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**SEMINAR REPORT 2004
**

Done by Arun Mohan .V

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering

Government Engineering College Thrissur

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to thank everyone who helped to see this seminar to completion. In particular, I would like to thank my seminar coordinator Mrs. Muneera.C.R for her moral support and guidance to complete my seminar on time. Also I would like to thank Mr. C. D. Anil Kumar for his invaluable help and support. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Prof. Indiradevi, Head of the Department, Electronics & Communication Engineering for her support and encouragement. I express my gratitude to all my friends and classmates for their support and help in this seminar. Last, but not the least I wish to express my gratitude to God almighty for his abundant blessings without which this seminar would not have been successful.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

ABSTRACT

Multi-Carrier Modulation is a technique for data-transmission by dividing a high-bit rate data stream is several parallel low bit-rate data streams and using these low bit-rate data streams to modulate several carriers. Multi-Carrier Transmission has a lot of useful properties such as delay-spread tolerance and spectrum efficiency that encourage their use in untethered broadband communications. OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation technique with densely spaced sub-carriers that has gained a lot of popularity among the broadband community in the last few years. It has found immense applications in communication systems. This report is intended to provide a tutorial level introduction to OFDM Modulation, its advantages and demerits, and some applications of OFDM.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ....................................................... Department of ECE, GEC Thrissur

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

...................…….3 1. HISTORY OF OFDM …………………………. ………….....5 2. OFDM SYSTEM MODEL...................................................... 7 3. ADVANTAGES OF OFDM..................................................22 4. THE PEAK POWER PROBLEM IN OFDM.......................25 5. SYNCHRONIZATION IN OFDM SYSTEMS................. 30 6. MULTI-CARRIER CDMA.....................................................33 7. APPLICATIONS OF OFDM................................................ 36 8. CONCLUSION .................41 REFERENCE .................................................. ....................................................

...........................42

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

1. HISTORY OF OFDM

The concept of using parallel data transmission by means of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) was published in mid 60s. Some early development can be traced back in the 50s. A U.S. patent was filled and issued in January, 1970. The idea was to use parallel data streams and FDM with overlapping sub channels to avoid the use of high speed equalization and to combat impulsive noise, and multipath distortion as well as to fully use the available bandwidth. The initial applications were in the military communications. In the telecommunications field, the terms of discrete multi-tone (DMT), multichannel modulation and multicarrier modulation (MCM) are widely used and sometimes they are interchangeable with OFDM. In OFDM, each carrier is orthogonal to all other carriers. However, this condition is not always maintained in MCM. OFDM is an optimal version of multicarrier transmission schemes.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

Figure 1: comparison of band width between FDM and OFDM For a large number of sub channels, the arrays of sinusoidal generators and coherent demodulators required in a parallel system become unreasonably expensive and complex. The receiver needs precise phasing of the demodulating carriers and sampling times in order to keep crosstalk between sub channels acceptable. Weinstein and Ebert applied the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to parallel data transmission system as part of the modulation and demodulation process. In addition to eliminating the banks of subcarrier oscillators and coherent demodulators required by FDM, a completely digital implementation could be built around special-purpose hardware performing the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Recent advances in VLSI technology enable making of high-speed chips that can perform large size FFT at affordable price. In the 1980s, OFDM has been studied for high-speed modems, digital mobile communications and high-density recording. One of the systems used a pilot tone for stabilizing carrier and clock frequency control and trellis coding was implemented. Various fast modems were developed for telephone networks. In 1990s, OFDM has been exploited for wideband

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data

communications over mobile radio FM channels, high-bit-rate digital

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 subscriber lines (HDSL, 1.6 Mb/s), asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL, 1,536 Mb/s), very high-speed digital subscriber lines (VHDSL, 100 Mb/s), digital audio broadcasting (DAB) and HDTV terrestrial broadcasting.

**2. OFDM SYSTEM MODEL
**

2.1 INTRODUCTION

In older multi-channel systems using FDM, the total available bandwidth is divided into N non-overlapping frequency sub-channels. Each sub-channel is modulated with a separate symbol stream and the N sub-channels are frequency multiplexed. Even though the prevention of spectral overlapping of sub-carriers reduces (or eliminates) Inter channel Interference, this leads to an inefficient use of spectrum. The guard bands on either side of each sub-channel are a waste of precious bandwidth. To overcome the problem of bandwidth wastage, we can instead use N overlapping (but orthogonal) sub carriers, each carrying a baud rate of 1/T and spaced 1/T apart. Because of the frequency spacing selected, the sub-carriers are all mathematically orthogonal to each other. This permits the proper demodulation of the symbol streams without the requirement of non overlapping spectra. Another way of specifying the sub-carrier orthogonality condition is to require that each sub-carrier have exactly integer number of cycles in the interval T. The idea in OFDM is to

