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Horizontaland Multilateral

Drilling Technology

RecentAdvances

By
f)r. MohamedShehataFarahat
Facultyof Petroleum
andMining Eng.-Suez,
SuezCanalljniversity

Horizontaland MultilateralDrillingTechnology:
RecentAdvances

Horizontal and Multilaterat Drilling


Technology:RecentAdvances
By
Dr. MohamedShehataFarahat
Facultyof Fetroleumandlv{iningEng.-Suez,
SuezCanalUniversity

AnsrnacT
Horizontal and rnulti-lateral drilling have been become key
techrrologies "in helping the oil industry continue tct proJitably exploit
re,servoir e.sset". Thus, this paper presents the state-of-the-artof these
technologiesthat can be applied to new- and mature-field developments
worldwide.
In this paper,an advauced-comprehensive
discussionof the horizontal
and multi-lateral wells construction technologies. was presented. This
discussionis starting with rock characterrzationin reservoirstargeted for
wells drilling and completions,continuing with rvell profiles design,and
finishingwith the possibledevelopment
of drilling the wells of tomorrow.
From this research,it is concludedthat ior the horizontal and multilateral wells construction(drilling and completion)of tomorow, will likely
evolve further towardsmarryingthe capabilitiesof reservoirengineeringrvith
those of wells construction.Thus, improving the link betw,eenthe reservoir
understanding,and horizontal and multi-lateral wells construction r.r'i1l
dramaticallyaffect both the planningand executionof wells profiles.

Dr. M. S. Farahat
,62

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

I.

INrRoouCTIoN

In the 1980's,a new technoiogycalledhorizontatdriiling revolutionizedthe


oil and gas industryby enablingoil companiesto drill sideways(at 90" inclinatiorr
from vertical. T'en)'ears later, anothersignificant step foreword occurred,with the
adventof multi-luterol drilling, therebyenablingmore than one horizontal wellbore
to be drilled fiom a singlewell.
Horizontal wells are nonnally new wclls, 2000 to 5000 ft long, which are
drilled frorn the surface.Drainholes are generally drilled from the existing vertical
wells and are 100 to 800 ft long. One can drill eithera singledrainholeor multiple
drainholesthrougha singleverticalwelltrl. A multi-lateralwell is definedas tr,voor
more drainholes(branches)drilled from a primary wellbore (trunk) t2l. Both the
trunk and branchescan be horizontal. In this paper, the term horizontal well refers
to both new horizontalwells and drainholes,uniessnotedotherwise.
In general.horizontaland multi-lateralwells are foundtl-r?leffuctivein: (l)
thin. hrsh vertical perrneabilityreservoirs;(2) normaliy fracturcd reservoirs:(3)
offihore resen'oirs; (4) reservoirsthat are difficult to frac using conventional
(-i) a case in'which surfaceaccessis limited; (6) reservoirswith sanC
tecl-rniques;
production and coning (gas or water) problems;(7) stratified reservoirs:ancl{g)
otherapplicatioirs:
hcavl'crudeoil. coalseams.andbrowouts,
We think horizontaland multi-lateraldrilling shouldbe definedas a drilling
and oompletiontechnique in r,vhichthe wellbore remains in a high-angle trajectory
roughly parallel to the fbrmation, therebl, exposing significantly more pay ro
productionthan wottld exposedby a vertical lvellbore.Many of the more recentl!'
developed,aggressivecurve-buildingtechniquesare not actually horizontal and
multi-lateraldrilling unlessthe lateralwellbore remainsin the target for a distance
10 to more times the thicknessof the net pay zone. In many reservoirs,a lateral
length 20 to 50 times the thickness is necessaryto make horizontal drilling
economicaliyviable. In other words. drilling horizontaland rnuiti-lateralwells can
achievea significantbenefit to oil and gas drilling industry,that is increasingthe
returnon investment(ROI). Although the oostfor drilling horizontalor multi-lateral
well is more than that a verticalwell and completioncostsare usuallyhigher.
The objective of this paper is to present the recent advances for the
horizontal and multi-lateral drilling technologiesthat can be applied to both new
and mature oil field developmentsworldwide. To achievethis objective.a nineprongedapproachshouldbe addressed
and discussed,
namely:
1. Recentadvancesfor horizontaland multi-lateralwells planning.
2. Rock characterizationin reservoirstargeted for horizontal and multi-lateral
drilling.
3. Drilling and completinghorizontalwells and drainholesdrilling metho,Jsand
equipment for: ultra-short-radius,short-radius, medium-radiils, and longradiushorizontalwells.
4. New strategiesfor designingof horizontalwell profiles.
5. Technical considerations for horizontal re-entry options and new drill
procedures.
6. Completionconsiderations
for selectinghorizontalwell types.
Dr. M. S. Farahat
t63

Horizontaland MultilateralDrilling Technology:RecentAdvances

7. Drilling problemsassociated
with horizontalwells.
8. Drilling andcompletionof multi-lateral
wells:
Lateral-TieBack System(LTBS)
RetrievableMultilateralSystem(RMLS)
selectiveRe-Entrysystemof Multilaterals,
SRS,andSRLS.
TechnologyAdvancementof Multilateral (TAML) Levels and their
features.
9. Futuredevelopments
for rnultilateral
drillingtechnology:
drillingthe wellsof
tomorrow,using:
Coiledtubing.
Underbalanced
drilling technique
Technologyof selectivere-entrysystem.
Advancedmethodof steeringwellboretrajectorvrelativeto seismicand
reservoirmodels.
Technology
Advancement
of Multilareral(TAML) l,evels.
Intelligentwell compietion.
z\ctivereservoirmanagement
services.
)

REcnNr AnvANCEsnon HoRrzoNr4r, aNn Murrr-LarERAr


Wmm PhNnsrNc

Recentadvances
for horizontalandmulti-lateralwellsplanningshowthatthe
adventof horizontaland multi-lateraldrilling technologyhelpedchangethe rva,v
that multi-disciplinary
teamsttz'l8lwithin oillompanies rvorktogether,ultirnatel!,
resultingin the rise of the assetteams.Both of thesechangesare significant.And
both are necessary
for horizontaland multi-lateraldrilling to representthe first step
'fhus,
in combiningdrillingtechnology
progress.
to achievethisprogress.
horizontal
and multi-lateraldrilling technologyshouldpermitan increasein the movementof
resen'oirfluids from the rock poreto the wellheadan<iaddyalueto reservoirasset
by the folloivingmeans:(1) Reducecostper barrelof oil produced.(2) increasenet
presentvalue(NPV) of resen,oirasset.
Hereis the summaryof stepsin recentadvances
for horizontaland multilateralwellsplanning(asshownin Fig. 1),areas follo,uvs:

1. Ddue-pppLcplieL

The first step in u,ell planing is to identiSithe lvpe of application.This


provideseveryteammemberwith a basicunderstanding
of the importantissues
related.L,achteammemberwill thenidentifupotentiaiconcernwhich mustbe
considered
in developing
thewell design.
2. Definereservoirconditions:
1. Thickness.
2.
4. Fractureexistence
andorientation.5.
6. Fluid mobilitybarriers.
7.
Identiff
8.
needfor pilot hole.
9.

GOC.
3. OWC.
Heterogenieties.
Relativepermeability.
Determineif holestabilityis an issue

3. Dqline complgJign.
1. Casingsetdepthandcasingsize.
2. Determineif completionis compatible
with reservoirconditions.
Dr. M. S. Farahat
t 61

Horizontaland MultilaterarDrilringTechnorogy:
RecentAdvances

RecentAdvancesfor Stepsof
Horizontal and Multi-lateral Wells planning
Steps

TeamMember
l: Resen,oir
engineer
2. Reservoir
geologist
3. Completions
engineer
4. Drillingengineer

Determine
L Locationof lateral
2. Targetsizeandshape
3. Identifygeoiogical
markers
4. Evaluationprogram

1,Completions
engineer l. Openholeor liner
2. Reservoir
engineer
2. Pumprequirements
3. Drilling engineer
3. Locationof completionequipment
4. Holesizerequirements
l. Drillingengineer
l. Finalizeholesizes
2. Completions
engineer 2. Casingsizeandsettingdepths
3. Reservoir
engineer
3. Porepress.& reservoirinformation
1.Drillingengineer
i. KOP
+Directional
clrillingCo, 2. Buildrate
3. Completions
engineer 3. Tangent
(ifany)
4. Drillingoperations
1 Drillingengineer
-Dir ectionai
driliinsCo.
N-o

l. Holeproblerns?

DoesPlannedProfileMeet DesignObjectives?
Yes
Prepare Drilline Program

Designdrillingfluid

l . D r i l l i n ge n g i n e e r
l. Waterbasevs.oil base
+Drillingfluidengineer 2. Holestabilitv
3. Holecleaning
i
4. Formationdamage
Designdrillstring
l. Drillingengineer
l. Light weightBHA
+Directional
drillinsCo, 2. Bucklingloadof drillstririg
3. Torqueanddragmodeling
Bits/BHA's/Hydraulics I . Drillingengineer
l. System
design(MWD, Motor,Bits)
2. Directional
drillingCo.
I
3. MWD I Bit lMotor Co.
Y
Designsurvey
1.DirectionaldrillingCo. 1. Targetsize
program
+Drillingengineer
2. plannedprofile

vI

D r i l l t h ew e l l

*
Finalwell report
or prognosis

i. Drillingoperations
+Directional
drillingCo.
2. Drillingengineer
3. Operations
geologist
i. Drillingengineer
+DirectionaldrillingCo,

Fig. 1: Flow Diagram lllustrating the stepsfor well plonning preparation

Dr. M. S. Farahat

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

4.M:
1. TVD.

2, Lateral.
5. Geologicalmarkersrequired,

3, Entery.
4. Exit.
6. Pilotholerequired.

Designwellprortk.' (long,mediurn,or shortor ultrashortradius)


L KOP(asdeepaspossible).
2. Build rate.BR, selected
to providerequiredthrorvto target.
3. Tangents(if any).
5. Completion(setpump in straightsection).

4. DirectionalControl.
6. Throw (extendedreach)

6. Reviewqlfsetdrilling data:
l. Determinepossibleproblemsandcorresponding
soh-rtions.
2. Determineif well desisnshouldbe modified.
1

Design dr illing .fluid:


1. Formationdamase.
3. Flolestability.

2. Flolecleaning.
4. Lubricity.

Designdrillstrinq:
Driilstring design is an importantpart of horizontaldrilling. It cannot be
optimizedLrntilthe well profile anddrilling fluid havebeenselected.
9. H-t'dratilics:
Once the drillstring has been designed,hydraulicscaiculationsshouid be
done to select btt nozzles.Hydraulics should be designedto ensureadequate
hole cleaning and optimum performanceof the downholemud motors. It mar,
be necessaryto meetthe first tlvo criteria.

10.SelectBHA's:
BHA (bottom-hole-assembly)
selection during well planning assists in
preparing the tool list of equipmentthat should be onsite.The equipmentlist
shouldincludethe planneclBI{A's as rv"^llas a coupleof contingencyBHA's
capableof higherbuild rates.This will ensurethat the well can be drilled with
the tools on site,and eliminatethe needto mobilizetoolswhile drilling the well.
It will reducethe risks of waiting on tools, Naturaliv,if the supply depot is
closeto the rig site,theremay not be a needto haveadditionaltooison site.
Also, Fig. 2 showsthe horizontalr,velldesignteam.This teamshouldinclude
a drilling engineer, reservoir engineer, reservoir geologist, completions
engineer.and representativefrom drilling operationsand the directionaldrilling
company.Traditionally,the directionaldrilling companyand driiling operations
have not been included in the early stagesof the well planning process.
Includingthesetwo groupsin the earlvstagesof the well planningprocesswill
result in efficient well planning with feu'er changes during detailed well
planning. Holever, the drilling engineer serves as the project leader. and
ensuresinformationis communicatedto eachmember.

rNRnsnnvornsTaRcnrno roR
Rocr ClraRa.crpnrz.q.rroN
HomzoxrAl ANDMurrr-TATnRALDRrlr.rNc
For a successfulfield operation,a drilling methodfor a horizontaland
multi-lateral well should be chosen based upon reservoir considerations.
Technically,drilling a horizontalwell to exploita reservoirusuallyinvolves
Dr. M. S. Farahat

t66

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

RecentAdvancesfor Horizontal and Multi-lateral


Wells PlanningTeam

Reservoirensineer

Completionsengineer

Reservoir
geologist
Drilling
Engineer

DiiectionaldrilirngCo.

Drillingoperations

Drilline

Completions
engineer
--'l

-f

/r,ur

Engineer

Directionaldrilling Co.

Onsitegeologist
,/
^/

Drillingoperations

Fig. 2: Flow Diagram Showsthe Stepsof a multidisciplined Project TeamCoultl Take


Design and Drill Horizontal and Multilateral Ll/eilpranning Target

Dr. M. S. Farahat

tuq

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvanees

severalimportantquestions,theseare:
1. Whereshouldthe well be located?
2. In what directionshouldthe well be drilled?
3. Whereshouldthe KOP to horizontalbe?
4. How long shouldthe horizontalsectionbe?
5. Is it necessary
to stimulatethe well?
The answers of these questions require gathering field data about the
reservoir and the conditions existing in the area. Accordingly, horizontal r.vell
should not be drilled in all cases.T'hus.careful study of technical visibilitv and
economical potential of horizontal drilling is required before its application.
Practically,accuratereservoirdataand offset ad.jacent
well datashouldbe collected.
Thus, achievingthe maxirnum economicbenefit from horizontaldrilling
Ile-21].The direct
requires thorough unclerstanding
of reservoir characteristics
measurementof rock propertiesfrom orientedcore is critical in horizontalwellbore
design. T'hus,rock mechanicalproperties,fracture strike, principal in-situ stress
maenitudesand directionsshould be knor.vnbefore a horizontaiwellbore is drilled
t"r. Thus.Fig. 3 illustratesthe completeanalyticalschemefor the characterization
of reservoirpropertiescriticalin horizontaldrilling.

