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EP426

Chemical Process Design and Optimization

Chapter 1

I like to have a class replacement for EP426.

38 students are agreed to have a replacement class for 10 Feb 2016 (CNY) Based on majority: 23 Jan 2016 (Saturday) is the replacement class

I like to have a class replacement for EP426. 38 students are agreed to have a

Teaching Plan

Teaching Plan

Student attainment

CLO1: Identify sustainable processes for chemical

production.

C4 Assessing peer feedback and Critical evaluation of literature. A4 Case study, PBL, and Case summary. P1 - Case history exercise and Case presentation.

PLO9 - ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY

Understand the impact of professional engineering solutions in societal and

environmental contexts and demonstrate knowledge of and need for

sustainable development.

Note:

Teaching method - Lecture & Group Project Assessment - Test, Final Exam and report presentation.

EP426

EP426 Chemical Process Design and Optimization Chapter 1b – Sustainable Process Design Hierarchical approach to process
EP426 Chemical Process Design and Optimization Chapter 1b – Sustainable Process Design Hierarchical approach to process

Chemical Process Design and Optimization Chapter 1b Sustainable Process Design

Hierarchical approach to process design

Introduction

Most important decision in the evolution of a process is

  • 1. the choice of which chemical syntheses

  • 2. routes should be investigated

to produce a desired product.

There are at least two viable ways to produce a given

chemical. These alternative routes may require different

raw materials and may produce different by-products.

Evaluating Factors for alternative route

Cost of the raw materials. Value of the by-products. Complexity of the synthesis. Environmental impact.

Hierarchy of Process Design

It is an approach to a conceptual process design which

follows a series of decisions and steps. These decisions are listed as follows.

  • 1. Decide whether the process will be batch or continuous.

  • 2. Identify the input/output structure of the process.

  • 3. Identify and define the recycle structure of the process.

  • 4. Identify and design the general structure of the separation system.

  • 5. Identify and design the heat-exchanger network or process energy recovery system.

Class activity

Form a group of 5 students and describe the step in

details on what are the decision should be made. Student should focus on the following

- Concept, Technique, Example

Class activity Form a group of 5 students and describe the step in details on what

You may use any available literature.

Class will be continued at 1:30 PM

Group member and Step selection

Yimanuell Pillai a/l James Pillai

Lee Qing Zhou

Chin Ka Wing

1

Yimanuell Pillai a/l James Pillai Lee Qing Zhou Chin Ka Wing 1 Boo Ee-Yern Tan Pui

Boo Ee-Yern

Tan Pui Yee

Chen Jun Ting

Tey Kai Jing

Chen Jun Ting Tey Kai Jing Muhammad Imran Bin Shukri Kavimanan A/L Munusamy Choo Wen Xin

Muhammad Imran Bin Shukri

Kavimanan A/L Munusamy

Choo Wen Xin

2

Chai Wei Fong

Abdul Rahman

Ray Jeevan Sagayam

   

Soh Wei Ming

3

 

Wong Mun Yuan

Ho Lup Fai

Soschorespicko Dimos

Chin Yung Han

   

Piravena Pricillia A/P Gunusegran

4

 

Kheshawarthini A/P Santherasaygargam

   

Lohan A/L Selvasubramaniam

Chong Kian Hen

Chee Hwan Lai

Lim Chee Hui

3

Chong Kian Hen Chee Hwan Lai Lim Chee Hui 3 Lee Long Ee Teo Xsu Li

Lee Long Ee

Teo Xsu Li

Arwin A/L P Jayapalan

Ng Ka Nyan

   

Shadeeshkumar A/L Visanathan

2

 

Lew Man Kit

   

Andrea Lai Jia Xin

Renusha Parameswaran Christopher Brian Wijaya Lai Pun Mun Anour Adam Ashley 1
Renusha Parameswaran
Christopher
Brian Wijaya
Lai Pun Mun
Anour Adam
Ashley
1

Dashenee A/P Subramaniam

Mirisse Galapathige Nandini

   

Gitta Fitriani

5

 

Loshanya A/P Renugopal

   

Andrew Arvind A/L Simon

Gurinapreet Kaur A/P Rashem Singh

Tan Yee Huan

Ding Joe Aw

4

Gurinapreet Kaur A/P Rashem Singh Tan Yee Huan Ding Joe Aw 4 Yudhisthira A/L Ramanaidu Teh

Yudhisthira A/L Ramanaidu

Teh Yoon Wei

Ganesh Liew Hock Ling

Helena Francis

Wong Vivian

 

5

 

Rema Malar A/P Rabinthran

Tan Kuan Leong

Goh Chai Ni

Karanjit Singh

   

Alex Chan Weng Kit

5

 

Thineshwari A/P Manamaran

   

Tan Jing Khai

Maha Letchumy A/P Gunalan

Khoo Lynn Hui

   

SULEIMAN AHMED YUSUF

4

 

Shaikh Mohamad Jawad

   

Jannatul Fatihah Binti Izaham

Decide

Step 1 Batch or Continuous

Continuous

Continuous

 
Batch

Batch

 
Fed-batch

Fed-batch

 
Batch-product removal

Batch-product removal

 

Factor between Batch OR Cont.