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 define a symbol sequence in the frequency domain, transmit it in the time domain, and map the received samples back into the frequency domain. In high speed data transfer, Quality of service is an important criterion. Therefore modulation techniques must be good enough for quality data transfer, which modulation can compromise all contradicting requirements in the best manner. Using adaptive equalization techniques at the receiver could be the solution, but there are practical difficulties in operating this equalization in realtime at several Mb/s with compact, low-cost hardware. A promising candidate that eliminates a need for the complex equalizers is the OFDM. Here methods generation, properties, merits and demerits of the technique are discussed. It is an important feature of the OFDM system design that the bandwidth occupied is greater than the correlation bandwidth of the fading channel. A good understanding of the propagation statistics is needed to ensure that this condition is met. Then, although some of the carriers are degraded by multipath fading, the majority of the carriers should still be adequately received. OFDM can effectively randomize burst errors caused by Rayleigh fading, which comes from interleaving due to parallelization. So, instead of several adjacent symbols being completely destroyed, many symbols are only slightly distorted. Because of dividing an entire channel bandwidth into many narrow sub bands, the frequency response over each individual subband is relatively flat. Since each subchannel covers only a small fraction of the original bandwidth, equalization is potentially simpler than in a serial data system. A simple equalization algorithm can minimize mean-square distortion on each subchannel, and the

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 implementation of differential encoding may make it possible to avoid equalization altogether. This allows the precise reconstruction of majority of them, even without forward error correction (FEC).

**2.2 Mathematical description of OFDM
**

After the qualitative description of the system, it is valuable to discuss the mathematical definition of the modulation system. This allows us to see how the signal is generated and how receiver must operate, and it gives us a tool to understand the effects of imperfections in the transmission channel. As noted above, OFDM transmits a large number of narrowband carriers, closely spaced in the frequency domain. In order to avoid a large number of modulators and filters at the transmitter and complementary filters and demodulators at the receiver, it is desirable to be able to use modern digital signal processing techniques, such as fast Fourier transform (FFT). Mathematically, each carrier can be described as a complex wave:

The real signal is the real part of sc (t). Both Ac (t) and fc(t), the amplitude and phase of the carrier, can vary on a symbol by symbol basis. The values of the parameters are constant over the symbol

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 duration period t.

Figure 2: Single and multi bit channel spectrum OFDM consists of many carriers. Thus the complex signals represented by:

ss(t)is

Where, This is of course a continuous signal. If we consider the waveforms of each component of the signal over one symbol period, then the variables Ac(t) and fc(t) take on fixed values, which depend on the frequency of that particular carrier, and so can be rewritten:

If the signal is sampled using a sampling frequency of 1/T, then the resulting signal is represented by:

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

At this point, we have restricted the time over which we analyse the signal to N samples. It is convenient to sample over the period of one data symbol. Thus we have a relationship:

If we now simplify the equation for signal, without a loss of generality by letting w0=0, then the signal becomes:

Now above eqn can be compared with the general form of the inverse Fourier transform:

In simplified, the function

is no more than a definition of the

signal in the sampled frequency domain, and s(kT) is the time domain representation. Above eqns are equivalent if:

This is the condition that was required for orthogonality. Thus, one consequence of maintaining orthogonality is that the OFDM signal can be defined by using Fourier transform procedures. The Fourier transform allows us to relate events in time domain to events in frequency domain. There are several version of the Fourier transform, and the choice of which one to use depends on the particular circumstances of the work. The conventional transform relates to continuous signals which are not limited to in either time or

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 frequency domains. However, signal processing is made easier if the signals are sampled. Sampling of signals with an infinite spectrum leads to aliasing, and the processing of signals which are not time limited can lead to problems with storage space. To avoid this, the majority of signal processing uses a version of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The DFT is a variant on the normal transform in which the signals are sampled in both time and the frequency domains. By definition, the time waveform must repeat continually, and this leads to a frequency spectrum that repeats continually in the frequency domain. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is merely a rapid mathematical method for computer applications of DFT. It is the availability of this technique, and the technology that allows it to be implemented on integrated circuits at a reasonable price, that has permitted OFDM to be developed as far as it has. The process of transforming from the time domain representation to the frequency domain representation uses the Fourier transform itself, whereas the reverse process uses the inverse Fourier transform.

2.3 OFDM USING IDFT

The use of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) in the parallel transmission of data using Frequency Division Multiplexing was investigated in 1971 by Weinstein and Ebert. Consider a data sequence d0, d2… dN-1,

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 Where each dn is a complex symbol. (The data sequence could be the output of a complex digital modulator, such as QAM, PSK etc).Suppose we perform an IDFT on the sequence 2dn (the factor 2 is used purely for scaling purposes), we get a result of N complex numbers Sm (m = 0, 1…, N-1) as: Where, Ts represents the symbol interval of the original symbols. Passing the real part of the symbol sequence represented by equation

(2.1) thorough a low-pass filter with each symbol separated by a duration of Ts seconds, yields the signal, Where, T is defined as NTs. The signal y (t) represents the base band version of the OFDM signal.

**Figure 3: OFDM modulator
**

It is easy to note from (2.3), that

1 The length of the OFDM signal is T. 2. The spacing between the carriers is equal to 1/T. 3. The OFDM symbol-rate is N times the original baud rate.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 4. There are N orthogonal sub-carriers in the system. The signal defined in equation (2.3) is the basic OFDM symbol.