Ortr
El':twtrPrsagur!
ftomB.lT,fiFTor Ohu
LtrthodArd[hl6rmln
PorcF!$ura Gtrdl6nl

Cd orLrf.d
HorironialC{rE
To gxemh.
. LatrrelFrcles
Virhllom
. Ririrvolr FrJclur
frrqtrrcy Ard
Dblributlon

Fluid- Rocl
Conducl
CompalibiliN
Tcstr,
Mhrnloqy

(Molv-Coulomb)
0r Otha Modil
PorhrmASfl,0SA0r
Aro6lb l,lllutlrtrulr
0n CorrFor

. CoaplrGErsic
Cora-Andyir
Pro!.rm
. Evrlurh0ireclional
Prrmubilily
. tollow4jpltith
SpcdrlCort
tuialysh
. PerbrmWrliborc
SbbllUAnlt$i!
. C{lculrl.Mlnirnui}
MudW.10H
' Cldarrnlnr
oplimum
Pbe.to.rt Of
Hofhodrl wBllb'r
(Eolt) Andoktcthn
iArlmuth)

oarkcDynrmkikhrnlcrl
ProoarthftomAaucic

fingtitta*+

kH V.&tl PihtHoh*

P'ry-&tlrM Xkh-ltl thrizonlf 8u& &cl'0n""""'-"""

0rillHailzonElSution>

Fig.3: Characterizationo-freservoirpropertiescrilical in horizontaldriltingttgl

Dr. M. S. Farahat

t68

Horizontal and Multilateral Driiling Technorogy:RecentAdvances

However, the use of several techniquesto determine the single parameter


is
encouragedto cross check experimentalresults-e.g..static (core) *. ol,nurnic(log)
elasticmoduli and anelasticstrain recoveryvs. differentialstrain rr*. analysisfor
principal horizontal stressorientation.Experiencehas shown that no single
method
will consistentll'yield reliable results in all formation tlpes. Formation depth,
litholog;', rock fabric, paieo-stress.and borehole conditions can adyerselyuff..t
reseryoirassessment.
The koy to successfulhorizontaldrilling is integrationof a
wide variety of activities:core and log analysis,in-situ stressdetermination,fracture
diagnostics,
well testingandvariouslarge-scale
reservoirevaluationmethods
Reservoiranisotropy[23'24],
KvlK1is one of the parameters
neededto predict
production performance.Analitical studiesof horizontal weli productivitv' t25'271
show that the ratio of horizontal- to vertical-well productiviV, Jnl,Iy clecreases
,
with decreases
in anisotropyratio"KvlKH, as shownin Figs.4,5.

17
16

*h

15

-3-

14

20 ft
h = 100ft
il

= 20fi ft

13
12
11
> 10
o-q
3

.sB
lL
\-r'

/
/

Vt'
/

.t0 =3
.ejxal.rrD

.--E * 3
4{5**

0 400

900 1.2001,6002,00c2,4a0
L, ft

Fig. 4: Productivitv index ratios of horizontal vs.verticalwells for


var i ous anisotr opi es and r eserv oir t hicknesses [31

Dr. M. S. Farahat
t69

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

L{m1"'--+

lm
Fig. 5: Jn I J v as a functionof L s and Kv"IKs drillingll1l

From thesefigures,it is apparentthat the anisotropyimportanceis of primary ratio


of a horizontalwell. Dependingon the magnitudeof
in screeningthe attractiveness
this parameter,a horizontal well may provide substantiallyincreasedproductivity
comparedwith a vertical well, or it may provide little or no increasein well
[tt] are presentin
produotivity.Where discontinuousverticai permeabilitybaniers
the reservoir, two conceptually different strategiesexist for estimation of the
anisotropyratio, theseare:
of KrrlKp. This approachassumes
1. Use of coreplug (Fig. 5) measurements
that the influenceof barrierson horizontalwell productivityis significant.
2. Use of large-scale averaging for the anisotropy ratio, Ky lKs. This
approach assumes that the barriers influence the horizontal well
productivitv by reductionof effectivevertical permeabilify.The shalesare
Dr. M. S. Farahat

Horizontal and MurtilaterarDriiling Technorogy:


RecentAdvances

assumedto be zero-thicknesssheetsthat do not affect


theKs.Note that if a
well has been drilled and tested,a large-sca
le (Ky /Ks) miy be available
directly from_the interpretation.In Fig. 5, where we
assumethat the ratio
Kv IKH = 1 from core measurements,
we see that strategiesI and 2 will
predicteitherexcellentor poor horizontalwell productivity
benefit.
At last, the reservoir drainagesystemsprovided
by horizontal and multilateralwells add value throughvariouscombinations
from the following means:(1)
Acceleratingproduction. (2) Increaseurtimate recovery.
(3) Reducing capitar
expendituresto developa field (such as requiring fewer
wells or drilling slots).(4)
Reduceoperatingexpenseover the field's tife cyite (such
as minimizinftne cost of
well intervention).

4.

GH

ALW

LS AI'ID DNATNHO

Recently,horizontal well technology'is ctrmmercially


available to drill and
compietehorizontalwells arld drainholes.From the state-of-the-art
of horizontal
drilling' the choice of drilling method depends
upon cost, well spacing and
mechanicalconditionsof a verticalwellborelr it ir in place.
In addition,reserv,oir
considerationsrvhich are discussedbefore (Section
3), are also important in
seiectingthe drilling method.However,during the last
decade,the incrementalcost
of drilling horizontalwells and drainholes,or,':er
a vertical well cost has come down
considerably'As drilling industrygiys more experience
and usesnewer drilling
technologiers
that are presentedin.ttq pup.r, tire cost of horizontal
^ ^
wells and
drainholesmay be further reduced[e't2.28].
Table I and Figs. 6,a,b can summarizethe statistics
for horizontal
--,r
,ol'lut'
'
\\'ells' ln varlouspartsin the world. Thesegive the recent
advancesfor horizontal
drilling technology f-eatures,namely: (l) h.eduction
in hoie size. (2) Deeper
fonlation being drilied.(3) Higher build'ratesbeing
used.(4) longerlateraliengths
beingdrilled.
From point of view, horizontallvells are rarely truly
90" as target structures
are typically dipping_ some angle.There is essentially
no
differenc! in terms o1
1!
drillability betweendrilling
a well at a very high angleor drilling at 90o. whether
the well is 88o, 90o or-92o is largely irrelevantlHorvlver,
the angle of high-anglei
lateralsectionaffectsthe completiondesignand the future
remedialavailable.Thus,
horizontalwells and drainholesare categorizedby their radius
of curvatureto reach
horizontal.

+.t.
As listed in Table 2, the presentlyavailablehorizontaldrilling
methodsand
equipmentcan be classifiedinto four broad categories,depending
upin the turning
radius required to turn from a vertical to a f,orizontal direction.
Also, Fig. 7
comparestuming radii of various drilling methods and their
features for the
constructionof horizontal wells and drainholes.A brief description
of drilling
methodsand equipmentfor horizontaldrilling technologyis given
below:

Dr. M. S.Farahat

10

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology: Recent Advances

Table 1: Horizonral well developments-International[12]

Abu Dhabi

Denmark

Egvpt
Indonesia
Netherlands

8-14'i30m(100ft)
0m,{.100ft)
3r:1.3o,
i0"/30m(100ft)

(100ft)
3-5"/30m
(100ft)
5-18'/30m

North Sea
Norway

3-4"130m(10Oft)

North Sea

(100ft)
3-12"30m

UK

Oman

(100ft)
7-,15'/30m

italy
RospoMare

4-5"130m
( 100ft)

SaudiArabia

4"130m
(100ft)

Syria

UJK

l0'l30m(100ft)
I lol30m(100ft)

1 5 2 - 3 lm
l m

1258-2751m

1 5 3 - 8 6mC

6-12%ns

4128-9024
fI

502-2,821fl

152-2t6mm

rn
l$34120s,{

242-1883
m

6-8 lz ns

6017-6739
ft

79+61q.7.,&

2 1 6m m

2131-2627
m

438-492m

8% ins

8960-8620
ft

r 4 3 8 - i 6 1f3t

216-3llmm

814-1277m

338-459
m

I ' / t - ! 2 Y nn s

7670-419C
ft

I 108-1507
ft

149-216mrn

1430-3595
m

zu-4_1/ m

5 718-8% ins

4692-11195ff

65-1434
fr

216"311mm
8'A -12Y, tns

252344ftm

2 9 1 - i12 8 m

8278-lI r88ft

955-3701
ft

213-216nm

1378--:l51nr

1 3 2 - 8 9m6

8 3/8-8% ins

.155010339
ft

432-2940fr

155-216
mm

664-1992m

t0-1438
m

6 l/8-8 % ins

2178-6535
ft

33-4718
fr

I l0 mrn

i 3 0 0m

600 m

8 t.iz tns

4265fr

1968ft

3ll mm

l:859m

626m

12%ns

6i00 ft

2054ft

2 1 6m m

2525m

484 nt

8% ins

8284ft

1 5 8f t

216rmr

1387m

884m

8 lzi ins

4550ft

2900ff

4.1.1. Ultrashort turning radius


This method utilizes water jets to drill 100 to 200 ft long drainholeswith a
turning radius of 1 to 2 ft. The processinvolvesunderreamingthe vertical wellbore
and then drilling several radials from the Llndeffeamedzone. The first drilling
systemrequiresa 48 inch diameterunderreamedzone, while the irnprovedsecond
systemrequiresa24 rnch diameterzor\e.The underreamedzone length varies from
6 ta 12ft dependingon the systemutilized l1'4'5'2e1.
The drainholeJiarnetervaries
from 1.5 to 2.5 inches.Usually.two or more drainholesare drilled. Fig. 8 shorn's
the
ultrashortradius horizontal well drilling teghniqueand equipmentused. For sand
.c^glgol,the drain holes are completedusing either slotted liners or gravel packing
[2e.30],

From point of view, the ultrashorlradiussystemwhich canturn a well from a


vertical to horizontal in a I-2 ft radius. This is not a drilling system in the
conventionalsense,but a specializedapplicationof a high waterjet. The water jet
drills a 1.5-2.5inchesdiameterhole to a lengthof 100-200ft. It is our opinionthat
this technologyhasiackedcommercialsuccess.
Dr. M. S. Farahat

147

t1

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

Estimated of Future HorizontalWells

10
I

s|n
*
0

Ie
q
t4

I
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

1980

1985

1 989

1988

1990

1995

2000

Year
Fig. 6 a: Exponentialgrowthof horizontalwells[al

20Q0

[ATEnAt SECnON (ft)


4000
3000

c
4000 3
F

l-t&a

gJ

4 2A0A
U
F

I.,

sv.'i'

ll00f/

--l

u
d
F

JUUU

| 2000
1250
1000
750
LATIRALSGCI|ON(m)

I 500

12 5 0

U2l
Fig. 6 b: Harizontal well developments-international

Dr. M. S. Farahat
q2

t2

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdyances

Tsble 2: Classificatio, of horizontat dritting methodsand.fbatures


of types of horizontal wells and druinholes

Radius of
curvature

30-60
ft

114
l-i
lL

300-900
ft

rooo-:ouo
o

l-*---'-*-]-----,-----

T,ypical.,build

J tqt-t26"trl}ft I iBrg,l.l5"/100ft
i +.t-:.t "t100ft
t_

rate
Feet drilled to
nortzontal

;t ,,rFeetof. l
ho'rizsntat,hole

6_10
fl

ft *
100-200
Whipstockswith
curvedguide,drill
tube,and-fet
nozzle

Drilling
assemblies

'

1500-3000
ft
Whipstock,
articulatedtools,
knucklejoLnts,
compressive
services

2000-5000
ft

Conventional Near conventional


rotary inverted
rotaiy )lWD and
drillstring,l"'iWD, motorassembiies
motor assemblies

u"o specialized
I conventionat
I v*ryspecialized
i .""*Tl;";
"l"ltltl,X?,
Surveving
No
MwD
v\\,r-)
T]fl:",'*T

Not likeir
Cased

No

Horizontal

Completion
-

No

_-_^-_,
Perforated j Op"n hole or
, ,
ruDmgor gravel : slottedliner
I

P'aPk

Yes
Openhole or

slonediiner

Slottedliner or
selective
comp.letion

Severalradials from a singlewell could be drilled,


Severaldrainholesat different elevationscould be drilled from a singlewell.

Accordingly, appropriateclassi$'inga horizontalwell candidatewill ensure


a successful drilling and production program. Thus, drilling techniques and
equipment will vary between short-radius, medium-radius, and long-radius
horizontalwells and drainholes.
4.1.2. Short turning radius
In this case,the turningradiusis about30 to 60 ft andthe drainholelengthis
typically 100 to 800 ft" One companyutilizes flexible or wiggly drillcollarsto
facilitateturning of the bottom-holeassemblyarounda bend [1'4'5'311.
The process
involves cutting a 15 to 20ft (recently 12 ft) long rvindow in the casing of an
existing vertical well, and kicking off the drainhole through the r.vindorv.A
whipstockand curveddrilling entryguideassistthe wiggly drill collarsin makinga
20-60 ft turning radius curve. Directional survey tools are available to locate a
drainholepath. Recently,a Europeancompanyhasstartedmarketinga technology
Dr. M. S.Farahat

174

l3

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

ar

Long radius

-lfl-

lt rr#

section
1l'
Jf
J-_Xickotr

deptli

--{>

Ullra sltort
radius

-A_

TT|]I,-..rr,",

d ius
Shorl rad

lrleciiunr adius

t00-200 ll
100 - 600 ll

1 , 5 0 0- 3 . 0 0 0{ l

--pi

-+l

-.*i

Fig, 7: Different typesof horizontalwellsanddrainholesvTl

ILE A57NIINT
Ht6N PqSSSUA
TUAl|]6 S?firHC

r . ! / at H c Hs l t : L
Piooucttcn TU6E

Q { '

ol
oi
cL-

'+I
I'

;]
t:
3

Mo<flicd
Whip!tock

Fig. 8: Ultra-short radius horizontalwell &'itting techniqueanclequipmentl2el

Dr. M. S. Farahat

1" 75

t4

Horizontal and IVrultilateralDrilling Technologl':RecentAdvances

that drills 90 ft tuming


radius drainholes. The
technique employs a
downhole motor and an
articulateddrillstring. The
company
has
been
successful in cementing
the casing in a curved
sectionof a 90-ft turning
radius hoic and hanginga
slotted liner
in
the
horizontal
portion.
Forrnationevaluationtools
- _0^s/o{"
co.r?!c'!
are alsoavailabletttl. Thit
drilling technique couid
probably be used to driil
30 to 200 ft turning radius
by modiS,ing drillstring
articulation.Figs. 9 and 10
show short-radiusturning
horizontairveii driiiing
Fig.9: Shrtrt-radiusdrilling techniqueflexibie
techniqueand equipment.
Flolvever,the horizontalporlion s,ith
Nonmagnellc
4.5 to 6.75 rn. diameter,is normally
Orill Collar
compieted either openhole or b-v
insertinga slottedline in the hole, In
denlsllon
Key
the case of unconsolidatedsand
reservoirs,a rvire screerlis wrapped
aroundthe liner for sandcontrol.
Flexible
Drill collars

Short-radiustuming horizontal
wells have buiid rates of 1.5-3./ft,
rvhich equatesto radii of 40-20 ft.
The length of lateral section varies
between200-900 ft. However, shortradius wells are drilled using
specialized drilling tools and
techniques. This profile is most
commonly drilled a reentry from an
existinswell.

