You are on page 1of 18

Overview of Alternatives to HCFCs

for RAC Applications in HighAmbient Conditions


Radhey S. Agarwal
Senior Advisor and Coordinator

Sector Phase-out Plan Unit


INDIA

Cooling System Options

Vapour Compression Cooling Systems (VCS)


Quite effective & Reliable,

energy intensive, requires


skilled maintenance, Environmental issues - ODP/
GWP;

Vapour Absorption Cooling systems (VAS)


Utilizes waste heat if available/ low grade energy,

skilled maintenance, bulky, mostly used for large


capacity units, use eco-friendly refrigerants;

Evaporative Cooling Systems


Simple,

low
initial and operating costs, low
maintenance, ineffective during humid conditions;
Used in hot and dry climates and for pre-cooling of
ventilation air; efforts are being made to improve its
effectiveness using regenerative cooling and
using
2
desiccants.

Vapour Compression Systems

Vapour Compression Systems are widely used


globally. Approximately more than 90% of the
global cooling requirements are met through
compression systems

Fluorocarbon refrigerants are commonly used in


compression systems;

Ambient temperatures play a vital role on the


performance of the system and selection of
refrigerant.
3

Alternatives to HCFCs

HCFCs

HFCs, eg.
HFC-134a, R-410A
R-407C, R-404A

Natural
Refrigerants, eg.
HC-290,
Ammonia, CO2

HFOs, eg.,
HFO-1234yf

Methane Derivatives With


Chlorine and Fluorine
CCl4
R-10

Toxic
CHCl3

CFCl3

R-20

R-11

CH2Cl2
R-30

CF2Cl2

R-21

R-12

CH3Cl

CH2FCl

CHF2Cl

CF3Cl

R-40

R-31

R-22

R-13

CH4
R-50

CHFCl2

CH3F

CH2F2

CHF3

R-41

R-32

R-23

More Flammable

Higher Pressure

CF4
R-14
5

Ethane Derivatives With


Chlorine and Fluorine
C2Cl6
R-110

Toxic
Region

C2HCl5

C2FCl5

R-120

R-111

C2H2Cl4

C2F2Cl4

C2HFCl4

R-130

R-112

R-121

C2H3Cl3
R-140

C2F3Cl3
C2H2FCl3

C2HF2Cl3

R-131

R-122

C2H4Cl2
R-150

C2H3FCl2 C2H2F2Cl2
R-141

C2H5Cl
R-160

C2H4FCl
R-151

R-170

C2HF4Cl

R-133

R-124

C2 H5F

C2 H4F2

C2 H3F3

C2 H2F4

R-161

R-152

R-143

R-134

More Flammable

R-114

R-123

C2H2F3Cl

R-142

C2H6

C2F4Cl2

C2HF3Cl2

R-132

C2H3F2Cl

R-113

C2F5Cl
R-115

C2 HF5
R-125

Higher Pressure

C2F6
R-116

HFCs and Blends of HFCs

Only 5 HFCs could be identified out of several derivatives


of methane and ethane, eg., HFC-32, HFC152a, HFC-134a,
HFC-143a and HFC-125;

HFC- 32, HFC-152a and HFC-143a being flammable could


not be preferred as individual refrigerants;

HFC-125 being high pressure refrigerant, it is also not


used as individual refrigerant;

HFC134a being nonflammable became the preferred


choice for many applications while phasing-out CFCs;

HFCs and Blends of HFCs


(cont)

Due to lack of
individual refrigerants,
considerable R&D work was under taken to look
for non-flammable blends by mixing two or more
of these 5 HFCs;

R-410A, R-407C, R-404A and some other blends


could be identified and used especially as
substitute for HCFC-22 and R-502 (a blend of
HCFC-22 and CFC-115).