Figure 4: Three sub carriers within an OFDM signal

Figure 5: Spectra of individual carriers

**2.5 GUARD TIME AND CYCLIC EXTENSION
**

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

The main problem with reception of radio signals is fading caused by multipath propagation. Also, there are intersymbol interference (ISI), shadowing, and interference. This makes link quality vary. Further constraints are limited bandwidth, low power consumption, network management and multi-cellular operation. As a result of the multi-path propagation, there are many reflected signals, which arrive at the receiver at different times. Delayed signals are the result of reflections from terrain features such as trees, hills or mountains, or objects such as people, vehicles or buildings. These echoes cause ISI. Combined, these signals can produce fading. One of the main advantages of OFDM is its effectiveness against the multi-path delay spread frequently encountered in Mobile communication channels. The reduction of the symbol rate by N times, results in a proportional reduction of the relative multi-path delay spread, relative to the symbol time. To completely eliminate even the very small ISI that results, a guard time is introduced for each OFDM symbol. The guard time must be chosen to be larger than the expected delay spread, such that multi-path components from one symbol cannot interfere with the next symbol. If the guard time is left empty, this may lead to inter-carrier interference (ICI), since the carriers are no longer orthogonal to each other. To avoid such a cross talk between sub-carriers, the OFDM symbol is cyclically extended in the guard time. This ensures that the delayed replicas of the OFDM symbols always have an integer number of cycles within the FFT interval as long as the multi-path delay spread is less than the guard time.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

**2.6 . RAISED COSINE WINDOWING
**

If the ODFM symbol were generated using equation (2.3), the

power spectral density of this signal would be similar to the one shown in Fig ( psd ). The sharp-phase transitions caused by phase modulation results in very large side-lobes in the PSD and the spectrum fall off rather slowly (as the sinc function). If the number of sub-carries were increased, the spectrum roll-off will be sharper in the beginning, but gets worse at frequencies a little further away from the 3-dB cut-off frequency. To overcome this problem of slow spectrum roll-off, a windowing may be used to reduce the side-lobe

The most commonly used window is the Raised Cosine Window, W (t) Here Tr is the symbol interval which is chosen to be shorter than the actual OFDM symbol duration, since the symbols are allowed to partially overlap in the roll-off region of the raised cosine window. Incorporating the windowing effect, the OFDM symbol can now be represented as:

It must be noted that filtering can also be used as a substitute for windowing, for tailoring the spectrum roll-off. But windowing is preferred to filtering because, it can be carefully controlled. With filtering, one must be careful to avoid rippling effects in the roll-off

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 region of the OFDM symbol. Rippling causes distortions in the OFDM symbol, which directly leads to less-delay spread tolerance.

2.7. OFDM GENERATION

Based on the previous discussions, the method for generating an ODFM symbol is as follows. First, the N input complex symbols are padded with zeros to get Ns symbols that are used to calculate the IFFT. The output of the IFFT is the basic OFDM symbol. Based on the delay spread of the multi-path channel, a specific guard-time must be chosen (say Tg ) . Number of samples corresponding to this guard time must be taken from the beginning of the OFDM symbol and appended at the end of the symbol. Likewise, the same number of samples must be taken from the end of the OFDM symbol and must be inserted at the beginning.

The OFDM symbol must be multiplied with the raised cosine window to remove the power of the out-of-band sub-carriers. The windowed OFDM symbol is then added to the output of the previous OFDM symbol with a delay of Tr, so that there is an overlap region of r T b between each symbol.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 Figure 6: OFDM transmitter and receiver

**2.8 OFDM SYSTEM DESIGN
**

OFDM system design, as in any other system design, involves a lot of tradeoff’s and conflicting requirements. The following are the most important design parameters of an OFDM system. The following parameters could be a part of a general OFDM system specification: Bit Rate required for the system. Bandwidth available. BER requirements. (Power efficiency). RMS delay spread of the channel.

Guard Time

Guard time in an OFDM system usually results in an SNR loss in an OFDM system, since it carries no information. The choice of the guard time is straightforward once the multi-path delay spread is known. As a rule of thumb, the guard time must be at least 2-4 times the RMS delay spread of the multi-path channel. Further, higher-order modulation schemes (like 32 or 64 QAM) are more sensitive to ISI and ICI than simple schemes like QPSK. This factor must also be taken into account while deciding on the guard-time. Naturally, the addition of the guard interval reduces the data capacity by an amount dependent on its length. The concept of a guard interval could in principle be applied to a single-carrier system, but the loss of data capacity would normally be prohibitive. Each OFDM symbol is preceded by a periodic extension of the signal itself. The total symbol duration is T Total=Tg+T, where Tg is the guard interval and T is the useful symbol duration. When the guard interval is longer than the channel impulse response or the

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 multipath delay, the ISI can be eliminated. However, the ICI, or inband fading, still exists. The ratio of the guard interval to useful symbol duration is application-dependent. Since the insertion of guard interval will reduce data throughput, Tg is usually less than T/4. With a guard interval included in the signal, the tolerance on timing the samples is considerably more relaxed Multipath distortion causes inter-symbol interference, which occurs when one signal overlaps with an adjacent signal. The information content of a narrowband signal can be completely lost at the receiver if the multipath distortion causes the frequency response to have a null at the transmission frequency. The use of the multicarrier OFDM significantly reduces this problem. OFDM signals typically have a time guard of 800 ns, however, which provides good performance on channels having delay spreads up to 250 ns. This is good enough for all but the harshest environments. Delay spread due to multi-path propagation is generally less than 50 ns in homes, 100 ns in offices, and 300 ns in industrial environments.