F=--_-

^*i.ll{{'"uI
',i;*1;*-

i(*;

4.1.3.Medium turning radius


In this technique,the turning
radiusfrom a verticalto a horizontal
direction is about 300 to 900fl,
Recently,tw'osystems
area-railable
to drill such holes il'4'5'32-351.
T'he
s],stems(Figs. 11 and 12) in general

) ."9$
-g$l'r-

Fig. l0: Short-radius horizontal well


drilting rcchrique[3)]

Dr. M. S. Farahat

| '16

*'ooo'-

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u
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zt
0"

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- or

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=<

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to

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z&

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lt&

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:f

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tu
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zh4ft

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u=

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r{

Horizontal and Multilaterar Driiling Technologl: RecentAdvances

Steerable
of curvature

P o s i t i v ed i s p l a c e m e n t
downholemotor

Sadlu: of curvature

Benl-houElng

Fig' I2: T1;pinl .steeruble


systemu.sed.fcrnrcrJiumracliustlritlhg ter.httiquelsl

use dou'nholemotors and flexible drilipipe.One systemutiiizesbuild


motors fbr
anglebuilding atarate about 20'1100ft. The horizontalportionis drilled
bl,using
angle hold motors that drill at a rate of 3"i 100 ft. Such a system
has been usecl
successfully
to drill 1500to 3000 ft long horizontalsection.I'ig. l3 showsstepsfbr
recompletingan existing well as a drainhole.Frequently,these lvelis
are also
completedas openholeor usingslottedlinersas shownin Fies. l4 and
I5.

A * V e r t i c E lh o l t i l r i l l o dl n d c r r r d t o r u r f a e c o r i n r ! r c d i s l c c a s i n g p o i n t
B - V a r t i c r t d r i l b d t h r o u g hl o r m r r i o n c o n r l i a i n go i l a n d 9 o r l o p r i o n a l t
C o Vcrticalholc pluggld-brck ro kick oft Foinr
D = Curvcd hol! BUciiori drillcd thtough 90' rurn rrdiec
E . H o r i : o n t a lh o l o s c c t i o n d r i l l c d
F - C u r v r d r n d h o f i r o o t i r lh o l t r r c t i o n r c e s r d r n d c o r r p i o t c d

Fig. 13: l(edimn rudius ltorizorttal v'ell drilling plrosurl?el

Dr. M. S. Farahat

llE

t7

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

ilil
li lltorr+'

lrll

)l ll ll lt

)l lt
.L:"rl'
'f I
I

lzsrg'

i t."tt
i

1f
Lrtaretz -,'

-V4
1l

-lI
11,
gf iurlln

), I

Buttd R{ti !
i

Chrlk

Insainrllon
Itr-69'
Q Cartng tloht

I to;too'Build Rf,t.
:

\.---'-l::1-'-'r\..
------:--".r

------i \--.:-:.:::--.i
i---r'--

Typicelshort*Rldiu*

r*rdrboro

-t.a----J

TyplcalMrdlum*Radlus Iypl|al

,S?'ffiJl$"

$6diu$-REdlus
W.llbore Wth
KOP AbOVg IGP

Fig.I4: Openhole well completionlttl

Gas Litl
I'nandrsls
3838. and
tdatu

I 5E'st 6062'
7t9
Hvdrauiic
Rirtrievable
Pactar

7, casrnaslofied
andCgniralized
lo 67

?'
ca3ing lo
TO al 80'10
x19lnal Caslrlg
Pckof {inlialabto}

Fig. 15:Sketchof the completion clesignof medium-radiushorizontal wellt35l

Medium turning radiushorizontalwells havebuild ratesof 6-35'/100ft,and


lateralsectionof up to 8000 ft (2500 m) long. That is representeda recentadvance
in horizontaldriiling technology.Thesewells are drilled with specializeddownhole
motors and conventional drillstring components.Double bend assembliesare
designedto build anglesat ratesup to35o/100ft.The lateralsectionis drilled with
(SAM's). T'hisprofile is commonfor land
conventionalsteerablemotor assemblies
baseapplicantsand for reentryhorizontaldrilling.
Also in practicalterms, a well is medium radius is the BHA can not be
rotatedthrough the build sectionat all times. At the upper end of medium radius,
drilling the maximum build rate is limited by the bendingand torsionallimits of
APi tubulars. Srnall holes with more flexible tubulars have a hieher allowable
maximumdoglegseverity(DLS).

Dr. M. S. Farahat

18

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

4.1.4.Long turning
rsdius

fhrlffiU$trffimnfitr

'l'his

technique
has a turning radius of
1000 to 3000 ft. uses
mostly
conventional
tools.A combinationof
drill bits u,ith bent subs
and downhole mud
motors are used to drill
2000 to 5000 ft long
horizontalsections.The
Navigation

f $lt drtf cots


toPitrbllrr
E/p.* Yrlvi
tlobr ral*{frrl

Il'4'5'i0^361

tJr{vocalpe{ halCng'

Driliing System,NDS,
(Figs . 1 6 ) e m p i o ys a
Nortrak steerablelnotor
(Fie 17) n,ith doubletilted lJ-joint housing
(D'IU). Fig. i8 shovrs
steps for driiling a
horizontalu'e11.

Uppr blrhg r*fon


nlhd brrdnt hourhg
t o*ur !ilailfhar
Driva*b
8ll

At turning radius
o f i0 0 0 t o 3 0 0 0 ft
8it otfrrl
requires that the n'ell
penetrates a reservoir
1000to 3000ft a\riay
Fig. l6: Nat,igationdrilling system1,\29 t:01
fiorl the KOP.
fhis largelateralspace
requirementlimits the use of this techniquein many onshoretields rvheret1'pical
vertical x'ell spacingis 10 to 80 acres.I{or,vever,this t1,'peof techniqrleis ven'
usefrilin offshoredrilling. The irnprovedcasingschemescompletionn'ell qpes Liu'l
1'orlong horizontalsectionsare sivenin Fig i9.

configuration
motq!'
$teeratle
Posliivedis['iaccmn(molor
vrilh pad trid bctrl llou:;inl

Benl sub

{AggLrasslvebulld ssclbnl

usecl.fbrclrilting long-racliushori:ontaltvel/L5l
Fig. t7: Steercftlenlotor configtn'cttion

Dr. M. S.Farahat

lg"

19

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

'rt-

T"'
i l*

i.f

ft\

ll-

Surtrct
\
!n!
\'
lntarmcdiltl

\ \\ \\
Vrrricrl holc
w;th Crtin!

Orillingro
rbout 6O'

Drittingthe
r D m i n d etro g 0 '

Drilling thr
Trn!Gnt

Brilling th8
horizontal seclion

Fig. 18:Long-radiusharizontalv,ellphosesdrillingts)

A long radiushorizontalwell is characterized


bv a build rate of 2-6"i100ft.
u'Lrichresultsin a radiusof 1000-3000ft.This profile is drilled using conventlonal
directionaidriliing tools.Lateralsectionsof up to 8000ft havebeendrilled.l'hat is
represente:d
a recenladvancein horizontaldrilling technolog-v.
This profile is well
suitedfor applicationwhere a long liorizontal displacernentis requiredto reachthe
targetentry point (TEP).
Frotn above mentioneddiscussionof drilling methodsand equipnlent,ttie
industryrecentadvancecategorizes
the horizontalwells and drainholesas:(1) Short
'l'he
radius.(1) Medium radius.(1) Long radius.
featuresof the three main u,ell
t-vpes
are givenin Table3.
Table 3: RecenlAdr-anceof HorizontcrlWell Ty,pt:s
Feattu'es

o,'l00ft ('/30 m)

F *r R"dt"d 1
e d i u mR a d i u s l

t so- 3oo
6-i5

2-6

10-20

12-6 i

1000-160 290-50

300-r00c
1 5 0 0 - 8 0 0 0 *4 5 0 - 2 5 0 0

j:OOO-iOOOl900-290i2000-E000*i600-2s00

It dependson formation and drilling fluid type.

Dr. M. S. Farahat
tc,l
lol

20

c)

o
:

.rct
o

(D

B}

r-i-

I
l

I
q

o"
o
tt

o.
(}
tl,

rct

rct

ililil|

fn
o
.o

fillll
rililrtl
g?F
{G

llilll oa (! J
lllllll
lilill q ca
lllilll
llllll
ritilil
lltlil
l|ll it

tl

6'
\o
F

\
\
\l

{o

'!
o
t!

n
c

$l

c9

!o
(,r

o
'ct

(r

cl

v,
{4

GI

0.
o
o
(cI

c
v
5

AI
I

aa"

f,

{
ut
g
o

.$d

:t,
=

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a

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A

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o

E-

a.
@

z
x

ID

tEt

o,
o
o
(cI
2

Horizontaland Murtiiaterar
DrilringTechnorogy:
RecentAdvances

5.
accordancewith the horizontal well drilling [5.37.38],
there are three
secuons.
namelr':
1'

V-ertticqtsection' It is drilled from sea bed (mud line) until


KOp as
shownin Fie. 20.

VESTIcAL
SEC?tOl,r

L[orrxvrew
E A S I Cg U 1 1 pc U R v E
GEoMETRY

,V
*;r

t(op

D3V

Fig. 2A: Design of horizontalwell tajectoty".using the


simple tdngentbuild curve methodtt'l

2.

Turned (Cwryedor ansle-buildt section' It is drilled from KOp to the


end-of-curve(EOC).This sectionincludesthe first-buildarc. the straisht
tangent,the second-build
arc,asshownin Fie. 20.

Dr. M. S. Farahat

)J

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

3. Horizontal section; It is drilled from the end of second-buildarc or the


end-of-curve(EOC) to the end of the proposeddistanceto be drilled
horizontally in the pay zane, in accordancewith the type of the
horizontalwell to be drilled, as showr in Fig. 20.
The design[3tl is busedon the conceptof the simpletangentbuild curve.The
three major sectionsthat form a horizontalwell or drainholeare shown in Fie. 20.
Therefbre,from this figure, the threesectionsmay be designedas follows:
1. The build-radiusof the first-buildarc:

2. Ileight of the first-build arc:

5730
B
:
Dr R ( Sin 12- Sin 11) ,

(2)

3. Height of the straight-tangent:

Dz:

(3)

4. Heightof the second-build


arc:

: R ( Sin \ - Sin 12
D_.r
),

ft =

5.
6.
7.
8"
9.

Lz Cos12,

(1)

( . 1)

fhe lengthof the first sectionof horizontalrvell : KOp


K O P : T V D- D 1 - D z - D i , ( 5 )
The displacement
of the first-buildarc:
Ht : R ( C'os11- Cos/2),
(6)
The dispiacementof-tire straight-tangent: I{2 : L2 - Sin t2 ,
( 7)
'l'he
displacement
of the second-build arc: Ht : R ( Cos12- C<is\),
( g)
'Ihe
length of the first-build arc:
100(12- 1r)
r _-----

1,'t

(e)

10. The lengthof the second-build


arc:
,

l.- =

- 1,' )
i00( ,1.
'
B

(r0)

11. I'he measureddepthat the end of the first-buildarc:


MDt:KOP|Lr.

(11)

12. The measureddepthat the end of the straighttangent:


MDz:MDt+1r.

(12)

13. The measureddepthat the endof the second-build


arc:
MDt: MDr+ 1. ,
The length of the secondsection: Lr t Lz + L: : MDt - KOp ,
14. The lengthof the horizontalsectionorthird section: H ,

( i0 )

( 14 )

This lengthis selectedaccordingto the turningradius(R) of horizontalwell


to be proposedand it can be detenninedfrom Tables 1, 2, and 3. All three
sectionsaremathematically
designed,areshownin Fig. 20,
Also, a specialdesignis basedon the conceptof circulara.c [t', 3el.is not
usuallydrilled from verticalto horizontal(Fig. 21).

Dr. M. S.Farahat

t8+

23

Horizontal and Multirateral Driling Technorogy':


RecentAdvances

F r o mF i g .2 i ,
R:H:TVDTpp-TVDKop ,

( ts )

Thus.BLrRmay be determinedas follows:

5730
5TA
BL/R,.,,,=
R
TVD.TEP-.TVD KoP

(16)

Circuiar arcs
are
usuaily drilled only in areas
u'here target entry point
(TEP)
and
directional
performanceare well known
f:rel(e.g. the Austin
Chalkamorphous limestone) as
shor,vn
in Figs.22a and22b.
Instead of circular
wo*o. Y
arcs, a compoundprofiie is
T
frequentlydesignedIl?' 38]as
sho$'nin Fig. 23. 'fhis uses
rnorethan one plannedbuild
w0*o
up rate and one or more
tangent sections. For rvells
ciesignedrvith single tangent
section(simplerangentbuild
c u r v cl ' ' l m c t h od a
) co mp o u n d
Fig. 2l: DetermineB(JR,,,where
profile may havethe samebuild
TEP and SL are gi,-en
up rate in both the upper and
lorverbuild sections.In somecases,differentbuild up ratesrvill be designedtbr the
upperand lower sections.For example,a 4o/100ft build rate may be usedin the
uppersectic)!{9119ry^"q.Uy
a 8oi100 ft build up ratebelow the tangentsection.fhus.
l12'34'36'40-431
cotnpouncl
profilesmay employboth long andmecliumradiusportions
in the sarneweil, using mathematicalformulation of .simpletangentcur.r,emethod
$ irir t\,\'odifferc'ntbuild up rares(upperand lorversections).

Horvever.in compoundprofiles, both upper and lower build up rates are


critical, but for different reasons.The upper build up rate
rypically o..ui, in softer
formationsthat are more prone to washout,therebyleadingto *oi" erraticbuild up
rates. This increaseswellbore tortuosity, and can significantly increasedrillstring
torque and drag [44'42].
Also, The lower build up rate is usualiy planned to be iess
than the expectedsliding build up rate for the selectedBHA. Typically, the planned
build up ratewill be 2-3"1100ft lessthanthe expectedslidingbuild-uprate ior long
radiusand most medium radiusr,vells.If the actualbuild rate while sliding is still
too low to allow target entry at the desiredlocation,then the BHA must be tripped
andreplacedwith a more aggressive
build assembly.
Recently.mediumand long horizontaldrilling technologies
aremost cornmonly
usedas shown in Fig. 24, shortradiustechnologymay be usedfor reentrydrilling in
+'s,-it.r:,5t1.
smallleasesor in shallowapplicationsir':'
The shortradiusminimizes
the amount of formation exposedand often allows the entire build section to be
placedwithin the reserv'oir.The limitationswith respectto conlpletions.workovers
Dr. M. S. Farahat

24

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

and formation evaluationrestrict the use of this technologyto known reservoir


where open hole completionsare applicableand conning of water or gas is not
expected.