Higher Hydrocarbon Compound


Derivatives with Chlorine and Fluorine

The global chemical producers have developed new


molecules by fluorination of higher
hydrocarbon
compound;

These compounds are unsaturated HFCs also known as


HFOs which have very low GWP. The potential HFO
refrigerant is HFO-1234yf;

HFO-1234yf

HFO-1234ze

Natural Refrigerants

Natural Refrigerants like ammonia, propane and CO2 are


known
much prior to the CFCs and HCFCs were
introduced;

Ammonia is used widely in industrial refrigeration, food


processing and storages. A limited use in supermarkets
and in central air-conditioning because of its flammable
(A2L) and toxic characteristics;

HC-290 has similar vapour pressure as HCFC-22 but it is


highly flammable. It is one of the potential alternatives to
HCFC-22 for small capacity units;
10

Current Options for Air Conditioning


Air conditioning Sub
Sector

Application

Viable Option

Ductless Room Air


Conditioners

Home, small offices


(Charge limitation)

R-410A (HFC); HFC-32* ;


R-290*

Ducted System

Commercial A/C

R 410A, R 407C (HFCs)

Chiller - Air Cooled

Central Systems

R 410A, R134a (HFCs)

Chiller - Water Cooled Central Systems

HFC 134a (HFC)

VRFs (Variable
Refrigerant Volume)

Commercial A/C

R 410A (HFC)

Rail Coach Air


Conditioner

Railways, Metros

R 410A (HFC), R-407C

Others - Marine &


Defence

Special Application

* Subject to national regulations

R-410A, R-407C (HFCs)


11

Specific Requirements for High


Ambient Conditions

Higher condensing temperature for air-cooled


systems due to higher ambient;

Higher cooling capacity


volume;

Longer operating cycle in comparison to


moderate
climates
because
of
higher
temperature difference between outdoor and
indoor.

for similar space

12

Impact of High Ambient Temperature


on the System Performance
An Increase in Condenser
Pressure
results
in
the
following:

Decrease in Cooling:
From (h1 h4) (h1 h4)

Decrease in volumetric efficiency

Increase in work of compression:


From (h2 h1) (h2 h1)
13

Impact of High Ambient Temperature


on the System Performance (Contd..)
R410A

104

1.8

103

103

2
1
2.

25C

K
g/k
J
k

8 9 1

-4.21C

P [kPa]

60C

1.3

35C

1.9

5
P [kPa]

1.7

96.2

104

1.2

kJ
/kg
-K

71.4
4

1.4

R22

105

-25C

-45C

102
-30C

102

0.2

101
100

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.8

0.4

0.6

0.8

101

150

200

250

300

350

h [kJ/kg]

400

450

500

550

600

-100

100

200

300

400

h [kJ/kg]

14

500

Additional Constraints on Availability


of Alternatives

Refrigerants with higher critical temperature for


the required performance;

Preferably non-flammable refrigerants as charge


quantity will be higher
due to increased
cooling capacity requirement for similar space
volume;

Preferably
Lower
discharge
temperature
especially for hermetic systems to reduce
frequency of maintenance.
15

Potential Available Refrigerants for


High Ambient Conditions

HFC-134a being non-flammable and have relatively


higher critical temperature;

R-410A and R-407C being non-flammable and widely


used refrigerants in various climatic conditions,
possibly systems could be designed for high ambient;

HFC-32 is a mildly flammable refrigerant, technically


better than R-410A, could be used if national regulation
allows;

R-290 is a flammable, can be used for small cooling


capacity units because of charge limitation, if national
16
regulation permits;

Concluding Remarks

Globally including high ambient there are very limited


options like HFC-134a, R-410A, R-407C and HFC-32. All
these are HFC refrigerants;

R-290 is a highly flammable refrigerant. It is technically


one of the potential refrigerants for small cooling
capacity units provided safety issues are addressed and
national regulations allow;

The A/C systems to be designed and developed taking


into account the special requirements of high ambient
conditions especially the performance and safety;

Regulatory framework is required if flammable


refrigerants are to be adopted especially for safety of the
17
users, installers and servicing technicians.

Thank You
for your
Kind Attention