Figure 7: time domain representation of guard band

Symbol Duration

To minimize the SNR loss due to the guard-time, the symbol

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 duration must be set much larger than the guard time. But an increase in the symbol time implies a corresponding increase in the number of sub-carriers and thus an increase in the system complexity. A practical design choice for the symbol time is to be at least five times the guard time, which leads to an SNR loss that is reasonable.

**Number of Sub-carriers
**

Once the symbol duration is determined, the number of subcarriers required can be calculated by first calculating the sub-carrier spacing which is just the inverse of the symbol time (less the guard period). The number of sub-carriers is the available bandwidth divided by the sub-carrier spacing. The carriers are spaced by the reciprocal of the useful symbol duration. The number of carriers corresponds to the number of complex points being processed in FFT. For HDTV applications, the number of subcarriers is in the range of several thousands, so as to accommodate the data rate and guard interval requirement.

Where N is the number of Sub carriers

**Modulation and Coding Choices
**

The first step in deciding on the coding and modulation techniques is determining the number of bits carried by an OFDM symbol. Then, a suitable combination of modulation and coding techniques can be selected to fit the input data rate into the OFDM symbols and, at the same time, satisfying the bit-error rate requirements. The choice of modulation and coding techniques are lot

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 easier now, since each channel is assumed to almost AWGN and one doesn’t need to worry about the effects of multi-path delay spread. By using frequency and time diversity OFDM provides a means to transmit data in a frequency selective channel. However, it does not suppress fading itself. Depending on their position in the frequency domain, individual subchannels could be affected by fading. This requires the use of channel coding to further protect transmitted data. Among those channel techniques, trellis coded modulation (TCM), combined with frequency and time interleaving is considered the most effective means for a selective fading channel. TCM combines coding and modulation to achieve a high coding gain without affecting the bandwidth of the signal. In a TCM encoder, each symbol of n bits is mapped into constellation of n+ 1 bit, using a setpartitioning rule. This process increases the constellation size and effectively adds additional redundancy to the signal. A TCM code can be decoded with a soft decision Viterbi decoding algorithm, which exploits the soft decision nature of the received signal. The coding gain for a two dimensional TCM code over a Gaussian channel is about 3 dB for a bit error rate (BER) It should be mentioned that one of the advantages of OFDM is that it can convert a wideband frequency selective fading channel into a series of narrowband and frequency non-selective fading subchannels by using parallel and multicarrier transmission. Coding OFDM subcarriers sequentially by using specially designed TCM codes for frequency non-selective fading channel is the major reason for using the COFDM for terrestrial broadcasting. However, the search of the best TCM code is still ongoing. Although trellis codes produce improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), they do not perform well with impulsive or burst noise. In general, transmission errors have

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 a strong time/frequency correlation. Interleaving plays an essential role in channel coding by providing diversity in the time domain. Interleaving breaks the correlation and enables the decoder to eliminate local fading throughout the band and over the whole depth of the time interleaving. Interleaving depth should be enough to break long straight errors.

3. ADVANTAGES OF OFDM

OFDM possesses some inherent advantages for Wireless

Communications. This section glances on few of the most important reasons on why OFDM is becoming more popular in the Wireless Industry today. OFDM has been adopted in several wireless standards such as digital audio broadcasting (DAB), digital video broadcasting (DVB), the IEEE 802.11a local area network (LAN) standard and the IEEE 802.16a Metropolitan area network (MAN) standard. OFDM is also being pursued for dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) for road side to vehicle communications and as a potential candidate for fourth-generation (4G) mobile wireless systems.

**3. 1. MULTI-PATH DELAY SPREAD TOLERANCE
**

As discussed earlier, the increase in the symbol time of the OFDM symbol by N times (N being the number of sub-carriers), leads to a corresponding increase in the effectiveness of OFDM against the ISI caused due to multi-path delay spread. Further, using the cyclic extension process and proper design, one can completely eliminate ISI from the system. OFDM exhibits lower multi-path distortion (delay spread), since the high-speed composite's sub-signals are sent at lower data rates. Because of the lower data rate transmissions, multi-

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 path-based delays are not nearly as significant as they would be with a single-channel high-rate system. For example, a narrowband signal sent at a high rate over a single channel will likely experience greater negative effects from delay spread because the transmitted symbols are closer together

**3.2 EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST CHANNEL DISTORTION
**

In addition to delay variations in the channel, the lack of amplitude flatness in the frequency response of the channel also causes ISI in digital communication systems. A typical example would be the twister-pair used in telephone lines. These transmission lines are used to handle voice calls and have a poor frequency response when it comes to high frequency transmission. In systems that use single-carrier transmission, an equalizer might be required to mitigate the effect of channel distortion. The complexity of the equalizer depends upon the severity of the channel distortion and there are usually issues such as equalizer non-linearities and error propagation etc that cause additional trouble. In OFDM systems on the other hand, since the bandwidth of each sub-carrier is very small, the amplitude response over this narrow bandwidth will be basically flat Even in the case of extreme amplitude distortion, an equalizer of very simple structure will be enough to correct the distortion in each sub-carrier.