K.O.P,

Pionned
Actuoi

--.---+

---nb#r6otut

--/

+
/
/

/^;$

392 Ft.

/q

Tcngent

,.,,\.

t''$
/

88,40

Fig. 22a: Firstwing trcrjectaryusing circular arc methodt39l

Ptl} oF PrcJCnoN r s 5(I8

I
F
E

F eo

I
I

'" c.o $. {s,.tol

e
U
0

7,m

L6,O
(4(!q)

0
tfflcrllsfilOli

(FI)

Fig. 22b: Crosssectionof well, as drilledt3el

Dr. M. S. Farahat

lse

t{

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

KOP#l

Fig. 23: Compound-profilehorizontul wellll2i

$.

i;

:
:
=
a"

1989

1990
Year

LongRadius

ffi

Medium
Fadius

'{/A

$horlFtadius

Fig. 24: Horizontalwellprofilestal

Accordingly.the recentadvancefor selectionof the appropriate


well profile
is a functionof the following,asdiscussed
in thispaper:
1. Verticaldepthof KOP andtargetselection.
ThisKOP is selected
basedon
holeproblems,
casingsetdepths,
BHA performance,
ROp.. . . etc.
Dr. M. S. Farahat

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilting Technology:RecentAdvances

2.
3.
4.
5.

Horizontal displaoement
to targetentrypoint (TEp).
Completiondesign.
Formationevaluationprogram.
Hole size in the reservoir.
Thus,the optimumKOP shouldbe selectedbaseduponthe followins:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Minimizing holeproblems"
Minimizing the arnountof hole openduring directionaldrilling operarions.
The plannedcasingsetdepths.
The performance of directional drilling assemblies within various
formations.
5. The expecteddrilling ratewithin the variousformations.
After selectingthe optimum KOP, the vertical depth to the target can be
determined as mentioned befcrre.T'his r.vill determine the build radius oprions
ava-ilable.These options should be refine.db.vconsideringhorizontal displacement
to the target entry point (T'EP). if the planned profile is compatible rryith the
completion,evaluationprogram, and desiredhole size. the profile selectionis
complete.If a parameteris not compatible,a designparametermust be alteredor
compromised,
as shownin Table4.
Toble 4: 'Strntntary
ctfavailableoptions-fordrilling, conryletion,evaluationunrl s,urvq,ting
of
horizontal welis and dreinholes

Build Rate o/30 m (l00ft)


Radius

Lateral Length

Long Radius

Medium Radius

2-6

6-35

900-290
m

2 9 0 - 5 0m

3000.-l
000ft

1000-160
ft

< 2500m

< 2 5 0 0m

< 8000ft

<8000ft

Short Radius
I

Li0-300
6-11rn
40-20fl

<i000ft

CompletionOptions
Open Hole

Yes

Yes

Yes

SlottedLiner

Yes

Yes

Yes

SlottedLiner with ECP's

Yes

Yes

Noi

Cemented

Yes

Yes

Nol

EvaluationProgram
MWD

Yes

Yes

No

Open Hole

Yes

Yes

No

Surveying
l\,IWD

Yes

Yes

No

Steering Tool

Yes

Yes

No

Multi-shot

Yes

Yes

Yes

Geosteering

Yes

Yes

No

Dr. M. S. Farahat

tg8

11

Horizontal and Multilaterar Driiling Technology: Recent Advances

6.

TECHNTGAL
coNSrDERATroNs
roR Honrzouur Rn-nxrny o.rroxs

There are four main drilling systems[i, 3' 11,t2, 42)available for
horizontal
reentry,namely:
l' Ultro'short ry(lus technologybasedon high pressurejetting.
Recently,it is
not commerciallyas discussed
before.
2. Short radius systembasedon rotarytools.
3. Short rodius systembasedon rorarymotors.
4. Medium radius.
All four are, or will be" available for reentry (Table 5). The first
three
systemsrequire special drilling tools and special surveyingtechniques.
The short
radiusaiso imposeslimitations on reservoirevaluationand completions
techniques.
ln contrast,medium radius uses conventionaldrilling tools including
MWD tools
lor sun'eyingand directionalcontrol.
Table 5: Reentrvdrilling systems

i14mm

4%in

[ 4 0m m

5%in

l178mm

7in

40-65ft

1 6 0 - 1 0 0f0i

Steering Tool

MWD SurveyTool *
SpecialDrilling Tools
* Garnma
Ray l,ogging is alsoavailatrle,

The reentry rrarket will only develop if the reentryrallows economic


recovery of hydrocarbons.Fig. 25a shows the options available for a horizontal
(drainhole)redrill and completion.This figure illuitrates a fypical
developmenrr,vell
with intermediatecasing set above the reservoir and a pic,duction set at some
inclinationacrossthe pay zofle.

6.1.
The first horizontaltestsof Bryant gas Devonianfiel,J[ot]*e.. drilled as reentriesfrom existing wells in order to utilize existingwell log information and to
avoid costsof a new well 5.5 in. casingin the newerwells limited maximumhole
size to 4.75 in. with availabledistancebetweenthe baseof the Woodford shaleand
the targetdemandedthe useof what was at that time consideredshort-radiusdrilling
technology.as mentionedin section 4. Fig. 25b shows a schematicwellbore
diagram that illustratesa typical horizontal re-entry completiol for BGDFfntl, in
accordance
with re-entryoptions.

Dr. M. S. f,'arahat

28

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology: Recent Advances

Option 1
IntermediateCasing

Inre1rnsdl.,.Casing

\t*-**

Prcdtrctrcr.r

New InterrnediateCasinq

Laterall-iner

xrt-rt

Fis. 25 a: Four optionsavailablefor reentryexistingw-e_lls.for


a horizontal (drainhole)redrill and comnletior[12]
11 . 4'ifi. tg

Y;6:1{O,E

, {$qAFJtPs&1pcqt,flle.

Fis.

Dr. M. S. Farahat

19.

29

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

6.2. Horizontal Well Re-entry New Drill Procedures


Concurrent u'ith
the re-entryprogram[42],
additional infill wells
were drilled to develop
the
(BGDF)
fleld
consistent lvith field
rules and to test the
extent of commercial
reserves.A desiredhole
size at least 6 in. for
new laterals dictated 7
in.
production
the
string. hence 9 5/8 in.
intermedialecasingand
13i 8 i n . s u r f accca si n g .
Variousmethodsto initiate
the well. ll'ere applied.
'fhus,
the first rvell
designedspecificallyas
a horizontalproducerlvith
Fig. 25 c: Awellbore .schematic
techniquefor horizontal
plannedto havecasiitgset
reerttryusing nev,drill procedurur[o']
a round a mediumradius
(1500 ft)curve.A mecliumdesignwas selectedto assurethat a 4000 ft lateralcould
be achieved.A wellboreschematictechniqueis shownin Fie. 25c.
6.3. Limitatiqls of Horizontal Reentrv Technolosv
l-imitations of draiholesor horizontalreentrytechnologymust be overcome
to encouragervidespread
application.Therehave beenproblemswith the existing
(e.g.
sicetracktechnology
whipstockshave been incorrectlyorientedor they have
been rotateciafter being set). Also, there are probiernswith section milling and
placementof cetnentplugs. T'heseproblemsresult in cost and time overruns.
Current sidetracktechnologycontributesapproximately10-2Ao/o
to well time and
cost. Accordingly, there is a need for relative low cost sidetrack technology,
includingcuttingthe window andinitiatingthe new hole.
Also, the availability of slim hole tools for orienting sidetrack tools,
surveying,and reservoirevaiuationshouldbe increased.This is particularlytrue for
loggingtools fcrrside tracksout of 4"5-in.casing.Somesuppliershave directional
MWD that can be configuredto provide gammaray for reentryout of 4.5-in. casing.
The small drainholesand curvaturerateswill limit completion options and
potentiallythe length of the lateral.Most completionswill likely be open hole or
slottedlinersdueto their low costand simplicity.Someapplicationswill needmore
complexcompletionsutilizing externalcasing(ECP). The length of lateralrequired
to make a reentry successfulhowever mav be difficult to answer. In addition.

Dr. M. S.Farahat

30

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

reservoirdescriptionwill be a limiting factor,complicatedby the limited numberof


loggingtools availablefor slim holes.
At last, medium radius reentry is expectedto remain the technology of
choice in the future. The industry is developingtools and techniquesto drili small
diameterholes making re-entriesout of 4.5-in. casing possible and cornmon.
Recently,there will be a steadyincreasein horizontalwells being drilled, with a
significantportion of the wells by reentries.

7.

ConrplrrroNCoNsrnrnarroNs
ron SnrncrrNc
Honrzoxrar Wnr,r,Typr

In practice, the completion that can be run through a given radius of


curvature will depend on the radial clearancebetweenthe completion item and
hole/liner size, the length and flexibility of the completion.and the rating of the
connection.
Conventionalcompletion can be run in long radius and the lor.verrange of
mediurnradius wells. Short radiuswells are norrnallycompletedopen hole. or in
some casesflexible. slotted liners, Also, completiontechniquesrvere describeci
beforein section4. But in this section,it is describedthe completionconsicierations
for short-radius,mediumradius,and long-radiushorizontalwells.
From the survey of literature[44-'52]
about the horizontal rvell completions
worldwide, it can be classifredinto four broadcategories
1. open hole or open hole with tail pipe as shown in Fig.26,1. This type of
completionis the simplestand cheapestusedin consolidated
reservoirs.It is
represented25%
fiom total or all completions
worldwide.
2. Slotted liner with or without a screenin open hole when the reserv'oiris
unconsolidated
or loosely consolidatedsandsas shown in Fig. 26.2. It rs
formed 55% lrorn all completionsworldwide and it is consideredas a
prevailingwell completiontype.
3. Slotted liner in open hole with blank sectionsand External Casing Packer
(ECP).This is 15%of total completions
worldwide,asshowninFig. 26,3.
4. Cased,cemented,and perforated liner which is expensiveand used in long
horizontalsectionsor for medium-radiushorizontalu'ells. It is formed 5Yoof
all completionsworldwide,as showninFig.26,4.
Table 6 illustratesa simplified form of what completionoptionsavailablein
short-radius,medium-radius,and long-radiushorizontalwells.

8. Dnrlrmc Pnonrnnrs
Assocrarnowrrn HonrzoNr.uWnu,s
3a'a3]
Thereare four main problems[4'5'12'
during drilling horizontalwells and
drainholes,namely: (1) Delivery weight to the bit. (2) Reducingtorque and drag
forces.(3) Hole cleaning.(4) Protectionof water-sensitive
shales.(5) Directional
Control.

Dr. M. S.Farahat

l9z

31

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Techno!ogy:Recent Advances

{=t
>
( Ok<

OpenHole 25%

Slotted{PreperforatedPre-y'rilled)
tiner,g5%

gtl
fltl?r

Slotled Liner#External CasingpackertfCF) 15%

{}

Casedand Cernented{Perforated)5%

Fig. 26' I, 2, 3, und 4: fypical horizontal vuellcompletion options worldtt,ide


Table 6: Campletion Options.for Horizontal l4/eils
r----__.-I

lWellTypeJ

FfiilEdt,i*

iCorypletionlgptionil
Fp"" H-@ F"tt.dtirtgll

mEi,'irI",ttG

bper H"t.l

llong Radiusl

bp"' HJa

,:. -::-.-;:---r
rDiurttsu

-l

Ltfltt.l

r=-_---1

DtuttsuLlncn

Ft"t.d t*.r *m
-...---

E"*d C.,"."t"d mdl


:___

iPerforatedlinerl
|ECII
,-_--::=---- -l
, lslottect-ineiwitfil r ic^.,r C.r*t.O .rn,il
'.....-._
':Linerl
IECPI
lPerforated
i

8.1. DelivervWeiehtto the Bit


Applying sufficient bit weight for optimal drilling rate that is often a
problem, especiallyat higher angles and while drilling the horizontal section.
Conventionalbit weight for eft-rcientdrilling is about2000-5000lbf per inch of bit
diameter.Motor assembliesdrill efficiency with less bit weight less than rotary
assemblies.
Bit weight may be increasedby reducingdrag and torque.But often tiris
is not sufficient for an optirnal drilling rate in hole with higher angles ancl in
horizontalsections.Bit weight is often increasedby usingthe split assembly[53'541
rvhichdividingthe BI{A's into two partsas in Figs.27 and28"

Dr. M. S. Farahat

32

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology: Recent Advances

8.2" ReducingTorque and_DragForces


Drag is a force restricting
the movement of the drill tools
in directionsparallel to the well
path. Torque is the force
resisting rotation movementl5'
rJi.
Excess drag and torque
cause
directional-drilling
problems especially in turning
and horizontal sections in
horizontal well.
Reducing
drillstring weight reduces drag
and torque at high quality of
mud with good chemical and
phy'sical properties that are
essential.Oil base mud shouid
be
considered for
more
demandingsituation becauseits
goodiubricatingquaiities.

