, 36
Plagal cadence, 84
PMI. See Project Management
Practice triangle, 9697
PRINCE2 methodology, 100103
Project Management Institute (PMI),
Project management vs. creative
practice, 3
Rap music, 8990
Resolution, 8284
Responsible, Accountable, Consulted,
Support, Informed (RASCI)
chart, 105106
Rhythm, 79
Rock music, 89
boundary, 1516
Shu Ha Ri model, 118119
Six musical thinking styles, 8791
Storming stage model, 35
Structure and form, 8487
Task-appropriate strategies, 17
Tempo, 76
Timbre and tone, 7576
Tonality, 5455
Tuning, 75
Visual music, 59