3.3. THROUGHPUT MAXIMIZATION

The use of sub-carrier modulation improves the flexibility of OFDM to channel fading and distortion makes it possible for the system to transmit at maximum possible capacity using a technique called channel loading. Suppose the transmission channel has a

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 fading notch in a certain frequency range corresponding to a certain sub-carrier. If we can detect the presence of this notch by using channel estimation schemes and assuming that the notch doesn’t vary fast enough compared to the symbol duration of the OFDM symbol, it can be possible to change (scale down/up) the modulation and coding schemes for this particular sub-carrier (i.e. , increase their robustness against noise), so that capacity as a whole is maximized over all the sub-carriers. However, this requires the data from channel-estimation algorithms. In the case of single-carrier systems, nothing can be done against such fading notches. They must somehow survive the distortion using error correction coding or equalizers.

**3.4 ROBUSTNESS AGAINST IMPULSE NOISE
**

Impulse noise is usually a burst of interference caused usually caused in channels such as the return path HFC twisted-pair and wireless channels affected by atmospheric phenomena such as lightning etc. It is common for the length of the interference waveform to exceed the symbol duration of a typical digital communication system. Usually complicated Reed-Solomon codes in conjunction with huge interleaves are used to correct this problem. OFDM systems are inherently robust against impulse noise, since the symbol duration of an OFDM signal is much larger than that of the corresponding singlecarrier system and thus, it is less likely that impulse noise might cause (even single) symbol errors. Thus, complicated error-control coding and interleaving schemes for handling burst-type errors are not really required for OFDM Systems simplifying the transceiver design.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

**4 THE PEAK POWER PROBLEM IN OFDM
**

One of the most serious problems with OFDM transmission is that, it exhibits a high peak-to-average ratio. In other words, there is a problem of extreme amplitude Excursions of the transmitted signal. The OFDM signal is basically a sum of N complex Random variables, each of which can be considered as a complex modulated signal at different frequencies. In some cases, all the signal components can add up in phase and produce a large output and in some cases, they may cancel each other producing zero output. Thus the peak-to-average ratio (PAR) of the OFDM system is very large. The problem of Peak-To-Average Ratio is more serious in the transmitter. In order to avoid clipping of the transmitted waveform, the power-amplifier at the transmitter front end must have a wide linear range to include the peaks in the transmitted waveform. Building power amplifiers with such wide linear ranges is a costly affair. Further, this also results in high power consumption. The DAC’s and the ADC’s must also have a wide range to avoid clipping. There has been a lot of research put into the study of overcoming the PAR problem in OFDM . The following sections discuss some of the most common and important of those techniques as well as other issues.

**4.1 POWER AMPLIFIER LINEARITY
**

Practical Power Amplifiers have an input power range over which they have a linear transfer curve. Usually the linearity of non-ideal power amplifiers is measured using a term called the 1 dB compression point. It is defined as the input power at which the output power of the amplifier is 1 dB less than the output power obtained with an ideal amplifier.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 Since a broadcast transmitter is a nonlinear device, clipping will always happen for COFDM signal. However, clipping of a COFDM signal is similar to the impulse interference on which COFDM systems have strong immunity. Tests show that when clipping occurs at 0.1% of the time, the BER degradation is only 0.1-0.2 dB. Even at 1% of clipping, the degradation is 0.5-0.6 dB. However, the BER performance of COFDM system under nonlinear distortion might not be the decisive factor. When clipping occurs, energy would spill into the adjacent channels. More studies are required in this area. It has been reported that, for an OFDM system, a 9 dB output back-off causes negligible BER degradation and adjacent channel interference. Another study indicated that, for modern solid-state transmitters, a prudent back-off level would be around 6 dB.

4.2 CLIPPING

One important feature of the peak-to-average ratio in the OFDM is the fact that the percentage of symbols has a very large peakpower is less. Thus in this case, the simplest possible solution to the peak-power problem would be clipping, i.e., limiting the peak amplitude to some maximum level. Although simple, this method has a few disadvantages. Clipping produces a kind of self-interference that causes some degradation in the BER performance. The non-linear distortion caused due to clipping increases the amount of out-of-band radiation. The increase in the out-of-band radiation is basically because of the fact that the clipping operation is a multiplication of the OFDM symbol with a rectangular function that is if the amplitude is below a threshold and a smaller value if the amplitude is above the threshold. This rectangular waveform increases the out-of-band radiation, and as a result, the spectrum has a roll-off that is inversely

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 proportional to the frequency. The problem of slow spectrum roll-off can be overcome to some extent, by windowing the rectangular clipping waveform. Several windows are proposed in literature. Some of the most common ones are Gaussian, Cosine, Hamming, Kaiser etc. Simulation results show a slight degradation in BER with clipping. When windowing is applied the BER performance is still worse, since a large portion of the signal is affected by windowing than by clipping alone. The required back-off for the power amplifier can be determined by specifying the amount of attenuation for the out-of-band spectral components, relative to the in-band spectral components. It has been shown that windowing offers a 3-dB gain in the required back-off when compared to clipping alone.