[J.- tr ' Dr ir r pipe


ll C
co
ollers
Drirr
ffsorr"r
E x p e r i meennltaafl G o n r p r 9 5 g i v e
Drillpipe
\Service

",:;"n
J}

MWD Pulser r Fleslricler

sub
7

suu

trtl TDE}II{tr&FE}C=f

lI l/"nron-rilrs\
.
-.1
i' - \

Coltari-J Downhole\
-.--Molof

\
i

Ftg. 2 7: Gener al izocl'dtil Istr ing cOnfigur at i on lsl

c)

n *aI

Fig' 28:Achievineweishton btt throushcompress:e,fbrces


ttsinssplit assemblieslal

Dr. M. S. Farahat

JJ

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technolcgy:RecentAdvances

8.3. Hole Cleaning or Cuttinss Removal


A particularproblemthat arisesin drilling horizontalwells is the difficuhv*of
the removingthe rock cuttingsfrom the horizontalsectionof the welila's, tl':0. so1"
The sourceof the problernis that cuttingstend to settlein the bottom of the hole and
allow mud to pass above without transportingthem. High fluid velocities and
polyrrer muds are commonly used for efficient hole cleaning and minimizing
formationdamage.Also, thesecanbe goorlreasonto useoil-basedmudsto control
shaleswelling.
8.4. Protection of Water Sensitive Shales
Shale layers frequentl,vtend to collapsein contactwith fresh water [4,5, 56].
I'his canbe preventedby usingoil-baseddrilling fluids.Thesefluids usuallyconsist
of an adventemulsionsr:f waterin dieseloil togetherivith otheratlditives.Fluidsof'
this type have been used in the North Sea.Water-basedmuds can be inhibiterl to
reducethe attackin water-sensitive
shalesby'the additionof NaCl or CaCl2.These
additivesreducethe chemicalactivitl'of the waterand its tendencyto penetrateinto
the v"ater-sensitive
shale.Inhibitedr.vater-base<i
muds are not as effectiveas oilbasedmuds for the protecticlnof shaies,but they are cheaperanclless damaeing
environmentally.
8.5. Directional Control
Overcoming.tbe,fcrrce
of gravity'isa fundamental
problemin directionaland
horizontaldrilling rq')' rrl. The BHA is a heavyweighthangingon the bottomof the
drillstring.BHA, in general,includesbits,motor,non-magnetic
collars,andMwD
Tool. Fig 29 shows
that section I or
BHA. This secrion
oontrols the hole
trajecton, but does
not contribute to
u'eighton bit. In fact
tiiis sectionshouldbe
kept as lightweight as
section J
possibleto minimize
"
torque and drag as
mentioned in Table
Sectionlt
SectionI
'fhis
7.
table give the
optimurn features of
Section lV
drillstring
design
including BHA, that
are required for
drilling
horizontal
we ll s .

'.o''"u'

Fig. 29: Drillstring design sectionsltz)

Dr. M. S. Farahat

34

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology: Recent Advances

Table 7: Drillstring designsections


Section

Type

Function

Desired
Characteristics

Desired Consideration

BHA

Directional

Stiff, Lightrveight

Minimize Torqueand Drag

Stiff, Lighfweighl

Minimize Torqueand f)rag

Control

DP

il

Transfer
Weight

III

Heaq'DP

Transfer

or HWDP

Weight

HWDP

Transferand

providing adequate
buckling resistance
Stiff, Lightweight

increase
bucklinsresistance
Increasedbuckling
resistance

ProvideWeight
H1'I]DP
I

Frofide

Minimize TorqueandDrag

Cctncentratcd Weiskt

OTDC

Weight

DP

Suppofi

High Tensile,

Wdgbt

Torsion Lim)ts

Transi ti on Conr porrc-rr!-

to tet'ision)
i compression
Providing Adequate Tensile
TorsionMargins
)

Measuring instrumentsdrift directionandtod faceof the basic lneasurernents


for ciirectionaiand horizontaiciriliingoperations.
to provideacouratecontrolof the
trajctoq/.Sometechniquesare appliedsuchas the steeringtool or M\\D Ia'51.The
advantageof MWD over steeringtool is that MWD can be used in both rotary and
orientedmotor phacesdrilling.
The newest market developingin MWD is for geological steering,some
times called geosteeringaccordingto MWD
9: navigation ot--the-well-course
l)'-rvl.
lithology measurement
A geologicalspecialist,engineeror geoscienstis
usually at the n'ellsite for the interpretationof the data being measured.To be
effective,thesenew systemsrequiring measurements
closerto the bit as shown in
Fig. 30. The advancedMWD systemcan be provide, using various different
combinations,
the fcllowing information:
1. survey informatiou Direction,inclinationand tool facereadings.
2. Formation information: Gammaray, resistivity,Neutronand densityreadings.
3. Mechanical information: downhole weight, torque, shocks, flow
temperaturereadings.

and

4. Lithology information.' geological markers and/or the top of the reservoir


fonnation dip, stratigraphic control in thin and dipping reservoirs, high
resolution seismic rnapping of complex geological structures,such as salt
domes,local; fault structuresand complexlayeredproductionzones.
The new MWD concept(geosteertingtechnique)is essentialfor precisewell
positioning which is critical to be successof drilling advancedhorizontal and
multilateral wells, Thus, geosteeringtechniquecan be used for positioning both
horizontaland multil ateralwells.

Dr. M. S.Farahat

35

(I

E
q

(:

:e

fi

i.l

a
o
IIJ
(:

g(t

*
a
o
lu

IE

io

CF

o
'
o
(t

..

ct

l*6
E=

te

(l
,:
6

L
nl
%

s\
\

ci
.9>

8iE

6S

u6

+:3

U
t:

c0 z
n

3E
*
'!r

g s FE

14

T,E
gE53
a/, t

:o
()a

o
o e
o .g

c
o

+bE
56F

$-g

E
E
(1

(,
c
|D
o
l,

}\
o
ct'
q
c
o
o
a.t
a
J4
o

'rc
o

c!^
:oql
i

Fi: 3
5 v L

*= 3; oEo i

.==oo
UE C:
oos

!o

ft
:

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

9. Dnrr,uxclNn ComplnrroNor Mur,rrr,arunrr,Wurls


Refinements in directional drilling techniques in the last decade, have
allowed operatorsto drill increasinglvmore complex well geometries,including
multiple branchesfrom single vertical,deviatedand horizontalwellbores.While
thesecomplex well geometrieshave becomefairly routine from the drilling aspect,
a need has been created for casing and completion systemswhich meet the
requirementsfor wellbore integrity and isolation,as lvell as providing acessfor the
future remedialwork on all lateralsand ^theprimarl,wellbore.Accordingly, SpenirSun drilling ServicesCotnpanv[15-t;'60i,haS rlevelopedfwo rlistinct completion
systemsfor multilateral wellboreswhich have full-open through-boreand re-entry
capabilities.
Thesesystemsare:
1. Lateral-TieBack System,LTBS.
2. RetrievableMulti-Lateral System,RMLS,
Also, British PetroleumCo. (BP), has anothersystemltuli"
that is called
"SRS", SelectiveRe-entrySysternfor existingcasing.This systerlwas developed
by WeatherfordServicesCo.
As multilateraltechnologybegangainmomentumin the rnid-1990's,a groulr
of operatorsrvith multilateralexperienee
formeda consortiumcallerJTechnologl,l{-r'
'ttl
A.dvancement
MultilateratsitanAt). Among key resultsof the consortium'sfirst
meeting was the developmentin 1997 of the TAML code, which classified
(six levelswith onesublevel)andprovideda
multilateralwells into sevencategories
common languagefor operatorsand service companiesto use rvhen discussing
rnultilateralcompletions.The definitions of the TAML levels were based on the
amount and type of supportand frrnctionalityprovided at the junction in the u'ell
u'hereone lateralwellboremerseswith the main bore or u,ith anotherlateral.
9.1. The Lateral-Tie Back Svstem,LTBS
A s,vstemhas been developedfor l'-t''ti for nerv rvells to achievegreater
reservoirexposureby allowing muitiple lateralwellboresto be drilied and cased
fiom a singleprimarywellbore.
SvstemDescriptionand Designfor CementedJunction
The multilateraldrilling systemselectedfor this applicationis the 9 5/8-in.
(as shownin F,ig.3 la, b, c and
LTBS.This systemconsistsof six main components
d):

Fig.31a: LBTScasingn irr46y,


ioinrll'

Dr. M. S.Farahat

37

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

Fig. 3lb: Drilling whipstock installed in latch coupling using hydraulic running tool[i'ii

Fig. 3lc: Lutera! liner running tools showinggate clositxg,;perationLtil

Fig. 31rt: Cementingwhipstocklatchedin placel,tTl

1 . Pre-milledcasingwindorvjoint.
2. Drilling whipstock..
3 . Lateralliner hanser.
4. Lateralliner runnins tool.
Cernenting
whipstockif drill with cemented
junctions.
6. Re-entrywhipstock.
Also. SvstemDescriptionand Design
The developmentof a systemto meetthe requirementof drilling and casinga
multiple lateral horizontal was a joint involving three companiesl''1. Th. LateralTie Back Systemis composedof:
l . A casingwindow systemwith a movablegate.
7 A deflectiontool (as a whipstock).

3. A linerhangersystem.

4. A runningtool string.

The systemdesigni6a-661
providesfull wellbore integrity,creatinga seriesof
options for well completions by allowing re-entry into the individual cased
wellbore. Thus,Fig. 32a.b, c. d. e, f, g showsthe sequence
of completionstepsfor
one svstemthat has beensuccessfully
installedin the Middle East In{1,u'ith aim of
Dr. M. S. Farahat

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology: Recent Advances

providing connection, isolation and selective re-entry capability for post-rig.


through-tubing operations,performancewith coiled tubing or wireline. T'hese
sequencecompletionstepsgive a final installationas shownin Fig. 33.

!!g.l

Run
muJlllrteral
pEFkgf
on
ltarlu mlll
assomblY

ffi

mffi*

Fig. 32u: Itinclow rnillingLbt)

Fig. 32b: Drill lateral and set whipstogpi"''t

g*l-0

Slco7
Bun7-in,,
lb/lt
z9
'13%

.Dtiltaut
cmaDt
r0rill 6'in.
opanhole
.Sel and
rcmenl
4rft-in.

rhrome.i

Fig. 32c: run liner and cementl'al

St6p11
'Setm,l!ing
anrIgr
. Shtarout
mlli
skirlod
aslsInhly

Stspl?
M l l l4 : t a - i n .
Dlloh
l ole
i h r o u g hl i n e r
ind h8llol,Y
whipstotk

0mmencS

ddll-lhroulh
7 - i n .l i n e

r
Fig. 32cI: Mitling operatio tts'''

StBr13
ffun}lpsarat
millrsiemblY
to oosnPilot
bolslrom
,ln/rin. oullo

wellborel6al
Fig.32e:Re-establish

Dr. M. S. Farahat
Zoo

Fig. 32f. AccessIatnroll6ai

39

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology: Recent Advances

. Finalwell I
slalusaltet
mill'through
"6.07ln.l0
through
pac*er
'6.18C
in.lD

CasingWindowJoint & DirectionalDritloutAssembty

LateralTie-BackSystemHangerInstallation

Fig. 329: final well

| {-.JI
conJtgurQlton' '

Fig. 33: Completionstepsusingl,16r I I'{i

9.2. Retrievable Multi-Lateral Svstem. RMLS


Developedin conjunctionwith the Lateral-'IieBack System,the Retrievable
Multi-LlJeral Systemsharescertainoperationaland designfeatureswith LTBS. The
RMLS r"'r reliesupon proven liner running and cementingtechnologyto providethe
mechanicaland hydraulic integrity for the lateraljunction, Sincea liner hangerand
gate mechnisnris not utilized in the RMLS design,a larger standardbit size from
main bore is accomodatedlike LTBS.
The RMLS consistsof four components:
1. Casingwindow system,
2. Retrievabledeflectiontool (whipstock)incorporating.
3. Lateralliner transitionjoint.
4. Washoverassembly.
Tahle 8: (lomparison hetweenLTBS and RfuILSFeatures

LTBS

Primary
Casing ,/

,/

7"

,/

1-

RMLS

4 3/c",

T' /<1:
6"

,/

,/

sI-ii,

Lateral

,sts"

Hole Size

/
g llr,,

_---/

Lateral liner cemented

Option

Yes

Lateral re-entry?

Yes

Yes

Main bore restriction?

No

No

Dr. M. S. Farahat

40

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

9.3. Selective Re-entry System of Multilaterals


In recentyears,few oil fields technologieshave advancedas rapidly as those
used in drilling rnultilateralfrom a single parent wellbore. Until just a few years
&go, technological constrains limited multi-lateral work to relatively feu'
applicationsfbr example,technologieswere not developedthat enableddrilling
multilateralsinto differentproducingreservoirsbecausea lack of productionat the
juncture with the main
wellbore
for
varying
pressuresand junction rock
characteristics, thus the
selective re-entry slstep [611
is the solution fbr increasing
oil production and reserves
from existing rvells. Fig. 34
shows Selective Re-entry
Systern(SRS) developedto
exist casing on the f-rrst
trilatera.l at W1,tch Farmt61l.
'I'hLrs.
in this field using a
single.existingwervllboreto
reach there new hydrocarbon
targets with a trilateral well
was the solution chosen to
improve production from the
maturingfield and avoid
drilling of new completewells
Fig. 34: SRSdevelopedto exit the casing on the
in the sensitivearea.The SRS
first trilateral at WytchFarrrl'tl
r.r'as
usedto initiatethe extensions.
9.4. Technplogy Adv_ancementof Mgltilaterals (TAML) levels
The originali63lI'AML codecategorized
multilateralsas follor.vs:
junction.
1. Level l: open,unsupported
2. Level 2: rnain(mother)bore is casedand cemented;lateraiis open.
3. Level 3: main bore is casedandcemented;
lateralis casedbut not cemented.
4. Level 4: both main bore iateralboresare casedandnot cemented.
5. Level S:casedand cementedmain bore and lateral;junctionpressureintegriry
is achievedwith the completion.
6. W:

junction pressureintegrityis achievedwith the casing(cernentis not


acceptable).

6. Level 6-Suh.'junctionpressureintegrityis achievedwith downhole splitter


(largemain bore with two smaller,lateralbores).