Size Prod. Quality Flexibility Product variation Efficiency Maintenance Feedstock

Demand Rate Fouling Safety Controllability

Identify

Step 2 - Input/Output Structure

The purpose

of this section

is to investigate the

input/output structure of the process.

The inputs represent feed streams and the outputs are product streams, which may be desired or

waste streams.

  • 1. Process Concept Diagram

  • 2. Structure of the Process Flow Diagram

  • 3. Generic Block Flow Process Diagram

Process Concept Diagram

Process Concept Diagram

Structure of the Process Flow Diagram

Structure of the Process Flow Diagram

Structure of the Process Flow Diagram

Structure of the Process Flow Diagram

Generic Block Flow Process Diagram

the return of unreacted feed chemicals for further reaction separation of products, by-products, waste streams, and
the return of unreacted
feed chemicals for
further reaction
separation of products,
by-products, waste
streams, and unused
feed
NOT at a suitable
concentration,
Temperature, and
pressure for optimal
performance in the
reactor.
Desired product(s), any
to provide the
unused reactants, and
conditions required
a variety of undesired
by-products
for the effective
separation

include gases, liquids, and solids that must be treated prior to being discharged

Step 3 - Recycle Structure

Efficiency of Raw Material Usage

single-pass conversion in the reactor, the overall conversion in the process, and the yield.

Unreacted raw materials can be recycled by:

Separate and purify unreacted feed material from products and then recycle.

Recycle feed and product together and use a purge stream.

Recycle feed and product together and do not use a purge stream.

Step 4 - Separation System

The goal of the separator is to Produce a product of acceptable purity Recycle stream of unreacted feed materials,

Separate the product stream with streams of by- products.

Ideal separator represents a process of infinite cost.

Therefore, one step is to “de-tune” the separation to a reasonable level.

Guidelines for Choosing Separation Units

  • 1. Use distillation as

first

choice for separation of

a

fluids when purity of both products is required.

  • 2. Use gas absorption to remove one trace component from a gas stream.

  • 3. Consider adsorption to remove trace impurities from gas or liquid streams.

  • 4. Consider pressure-swing adsorption to purify gas streams, especially when one of the components has a cryogenic boiling point.

  • 5. Consider membranes to separate gases of cryogenic boiling point and relatively low flowrates.

  • 6. Choose an alternative to distillation if the boiling points are very close or if the heats of vaporization are very high.

Guidelines for Choosing Separation Units

  • 7. Consider extraction as a choice to purify a liquid from another liquid.

  • 8. Use crystallization to separate two solids or to purify a solid from a liquid solution.

  • 9. Use evaporation to concentrate a solution of a solid in a liquid.

10. Use centrifugation to concentrate a solid from slurry.

a

11. Use filtration to from a slurry.

remove an almost dry solid form

12. Use screening to separate solids of different particle size.

Guidelines for Choosing Separation Units

13. Use

float/sink

to

separate

solids

of

different

density from a mixture of pure particles.

14. Consider reverse osmosis to purify a liquid from a solution of dissolved solids.

15. Use

leaching to

mixture.

remove a

solid from

a solid

16. Consider chromatography for final purification of high-value products (such as proteins) from dilute streams.

Step 5 - Energy Recovery System

Designing a heat exchanger network that consumes

the minimum amount of utilities and requires the minimum number of exchangers.

Objective: To design an optimum network of heat exchangers, connecting between the hot and cold streams and between the streams and cold/hot utilities.

What is optimal? - Implies a trade-off between CAPITAL COSTS (Cost of equipment) and ENERGY COSTS (Cost of utilities).

Heat Integration example

Heat Integration example Without Heat Integration With Heat Integration

Without Heat Integration

Heat Integration example Without Heat Integration With Heat Integration

With Heat Integration

Typical Proposed HEN

Proposed HEN showing interior heat exchanger (1-3) and heat utilities (H,C)

Typical Proposed HEN Proposed HEN showing interior heat exchanger (1-3) and heat utilities (H,C) Q is

Q is multiply by 10 4 Btu/hr

Typical Proposed HEN (with pinch analysis)

Proposed HEN showing interior heat exchanger (1-3) and heat utilities (H,C)

Typical Proposed HEN (with pinch analysis) Proposed HEN showing interior heat exchanger (1-3) and heat utilities
Typical Proposed HEN (with pinch analysis) Proposed HEN showing interior heat exchanger (1-3) and heat utilities

Q is multiply by 10 4 Btu/hr

To be continued…

Chapter 2 - Synthesis of process flow diagram (PFD).