**4.3 ERROR-CONTROL CODING
**

One of the problems with clipping is the degradation in BER. Specifically, the symbols that have a large PAR ratio are vulnerable to errors. To reduce this effect, forward error correction (FEC) can be applied across several OFDM symbols. When FEC is applied, the errors caused due to large PAR in particular symbols can be corrected by the surrounding symbols. The distribution of the data over many carriers means that selective fading will cause some bits to be received in error while others are received correctly. By using an error-correcting code, which adds extra bits at the transmitter, it is possible to correct many or all of the bits that were incorrectly received. The information carried by one of the degraded carriers is corrected, because other information, which is related to it by the error-correcting code, is transmitted in a different part of the multiplex. This accounts for the “coded” part of the name COFDM.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

4.4 PEAK CANCELLATION

Another method of removing the peaks in a OFDM signal is to subtract a time-shifted and scaled reference function such that each subtracted reference function reduces the peak power of at least one signal sample. It is desirable to choose a signal with approximately the same bandwidth as the transmitted signal. The most commonly used peak-canceling function is the sinc function because of its desirable frequency-domain properties. The sinc function can be timelimited by multiplying by a raised-cosine window. It can be shown that the peak cancellation technique will result in a lesser out of band interference than the clipping and windowing techniques. A further advantage of the peak-cancellation technique is the fact that it can be digitally implemented, following the IFFT in the transmitter.

**4.5 PAR REDUCTION CODES
**

A more elegant solution to the PAR problem is the use of coding techniques. The PAR can be reduced by using a code that only produces OFDM symbols for which the PAR is below some desired level. The more the reduction in the PAR, the smaller is the coding rate. It has been shown that it is possible to construct codes with a code rate of ¾ that provides a maximum PAR of 3 dB. Another interesting result in this direction is the fact that the correlation properties of complementary sequence can translate into a relatively small PAP ratio of 3-dB when these codes are used to modulate an OFDM Symbol. All these results have lead to the usage of GolayComplementary sequences for generating these codes.

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Golay

Department of ECE, GEC Thrissur

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 complementary sequences are sequence pairs for which the sum of auto-correlation function is zero for all delay shifts that are not equal to zero. A lot of research papers have been published on the usage of Golay Codes for OFDM transmission, that deal with the efficient generation of these code and the optimal and sub-optimal decoding and other interesting properties. A Golay complementary pair is a pair fc; dg of binary sequences of length n such that:

**Ac (u) + Ad(u) = 0; u ≠ 0 Where Ac (u) = ∑ (-1)ci_ci+u is the aperiodic auto-correlation function
**

of c (in which the summation is understood to be over only those integer values for which both i and i+u lie within {0,1,2,……..}

**4.6 SYMBOL SCRAMBLING TECHNIQUES
**

The basic idea of these techniques is that, for each OFDM symbol, the input sequence is scrambled by a certain number of scrambling sequences. The output signal with the smallest PAR is transmitted. If the PAR for one OFDM symbol has a probability p of exceeding a certain level without scrambling, the probability that it will exceed with scrambling (given a set of k scrambling codes) is pk. Thus scrambling hopes to reduce the probability of occurrence of high PARs, rather than reducing the levels of these PARs.

**5 SYNCHRONIZATION IN OFDM SYSTEMS
**

Another important issue in OFDM transmission

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is

Department of ECE, GEC Thrissur

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 synchronization. There are basically three issues that must be addressed in synchronization. µ The receiver has to estimate the symbol boundaries and the optimal timing instants that minimize the effects of intercarrier interference (ICI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI). In an OFDM system, the sub-carriers are exactly orthogonal only if the transmitter and the receiver use exactly the same frequencies. Thus receiver has to estimate and correct for the carrier frequency offset of the received signal Further,the phase information must be recovered if coherent demodulation is employed. Another associated problem with OFDM systems is the effect of phase noise. Phase noise is present in all practical oscillators and it manifests itself in the form of random phase modulation of the carrier. Both phase-noise and frequency offset cause significant amount of ICI in an OFDM receiver. The effect these are worse in OFDM than single carrier systems. The use of efficient frequency and phase estimation schemes can help reduce these effects. Some of the common methods used to achieve synchronization in OFDM systems are:

**5.1 SYNCHRONIZATION USING CYCLIC EXTENSION
**

Since a Cyclic extension is added to every OFDM symbol, the first Tg seconds of the OFDM symbol is identical to the last part. This property can be exploited for both timing and

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frequency

synchronization this scheme correlates Tg seconds of the OFDM

Department of ECE, GEC Thrissur

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 symbol with a part that is T seconds Delayed (T – being the symbol time, less the guard period Tg). The output of the Correlator can be written as:

The symbol timing is estimated from the correlation peaks at the output of the correlator. The characteristics of the correlation peaks (in terms of the correlation side-lobe levels and the standard deviation of the correlation magnitude) are better if the correlation is performed over a large number of independent samples. Since the number of independent samples is proportional to the number of sub-carriers, this cyclic extension correlation method is efficient only if a large number of sub-carriers are present (more than 100). In the case of less number of sub-carriers, the side-lobe to peak ratio of the correlator output will be high and sometimes this might lead to wrong timing. Once the timing is established using the correlation output, the frequency offset can be directly estimated. The phase of the correlator output is equal to the phase drift between samples that are T seconds apart. Hence the frequency offset can be estimated as the Correlation phase divided by T p 2. The cyclic extension technique is basically used for blind synchronization where it is not possible to use a training sequence.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 Figure 8: Synchronization using Cyclic Extension

**5.2 SYNCHRONIZATION USING TRAINING SEQUENCES
**

In cases like packet data transmission in which a training sequence is available, a much more efficient method of timing recovery is to correlate the received signal with the known training sequence and to find the peaks in the correlator output.Here T is the sampling interval and ci are the matched filter coefficients, which are in turn, the complex conjugates of the known training sequence. From the correlation peaks in the output signal, both the symbol timing and the frequency offset can be estimated.