Dr. M. S. Farahat

4l

Horizontal and Multilateral Driliing Technology:RecentAdvances

Multilateral technologyhas evolved rapidly over a short period of time. In


tum. it may lead the developmentof some systemswith featuies that were
not
describedin the original TAML code, although the functionality of the junctions
remainedessentiallythe same.Thesenew systemssparkeda review of the code
and
a draft of a revisedcode was presentedto the TAML group at its annualmeting
in
June.2000.
The draft documentincluded163l
the additionalof two new levelsbringingthe
total to eight, with new descriptionsfor each level. Adrjitional, two tiers were
proposedfor completion,namely:
l. Flow control,completionisolationand reentry
2. Smartwell ranking.
This tier system exists to a large degree in the current code, and from
discussionit appearedthat it was not highly utilized by operators or service
companies.The consensuswas that modifuing the TAML code to include a more
complex system rvould jeopardize acceptanceof the current code. Instead the
follor'vingminor changeswere made to the code to simplify definitions of level
5
and6. thus:
1. I\ew level 5 descrintior!-casedmain bore and lateralwith pressureisolation
at the junction achievedwith the completion.Original stipulation
regardedcementhasbeeneliminated.
2. Level 6 s(suil hasbeenconsolidatedinto the level 6 desisnation.
F'ig' 35 illustrates the TAML code, also shows the degree to which
multilateral technology is completion-driven.For example, a levill and level4
multilateral well may have similar drilling requirementsbut .;qui* completely
differentcompletionapproaches,
rvith complexityincreasedby ordeismagnitudes.
9.4.1. Feqtures of TAML Levels
Level I: The TAML level I multilateral is an open-holeiateral from an openhole
mother bore. There is no mechanicalor hydraulicjunction involved. Thus, levei
I multilaterals are usually carried out in consolidatedformation as barefoot
compietions'The level I to'l multilateralcompletionshavebeenwidely appliedin
the United States,Canada,Europe, and the Middle East, with up to six lateral
havingbeendrilled from motherbore.
Level 2: TAML level2 multilaterals(in which main bore is casedin cementedand
the lateral bore is open)representa significantincreasein complexitythan level
1. The completionis economical,aliows selectiveproduction,und cun be carried
out in standardcasingsizes.United Arab Emirateswells have proven successful
candidates
for level 2 technologyt64-66'681.
Level 3: in a level 3 multilateral,the main bore is casedand cemented,and the
lateralsare casedbut not cemented.The lateralliner is mechanicallyanchoredto
the main bore using a liner hanger.
Level 4: in a level 4 rnultilateral,both the main bore and laterals are casedand
cementedto provide mechanicaljunction integriqylevel 4 multilateralsystems
Dr. M. S. Farahat

42

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology: Recent Advarrces

can be simple, or they


can be the basis for
more complex systems
such as dual packers
completions,
single
string selectivereentries
and single strings with
lateralentry nipples.
Level 5: multilateral level
5 and 6 involve sealed
junctions.
Sealed
junctions multilaterals
are
necessary for
reservoir Inanagement
and to handie complex
geology
in
well
environments
with
rnultiple
pressures,
fluids, and the rock
strata. When possibie
junctions KOP
for
multilateral
wells
shouid be located in a
strong,
competent,
consolidatedformation.
I{owever,
economic,
geologic, or drilling
conditions
often
preculde this ideal
scenario.In thesecases,
pressure integrity is
necessary to prevent
junction collapse,dueto
pressure drawdor,vn.In
a level 5 multilateral,
full
liydraulic
and
rnechanical pressure
integrity atjunction are
achieved'uvith
completion.

t{othar Eore Casedand


Csffenld' LateralOpen
i.ete{aleihet ttarei}rt .,','r,jia
Sjotl{tlinerht;noeif r:t iien t .: =

li:tf ::,,'.
' - ;,. . ' :

l'i

1l

Levsl 3
MotherSareCersd ard Spr*snfe$'
lefs"al ferad but N*t Sernent*d
Ialg,".,iIJifx;r

-*:.
''tr:

,i\
I

l'

\j.

\
"\..1

'?rlr:irc,''gd"

1'] iusljtar l"rtr#.

,!
, Lavgl 4 , ^. ,; ,'
, i &t*tfigr'sors a;i isiaral ':t'1..,
, Oa*sdsndCem$itad' , ,

.*.,t Ecttltboras geffiAniadt tr9/tij"lqfion.

' Ca
t ctnpotnd
nf,n{or'a* aqulvai$tlfch6mici.

Fig. 35: TAML multilat eral v,e/ I conf gur nt ions i63l

Level 6: TAML defines a level 6 multilateral as one in which junction pressure


integrity is achievedwith the casingand not by cement,which is not acceptable.
In level 6 well, the entire junction is an integral part of the main bore casing
string. The first and most widely used level 6 systemis the formationjunction
system,which was designed,developed,and patentq-d
by Baker Oil Tools using
Marathon Oil Company'sMara-Split downhole t63lternplatetechnologl,.Th;
Dr. M. S. Farahat

43

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

systemis run in a perforatedmode as part of a standardcasing or liner string,


then reformed downhole using swaging technology. Conventional drilling,
completion. and cementing techniques are used to finish construction and
completionof rvellbore.The first TAML level 6 multilateral was successfully
cornpletedwith a forrnationjunction systemin areaEnergv-'sBelridge field t63lin
Californiain Oct. 1998.
At last,the author'smessageto horizontaland multilateraldrilling industry
is, that the current TAML code although not perfect, it serves as a functional
guidelineto provide a basisfor operatorsand servicecompaniesto begin evaluating
the type ofjunction and completionrequiredto a multilateralwell

10. FurunB Dnt'Br"opMrryrs


or Murrnarrnq.L DRntrNc TncHNorocy:
DnrLr,IlqG
Tr{EWnr,LsoF ToNroRRow
'fo

date,the primary applicationfor multi-lateraiwells has beenin new (or


grassroots) u,eli. The follorving are the future developmentsfor multilateraldrilling
iec h n o l o g \ .
1 0 . 1 . C o i l g d T u b i n e A p p l i ca ti o n s
R-ecentl1..
therehasbeenaetivi1""
in drilling horizontaland multilateralv',,'elis
using coiled tubing for the drilistringtogetherwith a bent mud motortti. Driliing
and corrpleting horizontai and rnultilateral wells are currently developing
'fhese
technologiesin the oil drilling industrymotor [5'6e-7r].
technologiesbring
about significantsaving cost,but they also raisenerv problems,such as buckling
andlock up of coiledtubingin the rvellbore.
Coiledtubing equipmentratherthan a conventionaldrill rig, is used.Several
successfulholes have been drilied in the Austin chalk using this technique,
Althou,shthis techniqueis not yet viable commercialli.',
the prospectsfor the future
appeargood.
The
equipment
used to drill the hole
rvith coiled tubing is
s h o w ni n F i g s . 3
. 6,37.
and 38. MWD tools
arc now available,e.g.
M\IID
advanced
(geosteering
tools)that
can be probably be
adaptedto this service.
Now, coiled tubing
can be usedin drilling
and completion of
both horizontal and
multilateralrvells.

Tublng
lnl.clot
Pgrrr
Supply

2' Colhd lublog v/ll4rcllnr


Coll Tbi/Wlr.tln.

ConDrclor

Hqndlln9 tvb l
Dovnhol.r Orlcrllng Sub
tirrd Cufh/ 9ll
(1S0 or FOC)

' Uonol Drlil Collor


tlosrlnt Surry leol
Adlurlobh llok.-up

tub

I
Chrik

Porlllvr DhDlocrnrnl
llud llolor r/3lngb
lrnd
volvrr/0ock Prurrert

Qrtllc.

Fig. 36: l4/ellbctreand directional BIIA u.singcoilecl nrbinglil

Dr. M. S"Farahat

44

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology: Recent Advances

Colled Tublng Conneclor

St{rtfngMlll

Whllrstock
Assembly

DW1Packer

I|ii ndav, cttt| ! :tg assem bI i es


Fig. 37: l{/indou,cutting assembliesand integrale d BIJ
;
I,,,[)I
SLep?
S t enrp 3

iil,{"'"""""1N11
lr I

''
'*-'
""''*
""
,i{
",,
""
;li
il
\Jll
ll--,
''-',"'."
ll,ll
$,t:::r;,"_*"*"*_
"'"""''I |1
l!r1l:',T;^*

:;r
fl',N-x;:
t$-'-',-'tW**"*
il,fi h{ HW*"*
,", l|Iq
{'ll
l-"**

lllf-*"'

il

lft

ri-- W

/ o4cl{Anrr srr!
,{nu8lf, otat)
nowiltr l[ rrc

Fig. 38: Stdenackingproceduresusingcoiled tubing

Dr. M. S.Farahat

45

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:ReeentAdvances

10.2. Appljcation of Under-Balanced Drilline Technique


Coiled tubing drilling [6e'70'72]may be particularlyuseful for under-balanced
drilling becauseit is not necessary
to continuallyaddednew sectionsof driilpipe.
Severaicompaniesare actingdevelopingtools for coiledtubing drilline for ulderbalanceddrilling horizontal and rnultilateralwells. Resultst70l-thefirst five wells
drilled u'ith coiled tubing in the Yibal field have shown that through-tubing
underbalanced-CT-drilling (CTD) technology can be applied safely urrd
successlully.A CT unit can competesuccessfullywith a conventionaldrilling rig in
drilline ultra slim wells
targetedat reliely small
oil pockets,where well
successdependson the
accuracy
of
the
resen'oir nrodel and
geological kno*'ledge
of thetargetzone.
I Icu ever. this
technolosr should be
considered onl',,' for
niche
applications.
Underbalanceddrilling
enablesCTD to achieve
rate of peneii'ations
(ROP's) as great as 80
mih and 1000horizontal
stepout.Fig. 39 shows
under-balanceddriiling
niuitilaterai weli using
coiled tubine
and iis
rr rY
eo m p l e t i o n r ' ' ' 1 .

t7

or'tn'r!i!,';1,,',r1,';!;:;:::f
,,;tl;;:;eorthe

10.3. Technolosv of SelectiveLatefal Re-Entrv System


Frequently"thin oil columns,50-ft or thinner,are producedfrom the vertical
wells in matureareaswhere the water cut tendsto be high. Thesewells are vertical
completionsand many can not sustainnatural flow becauseof the high rvatercut.
This problemhas beensolvedby using of a selectivelateralre-entrysystem[6t'74],
SRSL.
Thus, a short-radiusrecompeletioninvolve re-enteringan exist well, opening
a window through the casing,then recompletingthe r.vellwith a horizontal lateral
within 100 ft (lateral displacement)of the re-entry point. Application of this
technology has improved production rates and reduced the water cut, thereby
increasingoil recovery.Also, medium-radius
technologycanbe usedfor increasing

Dr. M. S.Farahat

46

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology':RecentAdvances

production rates and oil recovery that is better than short-radiustechnoloq\ as


menticlnedbefore.
The new system allows lateral
re-entryby use of wire line or coiled
tubing, Use of isolation t74l And
commingling sleeves allows the
operator to controi production from
both the main bore and the lateral reentry whipstocks (deployed by
u,ireline or CT) allor,v logging.
acidizing. and other CT interventions
in the lateral. Fig. 40 shorvsdrilling
and cornpletionof SLRS.

coirPlencN
?UBIHS

UPPEH

corrplgnoti
AS3gI,ELY

TOROIE,IOCXE
PACKER

PRETIiKLED

vflH$w{
JO${T

cAStlrs lvlilDo$,
OPNHOLELAIEBAL

10.4. Advanced Method of Steerins


Wellbore Traiectory Relative to
Seismic and Reservoir Models

SELF"LOCKNO

KEY

l'he rnultilateralconceptof'fers
signiticant econoinic and operational
benefits(as sho-nvii
in Fig. 41). Laterais
are mechanicallyconnectedto parent
(main bore) wellbores rvith unique
systems that allow selective 0r
commingled
production
iiom
individual laterals.The unknowns in
resen'oirconditionsthat havenot been
exploited previously have often
resuited in abandorunent of the
conceot.

aFAl ^lttsuRrY

LOWEE PACKEE

Fig. 40: Se,/ective


IuicruI re-etrtr)'s"lr/c//i
,5lRS, t''t tlril/ing und tontplr'tiott

Pre-'1980

;echfiology
Driver
Competency

Fig.4t:
Dr. M. S. Farahat

2"8

47

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

Reservoir,regulatory,and geologic conditionsdeterminethe complexity of


rnultilateralsysternt'''t.
For new wells[60],anothertechnologycunently underdevelopmentprovides
the ability to steerthe wellbore trajectoryrelative to seisrnicand reservoirmodels.
Theseadvancedmethodsof steeringrelativegeologyand geophysicswill include
the fbllowing capabilities,
namely:
l. Acoustic methodsfor MWD systemsto see hundredsof feet from the bit,
including sidewaysas weli asa head.
2. MWD services to provide seismic check-shotsand other seismic while
drilling services(suchasverticalseismicprofiles-vSp's).
3. Abilia tu stuerto zonesof high porosity(usinggeostatistics).
4. Rapid updateof modelsbasedupon real-timeinformation.
10.5. Technolosv Advancement Multilateral (TAML)
One otherkey areathat hasbeenidentifiedby group for multilateralwells . is
irnprovedsealingof the junction betweenthe lateralbranchesand the primary trunk
(rnothorbore). 'fhis TAML [60,63]rating systemprovides six leveli of junction
seaiing.An openholecompletionas discussedbefore,is a level onejunction under
this classificationrnethod.Using cementto sealthejunction betlveenbranchesand
tiie trunk constituteslevels 3 and 4, Providing a high-pressureseal (other than
cemetti)constitutestire heighestleveljunction, eitherlevel 5 or 6. Fig. 42 showsa
dual bore completionmethodfor bi-plannermultilateralwells that repiesentsa level
5 junction accordingto the TAML rating system.Also, Fig. 43 showsTAML level
6 illustratiotr[62].
l!

* Facker
$SDS Latch

Fig. 42: A Dual Bore completionfor multilateralwells thatprovitle level 5 juttction sealingl60)

Dr. M. S. ['arahat

48

Horizontal and Multiraterar Drilling Technology;RecentAd'ances

&

ao.-

ta

Dil

rD

S*repE

r3i0"/100-tt

Fig. 43: TAtuij,ievel 6 instctiicttion{'2}

10.6" IntellisentWell Completions


inteiliqentwe1l.
completions
beinginstalled
todal'havereiativeir-,imple
,
,,f1.
\'/r.
tuv'
capabtlttteq

IntelligentCompietionSystems(lCS's) integratereservoir
sensorsand remotelycontrollableinflow/outflow devicesdeployed
in
f,errnanentl,v
the wellbore.The immediatebenefitsof such systemarise lrom rninimization
of
interventionsneeded to ascettain critical changes and alter dolvnhole
flou.
conditions"
particularlyin offshoreoperations
and subseadevelopments.

l'he intelligent r'vell completionsof tomorrolv il,ill have significantly,


enhancedcapabilitiessuchasthe fbllowing,namely:
1. Sensorsand flow controldevicesin the lateraisbranches.as
shor,l,n
in Fig. .14.
2. Downholeseparation
of water frorn oil. Also, the abilitl,to reinjectthe u,ater
downhole.
3. Detectionof water encroachment.
4" Detectionand,lorprevention/removal
of sand,scale,orcorrosion.
5. Three-phasefl ow measurement.
6. Infinitelyvariablechoke.
7. Fiber opticsdevelopmentsfor varioususes,including communicationas rvell
as distributedmeasurement
of temperatureandpresru...
8. Higher temperaturecapability.
9. Dorvnholepower source.
1 0. Downhole seismic sources and/or receiversto provide in-rvell vertical
:l
seismicprofiles(VSP) or cross-welltornography.

Ur. r!1.S. ! arahar

?1"

49

ftrnriznnfnl

enrl Mrrllilqlcrql

Drillino

Tcchnnlnsw.

Rccent

Adwqnncs

Fig. 44: Intelligentwell completionsof toritorcowwill prouide sensors


andflow control devicesin the lateral branchestout

10.7. Active Reservoir Managernery!_,Services


While the capabilityto drill and completemultilateralwells t50lhasadvanced.
there is still significantroom for improvementin ensuringthat the multilateraliveli
is designedto provide optimum reservoir exploitation.The missing link is a
marriageof reservoir characterizationand managementcapabilitiesin multilateral
rvell constrllction(drilling and completion)tochniquesto realizefuli value of the
reservoirasset,as shownin Fig. 45.
Particularly,,improving the link betweenreseryoirunderstandingand n'ell
constructionwill dramaticallyaffect both the planning and the executionof well
placement.drainage.
Thus,the first stepwill be the development
of seamlesslinks
betweenwell planning (providedby servicecompanies)and the seismicniodel
(provided by oil companies).Fig 46 shows as an examplet"l fo, active reseruoir
managementsystem will ultimately allow real-time control and optimization of
offshoreintelligentwell completionfrom an onshoresite.Thus,from this figure.the
goal will b to enable delivery of the resen'oir fluids by optimum placementof
multilateralwells basedon overall understandineof the reserv'oir.This u,ill require
thefnllnri'inestepsnamelr':

Dr. M. S. Farahat

50

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technolog,v;


RecentAdvances

Banks

Horiran:al
0riilinq

Down hole

Devices l
a n dC c n t f o l s , j

Seisnr:

\___,,''
Fig. 45: I-he relation betv'een]uell con.struction(drilling anclcontpletionl and t"eser\.()it.
ntanogementsert,icesin the lotal drilling sv-sleni

AiiEh are
*

a.

i-ljtilJl!\/

i ti it; aa
: J =:i

Fig. 46: Active resentoirnnnagementsystetnv,ill iltimately allow real-tiniecontrol ancl


, t r t l . i t l i i : . t i i t i l i r . , i ' t , i i s ) ' t , t l "i t t t a t i t g e t t t t t c i i , . i l ) l t ) i e ' t i t ) t t . \n ' t l t t i t u t i l t , \ f t t l . (

Dr. M. S.Farahat

t,ir15'l

51

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

1 . Use all information(suchas seismicinterpretation,productiondata,reservoir


simulation)obtainedoverthe asserlife of the r.r.ruoir.
)
Integraieand evaluatevariousdatasetsandmodels.
3 . Interpretall datainto a commonmodel.
4. conduct reservoir description and evaluation for optimum well profiie
planningand consrruction(drilling
and completion).
Anall'ze all relevant datato estimatedeliverabiliryof fluids from different
resen'oirsections.
T'hesecondstepI78lwiil be expandthe currentscopeof the well construction
and placernentby irnprovingthe link to reservoircharacterizationand manasemenr
to achievethe optimum drainageof rnuitiiateralwell.

11. Sunruenv-qrnCollcrusrors
The ibiiou in-uare the summaryantl conclusionsthat were drar,l,nfrom this
iese a r c h :
i.

A recent advancefor planning of the horizontaland multilateralr,r,ells.js


cornplicatedengineeringproblembut can be de-qcriberj
jng ten
b), the f<_.,llo',.r
stepsin the toral drilling svstem.namely:
l.
3.
5.
i.
9.

2.

3.

Defineapplication.
Define cornpletion.
Designr.r'ellprofile.
Designdriiling fluid.
l)esignmud hydraulics.

2.
4.
6.
8.
10.

Definereservoirconciitions.
Defrnetargetconstraints.
Revievroffset drilling data.
Designdrillstring.
S e l e cBt I I A ' s .

To achievethe advancedplanning of horizontaland multiiateralu,ells. a


iriultidisciplinedproject team could take design, drill and compiete a
he-rrizontai
and multilateralu'ell target,shouidbe basedon teamsclf-:reservoir
engineer.rcserroir geologist.onsite geologisr,driliing engineer.directionai
drillingCo.,andcompletions
engineer.
.fo
achieve maxitnum economic benefit from hcri zantal and multiiateral
drilling, it requiresresen'oirunderstandingthat the integrationof r.l,idevarieg
of activities: core ond log analysis,in-situ stress determination,fracture
diagnostics,
rveil testing.andvariouslarge-scale
reservoirevaluationmethods.

4.

Rock mechanicalproperties,fracturesstrike, and principal in-situ stresses


rlagnitudes and directionsshould be known before a horizontal rvellboreor
multilateralwellboreis drilled.

5.

For a successfulfield operations,a drilling method fbr a horizontal and


multilateral should be chosenbased upon reservoir considerations.
Thus,
accuratereservoirdataand offset ad.jacent
well datashouldbe collected.

6.

Reservoiranisotropyratio,Kv / KH, is one of the parameters


neededto predict
productionperformanceof a horizontal and multilateralwell. Thus. the ratio

Dr.'M.S.Farahat

JI

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

of horizontal-to-vertical'r,vell
productivifr"Ju / J\, , decreases
with decreases
of anisotropyratio.
1

The state-of-the-art of horizontal well and drainhole (horizontal


recompeletion)discussedhere is a report on using this technology'in any'
iarge-scale
projectin new andmatureoil field developments
r.vorldrvide.

8.

A series of proven techniquesfor reopening,recompletion,drilling ancl


completion that can be applied for drilling newlv horizontal legs ancl
recompletedwells in matureandnew, fields was presented.

9.

The ultrashort-radius
systemis not a drilling systemin the conventionalsense.
'Ihus.
this technologyhas lacked cornmerciaisuccess.Accordingly,drilling
techniquesand equiprnentwill vary betweenshort-radius.
medium-raclius.
alcl
long-radiushorizontalwells anddrainholesor lateralsre-entry,

1 0 . Short-radius
horizontalwellshavebuildraiesof i.5-3'ift u,hichequalsto radii

:10-10ft and lengthof lateralsections


rariesbenreen200-900ft. Shorr-radius
ri'ellsare drilled usingspecializerl
cirillingtools and techniques.
This profile is
rxostcolnnonlr drilledre-entryfrom an existingv,'ell.

1 1 . Medium-turningradius horizontalr.vellshave br,rildratesof 6-35"r100ftand


lateraisections1500-8000ft and ivith radius 160-1000fr.'fhis profile is
commonfor trandbasedapplications
andfor reentr\ horizontalciriiling.

t2. A long-radiushorizontalwell is characterizedby


build ratesof 2-6"ii00ft that
results in a radius 1000-3000ft,This profile is drilled using convenrional
directionaldrilling tools. Lateral sectionsof up to 8000 ft (it dependson
formationand drilling fluid type used)may be drilied.that is represented
the
recentacivance
in horizontaldrilling technology.

1 3 . Threemethodscanbe usedfor horizontalu,ell profllestharare:simpletangenr


build curve,circulararc.and compoundcurvemethods.

t4. It is found that the recentadvancefor selectionn,ell profile dependson: (l)


Veitical depth of KOP and target selection.(2) Horizontaldisplacementto
targetentrl' point. (3) Cornpletiondesign.(4) Forrnationevaluationprogram.
(5) IIole sizein the reservoir.
1 5 . It is consideredthat the optimum KOP should be selectedbased on: (l)
Minimizing hole problems.(2) Minimizing rhe amounrof hole open during
directionaldrilling operations.(3) The plannedcasing ser depths.(a) The
performance of directional drilling and expected drilling rate in various
formations.

r6.

T'hewpical horizontalwell categoriesmay be: (1) Open hole is the simplest


and cheapestusedin consolidated
resen'oirs.It is represented
25ohfiom total
or all completionsworldwide. (2) Slottedliner with or without a screensthat is
represented
with 55%. (3) Slottedliner with blank sectionsand ECP. This is
1,5ohof total completionsworldwide. (4) Cased,cemented,and perforated
liner. It is formed Sohof total completionsworldwide.

Dr. M. S.Farahat

53

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

1 7 . Drilling problernsassociated
with horizontalwells are:(1) Deliveryweightto
the bit. (2) Reducing torque and drag forces. (3.1Hole cleaning or cuttings
removal.(4) Protectionof watersensitiveshales.(5) Directionalcontrol,
1 8 . The rnultilateraiwells can i:e drilled and completedusing Lateral-TieBack
System(LTBS) or Retrie'ableMulti-Lareralsystem(RMLS).
1 9 . fhe selectivere-entrysysternsof multilateralsmav increasethe oil productign
andreservesfrom existingor rnaturewells.

20. For future developments


of multilateraldriliing technologyand drilling

the rvelis of iomorrola,,it iS necessaryto use the following, (l) Coilel


tubing. (2) under-balanceddrilling. (3) Selectivere-entrysystem. (4)
Advancedmethodof steeringu,ellboretrajectorl,relativeto seismicand
resenoir models" (5) 'I'echnologyAdvancementMultilaterai (TAML)
levels.(6) inteiligentwell eompletions.
(7) Active reservoirmanasement
sen,ices.

21. iror the horizontal and multi-laterai r.vells construction (clrilling and
coinpietionl t i' tomorro\r, likely evolve further towards rnarn,ine the
capabilitiesof reservoirengineering
of thoselvelisconstruction.

22. For improvin-ethe iink betrveenthe reserv'oirunderstanding.


and horizontal
and inulti-lateralnells consiructionwill drarnaticalll,
affect both the planning
andexecutionof u.ellsprofiles.

Rrcontvmxnartoxs

l)

A multilateral-technolog,udeveloprnenl
shouldconcentrate
of the followile:

1.

No debrissystemsto reduceassociatecl
downtime.

2.

Svstemsrequiringfelvertrips in holeto reduceassociated


instaliationtirne.

Lou'-cost through-tubingsystemsto develop near-fieldpotential in mature


resen.oirassetin a costeffectivemanner.

;1.

SelectjLrnctionsto developfutureHp,+ir fieldsr,vithmuitilateralwells.

J.

To facilitate and accelerate the use of intelligent well components,


developmentof an appropriateglobally acceptedclassificationsystem is
recomnrended.

Nonar!{craruRE
C1 :
Co :
D1 :
D2 :
l)r :
E
EOC:
:
H

triaxial compressivestrength,psi
uniaxial compressivestrength,psi
height of the flrst-build arc, ft
height of straight-tangent,
ft
heightof the second-build
arc,ft
Young'smodulus,psi
end-of-curveor endof the second-build
arc.
lengthof horizontalsection,ft
Dr. M. S.Farahat

54

Horizontal and l\{ultilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

: radiusof circulararc,Equ. 5
H
H1 : displacementof the first-build arc, ft
H2 : displacementof the straight-tangent,
ft
H3 : displacementof the second-buildarc, ft
: angleof hole at the beginningof the first-build
II
arc that is equalto 0o
12 : tangentangle,degrees
13 : angleof hole at the beginningof the seceond-build
arc that is equalto 90"
KOP: kick-off point
KOP: lengthof the fist section(verticalsection),ft
L1 : lengthof the first-build arc, ft
L2 : lengthof straight-tangent,
ft
L3 : lengthof the second-buildarc, ft
MD : measureddepthat the end of, ft
MDr : measured
depthat the endof the first-buildarc.ft
I\4D2: measureddepthat the end of straight_tangent.
ft
MD: : measureddepthat the endof second-build
arc.ft
:
fracture
gradient,
psi/ft
Br
go : overburdengradient,psi/ft
gp '=pore pressuregradient,psi/ft
'fo fensiie strength,lbs
vl : Foisson'sratio.
(o'H)*u^ : maximumhorizontalin-situ,psi
(ou)*in : minimumhorizontalin-situ.psi

RrpnnrNcqS
1.

2,
3.

4.

5.

6,

7.

Joshi,S.D.:"A Reviewof Horizontal


well andDrainholeTechnology'".
SPEreprintSeries,No. 33, publishedbv SpE.Edition1991,pp. 142I60
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Technology:
IakingHorizontalWellsto the NexrLer.ei''.
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Engineering
International
supplement,
May. 1997.
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Technologyfor IncreasingproductionRates and Reserv-es."
EGpc.
t992.
El-Sayed,
A.A.: "A Studyof HorizontalDrillingTechnology
in Khaida
oil Fields in western Desefi-Egypt",M. sc, Thesis,Faculty of
Petroleum
andMiningEngineering,
suezcanaluniversity,1995.
Farahat,M.S: "Noteson Horizontaloil well Drilling Technology",
"
Facultyof Petroleumand Mining Engineering,
SuezCanalUniversiw,
2000.
Karlesson,
H. andBitto,R.: "worldrvideExperience
showsHorizontal
well success",
PartI, pp. 17-22,world oil's Handbookof Horizontal
Drilling and completionTechnology.
Gulf publishingco., Housron,
T X . ,l g g 1 .
',Horizontal
Duns,H. van der Valis,A.c. andFirdandeo,
wells
, L.R.:
ProductionTechniques
in Heterogeneous
Reservoirs',,
spE No. 13710
paperwaspresented
at the i985 MiddleEastOil Technical
Conference.
Bahrain.
Marchl1-14.
Dr. M. S.Farahat
*>t/l

f,f

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

Brekke, K, . Lien, S.c.: 'oNerv Simple cornpletion Metho,Js for


HorizontalWells ImproveProductionPerformance
in High-Permeabi
lity
Thin oil Zones".sPE Drillingandcompletion,sept.1994.pp.2a5-2r6.
9 . Ai-Farai. O.A.. Al-Ali, H.A., Salam1,.J.P., anrl Al-Mabarak.H.K.:
"Ettectire lechnoiogy to Optimize Wellbore Placement
of Horizontal
\\-e11sb1 utilizing rhe ReservoirNavigation Systern:case studies".
SPE,IADC r{o. 72275 paper was presentedat the IADC/SPE Middle
East Drilling TechnologyConferenceand Exhibition. Bahrain. 22-24
Oct..200i.
1 0 . Ishake.LB, Steele,R.P.,Macaula,R.c., stephenson,
and Ar lvlantherri,
S.lr{.: "Revierv of Horizontal Drilling". SpE No. 29812 paper \vas
presentedat the sPE Middle East oil Shor,vheld in Bahrain, 11-14
M a r c h .1 9 9 5 .
ll.
Slieikholeslami.8.A.,
Schiottman.
B.w.. seidel,F.A.. andButton,D.M.:
''l)riiling and Production
Aspects of Iforizontal Wells in the Austin
C i r a i k ".J P T(.Iu
l
1
,
'
1 9 9 1 ).p p ,7 7 3 -7 79.
12. "An EngineeringApproachto HorizontalDrilling", sperry,-sunDrilling
Services.
A HalliburtonCo..Edition1998.
1 3 . Llenteno"
NrI.A.Ilarrois,J.C..Arnone.M,. Lopez.J.L., Ramos.D.. and
Ganz,ala.
M.: "Applicationo1 Dual Lateralwells in a Hearl,crude oil
Reservoirs", SPE/IADC No. 12318 paper w,as presenteclat the
.rechnoiog,v
IADC,'sPFfuIiddleEastDrilling
confbrenceand Exhibition.
Bahrain,22-24Oct.,2001.
t4. Siddiqui. T.K., Al Khatib,H. M., and Sultan.A.J.: "utilization of
HorizontalDrainholesin l)evelopingMultilal,eredReservoir".SpE No.
29879 paper was presentedat the spE Middie East oil Show held in
Ba h r a i n1. 1 -1 4Ma rch ,1 9 9 5 .
1 5 . Smith. R.C., Hayes. L.A,, and Wilkin. J.F.: "'fhe Lateral-TieBack
S,rstem:]'he Ability to Drill and case Multiple Laterals".IADC /spF.
No. 27,+36 paper was presentedat rhe rg94 IADC/SPE Drilling
C o r r f e r e n che
e l di n D a l l a s,T X .. 1 5 -118Feb.1994.
1 6 . Srnith.B. and Smith.R,: "Developments
l'ith Multi-lateralDrilling anci
CompletionsS,vstem.s''.
paper was presentedat the 7tj' International
Ccrnferenceon l{orizontal Well and Emerging Technolog,vHelcl in
H o u s t o nT, X .,6 -8N o v. 1 9 9 5 .
1 7 . Lorvson, 8., Dhanju, K., and AC, M.: "Multi-lateral Wells u,ith
CementedJunctions",paperwas presentedat the 48thAnnual Technical
Meeting of the PetroleumSocietyin Calgary,Alberta,Canada,June 88.