Figure 9 : Synchronization using Timing Sequences

**5.3 OPTIMAL TIMING IN THE PRESENCE OF MULTI-PATH
**

The effect of multi-path is the introduction of ICI and ISI in the OFDM symbol. These effects are significant only if the delay spread of the channel exceeds the guard interval. ICI is caused mainly because the FFT interval is no longer flat (because the roll-off regions due the multi-path components interfere with the flat region of the FFT interval). ISI is caused mainly because of the overlap between the previous OFDM symbol and the current OFDM symbol in the FFT interval. The solution to this timing problem is to find the delay

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 window with a width equal to the guard time-that contains the maximum signal power. The optimal FFT starting time is then equal to the starting delay of the found delay window, plus the delay that occurs between a matched filter peak output from a single OFDM pulse and the delay of the last sample from the flat part of the OFDM signal envelope, minus the length of the FFT interval.

**6 MULTI-CARRIER CDMA
**

Recently a new proposal for a system based on a combination of CDMA and OFDM has gained increasing attention in the research community. This system is called the Multi- Carrier CDMA (MCCDMA) system and it combines the advantages offered by both OFDM and CDMA. Code-Division Multiple-Access (CDMA). dominates amongst proposals for 3rd Generation cellular communications systems Multi-code CDMA is a very simple, backwards-compatible technique for supporting users who demand widely varying data rates for different applications. In MC-CDMA, a user who wishes to transmit at a higher data rate is simply assigned additional orthogonal transmission channels and appears to the base station as multiple users. The abbreviation MC-CDMA has been widely used for multicarrier CDMA, where characteristics of OFDM and CDMA systems are combined and multi-code CDMA. Here we use it to abbreviate the latter.This section describes the basic architecture and the advantages of this system:

6.1 SYSTEM MODEL

A MC-CDMA transmitter spreads the data signal using a given spreading code in the frequency domain. In other words, each chip of the signal is transmitted over a separate sub-carrier. The block

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 diagram of a basic OFDM transmitter is shown in following figure .In the MC-CDMA transmitter, the input data stream is first converted into a parallel symbol stream (of width P), using a serial to parallel converter. Each data symbol is spread using a spreading code K. All the data in total (K P ´), are now transmitted in parallel using subcarrier modulation

Figure 10: MC-CDMA transmitter In the MC-CDMA receiver, after down-conversion, the K subcarrier components Corresponding to the received users data is first coherently detected with the DFT and Combined to yield the received data.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

Figure 11: A Multi-Carrier CDMA Receiver

6.2 ADVANTAGES OF MC-CDMA

Combining OFDM with CDMA has a lot of advantages when compared to using DSCDMA alone. Some of them are discussed in this section:

The transmitted symbol duration is much larger than the chip

**duration of DS-CDMA; this makes the job of synchronization much easier.
**

Provided there is an adequate guard interval provided, the multi-path correction in the form of RAKE combining is not necessary.

The OFDM-CDMA system provides inherent frequency diversity, since a single Symbol is spread over a wide range of frequencies that may fade independently and a diversity combiner can be used to improve the fading performance of the system. Finally, it must be noted that all these advantages are in addition,

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 to what is already offered by CDMA.

7 APPLICATIONS OF OFDM

A lot of applications that use OFDM technology have spawned over the last few years. OFDM is the basis for the global standard for asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) and for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) in the European market. In the wireless network space, OFDM is at the heart of IEEE 802.11a and HiperLAN/2. The main difference in implementation is how they perform convolutional encoding. In this section, one such application will be described in detail, while an introduction to the other applications will be provided.

7.1 DIGITAL AUDIO BROADCASTING (DAB)

DAB is an European standard for digital broadcasting that is intended to replace the current analog technologies such as AM and FM. It was standardized by the European Telecommunications Institute (ETSI) in 1995 . DAB has got four transmission modes. The DAB transmitted data consists of number of audio signals sampled at a rate of 48 kHz with a 22-bit resolution. This audio signal is then compressed at rates ranging from 32 to 384 kbps, depending

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 upon the desired signal quality. The resulting digital data is then divided into frames of 24 Ms. DAB uses differential QPSK modulation for the sub-carriers. A null-symbol (or a silence period that is slightly greater than the OFDM symbol length) is used to indicate the start of the frame. A reference OFDM symbol is then sent to serve as a starting point for the differential decoding of the QPSK sub carriers. Differential Modulation avoids the use of complicated phase-recovery schemes. DAB uses a rate ¼ convolutional codes with a constraint length of 7 for error-correction. The coding rate can also be increased using puncturing. Interleaving is used to separate the coded bits in the frequency domain as much as possible, which avoids large error bursts in the case of deep fades affecting a group of sub-carriers. DAB is designed to be a single frequency network, in which the user receives, same Signals from several different transmitters. This greatly enhances spectral efficiency. Even though there is a delay in the reception of signals from different transmitters, this Situation can be considered as a multi-path situation and can be easily handled by selecting the guard interval properly. Further, this can be considered a form of transmit Diversity, that the DAB receiver can take advantage of.