I I . 1 e 9.7
1 8 . Solomon, S.T, I{oss, K.C.. Burton, R.C and Wellborn, J.E,.: ''A
MultidisciplinedApproachto Designing1'argetsfor Horizontai", JPT
(Feb.1994),pp. 143-149.
t 9 . Skopec, R.A.: "Rock Characterizationin Reservoirs Targeted for
HorizontalDrilling",JPT(Dec. 1993),pp. 1168-1176.
24. Rahman. M. and Al-Awami, H.: "Horizontai Well in Complex
carbonateReservoirs",SPE l.{o. 29878 paperwas presentedat the sPE
MiddleEastOil Shorvheldin Bahrain.11-14March.1995.

Dr. M..S. Farahat

56

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

21. Giger,F.M., Reiss,L.H, and Jourdan,A.P.: "The ReservoirEngineering


'r)

23.
24.
25.

26.
27.

28.

29.

Aspectsof Horizontal Drilling", SPEReprint Series,No. 33, Horizontal


Drilling, Edition 1991,pp. 206-213.
Wong, S.W, Veeken,C.A.M., and Kenter,C..T.:"The Rock-Mechanical
Aspects of Drilling a North Sea Horizontal Well", SPE Drilling and
Completion,March 1999,pp. 47-52.
Head, E,.L.and Bettis, F.E.: "ReservoirAnisotropyDeterminationrvith
MultipleProbePressures",
JP'f (Dec.1993),pp. II27.
of Horizontal
G.J.:"Data Acquisitionand Ineterpretation
Lichtenberger,
Tests".JPT(Feb.1994),pp. i57-i59.
Well Pressure-Transient
Giger,F.M., Reiss,1..H,and Jourdan,A.P.: "The ReservoirEngineering
Aspectsof HorizontalDrilling", SPEReprintSeries,No. 33, Horizontal
Drilling, Publishedby the SPE,Edition 1991,pp. 206-213.
Joshi, S.D.: "Augmentar.ionof Well Productiviry with Slant and
IlorizontalWells",JPf (June1988).pp.729-739.
Lien, S.C.,I{aldorson.H.H., and Manner,M.: "HorizontalWells: Still
Appealing in Formations with Discontinuous Vertical Permeabiliq'
Barriers?".
JPT(Dec.1992),pp. 1364-87A
Ghosh,K., Jaggi,A.. Wali, V., Baca,J.. and Murthy, R.K.: "llorizontal
Drilling Experiencein The PannaField"" SPE/IADCNo. 57564paper
was presentedat the SFE {ADC Middle East Drilling Technology
ConferenceandExhibition,Abu Dhabi,8-10Nov., 1999.
Dikenson,W.. Anderson,R.R., and l)ikenson,R.W.: "The Ultra-Short
Radius of Radial System",SPE Drilling Engineering,Sept. 1989.pp.

247-24s.

30. Dikenson.W., Anderson,R.R..andDikenson.R.W.: "GraveiPackingof


Horizontal Wells"" SPE No. 16931 paper \\'as presentedat the 62""
Annual TechnicalConferenceof SPE held in Dallas.TX.. Sept.27-30,
I 987.
3 1 . Fincher. R.W.: "Short-Radius Lateral Drilling: A Completion
Aiternatives",PetroleumEngineeringInternational,Feb. 1987, pp. 29-

32. n.fr,tr., W.: ''Horizontal Drilling Applied in Slim Holes". Petroleum


Feb. l98l , pp. 24-28.
EngineeringInternational,
33. Edlund,P.A.: "Applicationsof RecentlyDevelopedMediurn-Curvature
I-Iorizontal-DrillingTechnologyin SpraberryTrend Area", SPE Reprint
Series,No. 30, DirectionalDrilling, Publishedby SPE.Edition 1990,pp.

r78-182.
C.D. andWilliamson,D.R.:"HorizontalDriliing Aspectsof the
34. Stervart,
SPEReprintSeries,No. 33, Horizontal
HelderField Redevelopment",
by SPE,Edition1991,pp. l8-29.
Drilling,Published
of Attic Oil
N.J., andLessoJr, W.G.:"Recovery
35. Martins,E.J..Larcz,
at
ThroughHorizontalDrilling", SPENo. 26334paperwas presented
and Exhibitionof the SPEheld in
68'nAnnual TechnicalConference
TX..3-6Oct.1993.
Houston.
36. Barret.S.L.,and Lyan,R.G.:"The NavigationDrilling SystemProves
Effectivein Drilling HorizontalWells in the JavaSea",SPE Reprint

Dr. M. S.Farahat

f/

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology: Recent Advances

\t

38.

39.

40.

41"

42.
13.

11.

45.
46.
47.

Series.No. 33, HorizontalDrilling, Publishedby sPE, Edition r991, pp.


30-37.
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Horizontal wells". paper was presented at the 6trt International
conference on Minine. Petroleumand Metallurgy, vol. 2 (petroleum
Engineering),Faculn. of Engineering.cairo Universit-v,20-24 Feb.
I 999.
Sciruh, F.J.: "Horizontal Well Planning Build-Curve Design,', SpE
Reprint Series,No. :3. HorizontalDrilling, Publishedby SpE, Edition
1 9 9 1p, p .3 8 - 5 2 .
Gooney,M.F.. Rogers.C.T..Stace)'.
E.S.,and Stephense:
"Case}{istory
of an opposed-Bore.Dual Horizontal well in the Austin chalk
Formationof sourh Teras". SPEDrilling and Completion,March rgg3,
pp.14-24.
wilkirson.J P.. Srnith.J.H..Stagq,T.o.. andwalters,D.A.: "Horizontal
Driliing Techniquesat PrudhoeBav, Alaska", spE Reprint series,No.
33,HorizontalDriliing.Published
by SPE,Edition1991,pp.66-72
Barret S.L.. and Lran. R,: "NavigationDrilling Elfective in Horizontal
S'eilsrn theJavaSea''.Drilling,May/June1988,pp.B-24.
Gienr. \\.c.: "Horizontal Drilling Proves cost-Eff'ectivein Boosting
Ga>Prtrciuciion".
World Oil, Ost.2000.
Brannin. C.S., Velser, L., and Williams, NI.P.: "Drilling a Record
Ilorizontal Well: A Case History". SPE Reprint Series, No. 33,
HorizontalDrilling,Published
by SPE,Editionlggl, pp. 8-17.
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Bitumen" Pteroleum society Monograph No. 2. CanadranInstitute of
Mining andMetallurgyandPetroleum,1994,Chapters1,4.
Brigs. G.M,: "How to Design a Medium,Radius Horizontal
Well",Petroleum
EngineerIntemational,Feb. i989, pp. 26-37.
Z'aleak,T.E.: "lnnovalion in completion Technology for Horizontal
Wells",Offshore,Feb.1989.
'f,o.
Stagg"
and Ralley,R.N.: "Florizontalwell completionsin Alaska".
SPEReprintSeries,No.33, Florizontal
Drilling,Edition 1991,pp. 123-

r28.
4 8 . Lessi. J. and Spreux.A.: "(lompletionof HorizontalDarinholes",SpE
ReprintSeries,
No. 33,HorizontalDrilling,Edition1991,pp. 103-113.
49. Austin, C., Zimmerman,C.. Sullawsy,B, and Sabins,E.: "Fundamentals
of HorizontalWell Completions".
Drilling, May/June1988.
50. Restarick,H.: "HorizontalCompletionoptions in Reservoirswith sand
Problems",SPEReprintSeries,No. 47. Publishedby SPE,Edition 1998,

pp.45-60.
51. Cooper, R.E.: "An Overview of Horizontal Well Completion
Technology",
SPEReprintSeries,No. 33, HorizontalDrilling.Published
by SPE,Edition1991,pp.74-89.
{7
Hassan,M,M., and Abu-Sharkh,
A.F.: "Brief: Reviewof Horizontal
Practices
OffshoreAbu Dhabi",JPT(April 1996),pp.320-321.
s3. Aadony, B.S. and Chenvert,M.E.: "Stability of Highly Inclined
Borehole".
(Dec.1987),364-314.
SPEDrillingEngineering
Dr. M. S. Farahat

58

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances

54. Markle, R.D.: "Drilling Engineering Considerationsin Designing a


Shallow, Horizontal Well at Norman Wells. N.W.l'., Canada",SPE
ReprintSeries,No. 30, DirectionalDrilling, 1990,pp. 53-60.
55. MacDonald,R.R.: "Drilling the Cold Lack HorizontalWell Pilot No. 2",
SPEDrilling Engineering,
Sept.1987,pp. 193-i98.
56. Warren, B.K, Mclellan, P.J., and Pratt, C.A.: "Wellbore Stability.
Drilling Fdluids Design, and the Drilling Peribrmanceof Horizontal
Wells", SPEReprintSeries,No. 47, HorizontalWells.Edition 1998,pp.
7- t 6 .
57. Martin, C.A. et al: "InnovativeAdvancesin MWD", SPE No.27516
paperwas presentedat the i994 IADC/SPEDrilling Conference.
Dalias,
T X. , F e b .1 5 -1 8 1
, 994.
58. Nakken, E.I., Mjaaland. S., and Solstad,A.: "Brief: A New MWD
Conceptfor GeologicalPositioningof HorizontalWells". JPT (March
1996),pp.239-240.
59. "Various TechniquesOptimize Horizontal,Shallow Gas Wells", .TPT
(August1996),pp.734-737.
60. Curtis,C. and Rao, V.: "Cornplex DrainageArchitectureand MultilateralWelis: Drilling the Wells of Tomorrow",Paperwas presentedat
the IADC Ilrilling EuropianConference,
1998.
AdvancesContinue",JI'T'(July1999),pp.4761. "lVlultilatera!-Technology
48,
62. "Multilateral-WellUse lncreasing",JPT(June2000),pp. 51-58.
63. Westgarel, D.: "Multiiateral TAML Levels Reviewed, Slightly
Ivlodified", JPT (Sept.2AA2),pp.24-28.
64. Taylor, R.W. and Russell, R.: "Middle East CompaniesImprove
Multilateral Junction Completions",Oiland Gas Journal, March 23.
1 9 9 8p, p . 7 A - 7 5 .
65" DeMong" K., Mark. R., and Ernie, B.: "Recent Case Historiesoi
Dual MultilateralCompletionS,vstern
Off"shore
in the N{iddieEast".This
paper was presentedat the 9'n Abu Dhabi internationalPetroleum
ConferenceandExhibitionin Abu Dhabi.Oct. 2000.
66. DeMong, K.: "lJnique Multilateral Completicn S1'stemsEnhance
ProductionWhile Reducing Cost and Rrsk in \4iddle East Offshore
Wells", SPE No. 63193paperwas presentedat the 2000 SPE Annual
andExhibition,Dallas,TX.. Oct. 2000.
TechnicalConf'erence
67. "AdvancedOpenholeMultilaterals",JPT (Nov. 2002).pp.4I-42.
68. Nairn, G. and Seale,R.: "Level 2 MultilateralOptionsExposeHard-toReachHydrocarbon",World Oil, June2001.
69. "UnderbalancedCoiled-Tubing-DrilledHorizontal Well in the North
Sea",jPT (May 1996),pp.406-413.
7{1. "UnderbalancedDrilied with Coiled Tubing in Oman", JPT (Feb. 2000),
p p . 3 0 - 3 1.
71. Wu, J. Juvkam-Wold,H.C.: "Drilling and CompletingHorizontalWells
With Coiled Tubing", SPE No. 26336 paperwas presentedat the 68'n
Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the SPE held in
Houston,TX., 3-6 Oct. 1993.

Dr. M. S.Farahat

59

Horizontal and Multilateral Drilling Technology:RecentAdvances


1)

74.

76.
77.

78.

Wells Yield High


Scott,C>C. and Bob, 1..:"Horizontal,Underbalanced
Ratesin Colombia",World Oil, Sept.1998.
"Slicking Power Unit on Coiled Tubing to Set A NipplelessLock in a
MultilateralCompletion",JPT (July 1999),pp,32-34'
"selectiveLateralRe-EntrySystem", JPT (June2000),pp' 56-58'
"Dererminingthe Risk in Applying MultilateraltechnologY",JPT (July
1 9 9 9 ) ,p p .4 2 -4 3 .
"Intelligent Cornbination Systems:Reservoir Rationate", JPT (Oct.
1 9 9 8 )p, p . 5 0 - 5 1 .
Ball, s. and Rriggs, M.: "An Integratedf)esktop Solution: A New
lnteractive System tbr Well Planning, 3D Visualization and Better
l)ecisionsWhitc Drilling", paper*u, pi"..nted at the 4thConferenceon
Data and FormationEvaluation,Well Planning,and Operation-lmproved
Norway,16-i7 June,1998.
Use of DataandTechnology,
Briggs, M.. Balt, S." and Cunningtom,M.: "A Systemfor optimizing
Asset Team Performance Through-T'ime Regist Inforrnation
Ivlanagement",paper was presentedat the Otfshore Western Australia
98, March3| - AprrlZ,I 998, Perth,Australia'

Dr. M. S. Farahat

7zl

60