**7.2 DIGITAL VIDEO BROADCASTING (DVB)
**

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a standard for broadcasting Digital Television over satellites, cables and thorough terrestrial (wireless) transmission. DVB was standardized by the ETSI in 1997. The following are some important parameters of DVB:

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 DVB has two modes of operation: the 2k mode with 1705 subcarriers and the 8k Modes with 6817 sub-carriers. DVB uses QPSK, 16-QAM or 64-QAM sub-carrier modulation.

DVB uses a Reed-Solomon outer code (204, 188,t=8) and a inner

convolution code with generator polynomials (177,133 octal) combined with two layers of interleaving for error-control.

Pilot Sub-carriers are used to obtain reference amplitudes and phases for coherent demodulation. Two-dimensional channel estimation is performed using the pilot sub carriers, which aids in the reception of the OFDM signal.

7.3

WIRELESS LANs

Wireless LANs are one of the most important applications of OFDM. A lot of standards have been proposed for Wireless LANs during the past decade, most of then based on spread-spectrum schemes. In July 1998, IEEE Wireless LAN standardization group IEEE 802.11 standardized a scheme based on OFDM operating in the 5-G Hz band. It is interesting to note that this standard is one of the first packet-based one to use OFDM. The parameters of this WLAN standard are given in table(2)

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

One of the main reasons for using OFDM for Wireless LANs is relatively small amount of delay spread encountered in such applications. In the case of indoor environments, the delay spread is still much less and the efficiency of OFDM in such environments is very high. In outdoor-environments however, directional antennas need to be employed if the same guard interval were used (to reduce the effect of delay spread). The parallel-form of transmission over multiple subcarriers enables OFDM-based WLANs to operate at higher aggregate data rates, such as up to 54 Mbps with IEEE 802.11acompliant implementations. In addition, interfering RF signals will only destroy the portion of the OFDM transmitted signal related to the frequency of the interfering signal.

Department of ECE, GEC Thrissur

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004

**7.4 Wide-band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (W-OFDM):
**

W-OFDM (Wi-LAN U.S. patent number 5,282,222) is a variation of OFDM that further improves its characteristics. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a modulation method that, like all wireless transmission schemes, encodes data onto a radio frequency (RF) signal. Conventional single carrier transmission schemes like AM/FM (amplitude or frequency modulation) send only one signal at a time using one radio frequency. OFDM sends multiple high-speed signals concurrently on different frequencies. This results in very efficient use of bandwidth, and provides robust communications in the presence of noise, intentional or unintentional interference, and reflected signals that degrade radio communications. The signal reception is corrected for distortions, allowing greater transmission speeds. W-OFDM also further processes the signal to maximize the range. Wi-LAN holds fundamental patents on W-OFDM and is pioneering the development of large-scale, high data rate W-OFDM systems. The efficiency and noise tolerance of W-OFDM allow the best of both spread-spectrum and narrow band systems to be united. These combinations, and our established data networking protocols, further extend the capabilities of W-OFDM into realm of practical multipoint networks. W-OFDM effectively permits several independent channels to operate within the same band, allowing multipoint networks and point-to-point backbone systems to be overlaid on one another in the same frequency band.

CONCLUSION

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 OFDM has several interesting properties such as noise reduction, advanced multiple access capabilities and high rate of data transfer capabilities suits its use over Wireless channels and hence many Wireless standards have started to use OFDM for modulation and multiple accesses. The various methods of generation and demodulation of OFDM and specific issues such as linearity and synchronization were analyzed. Application of OFDM such MC-CDMA, DAB, DVB , WLAN etc, were also discussed in detail.

REFERENCE:

1.Richard Van Nee, Ramjee Prasad, “OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications”, Artech House Publishers.

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Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing seminar 2004 2. Ahmad R. S. Bahai, Burton R. Saltzberg, “Multi-Carrier Digital Communications – Theory and Applications of OFDM”, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 3. May T., Rohling H, “Reducing the Peak to Average Power Ratio of OFDM Radio Transmission Systems”, Proceedings of IEEE VTC ’98, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 2474- 2478, May 18-21, 1998. 4. Li X., Cimini L. J., “Effects of Clipping and Filtering on the performance of 1634-1638, 1997. 5. Davis J. A., and Jedwab J., “Peak-to-Mean Power Control and Error Correction for OFDM Transmission Using Golay Sequences and ReedMuller Codes”, Electronics Letters, Vol. 33, pp. 267-268, 1997. 6. ETSI, “Digital Video Broadcasting: Framing Structure, Channel Coding and Modulation for Digital Terrestrial Television”, European Telecommunication Standard, EN 300-744, Aug 1997. 7. Justin Chuang, Nelson Sollenberger, “Beyond 3G: Wireless Wideband Data Access based on OFDM and Dynamic Packet Magazine, pp. 78-87, July 2000. Assignment”, IEEE Communications OFDM”, Proceedings of IEEE VTC ’97, pp.

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