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Engineering

Materials

SPECIALTY CARBONS FOR


POWDER METALLURGY AND
HARD METALS

TIMREX

TIMCAL Graphite

ENSACO

TIMCAL Carbon Black

imerys-graphite-and-carbon.com

Imerys Graphite & Carbon

WHO ARE WE?

IMERYS Graphite & Carbon has a strong tradition and history in carbon manufacturing. Its first manufacturing operation was founded in 1908.
Today, IMERYS Graphite & Carbon facilities produce and market a large variety of
synthetic and natural graphite powders, conductive carbon blacks and water-based
dispersions of consistent high quality.
Adhering to a philosophy of Total Quality Management and continuous process improvement, all Imerys Graphite & Carbon manufacturing plants comply with ISO 9001:2008.
IMERYS Graphite & Carbon is committed to produce highly specialized graphite and
carbon materials for todays and tomorrows customers needs.
IMERYS Graphite & Carbon belongs to IMERYS, the world leader in mineral-based
specialties for industry.

WHERE ARE
WE LOCATED?

With headquarters located in Switzerland, IMERYS Graphite & Carbon has an international presence with production facilities and commercial offices located in key
markets around the globe. The Groups industrial and commercial activities are managed by an experienced multinational team of more than 430 employees from many
countries on three continents.
For the updated list of commercial offices and distributors please visit
www.imerys-graphite-and-carbon.com

Lac-des-les, Canada
Mining, purification and sieving of
natural graphite flakes

HQ Bodio, Switzerland
Graphitization and processing of
synthetic graphite, manufacturing of
water-based dispersions, processing
of natural graphite and coke, and
manufacturing and processing of
silicon carbide

Changzhou, China
Manufacturing of descaling agents
and processing of natural graphite

Terrebonne, Canada
Exfoliation of natural graphite,
processing of natural and synthetic
graphite

Willebroek, Belgium
Manufacturing and processing of
conductive carbon black

Fuji, Japan
Manufacturing of water-based
dispersions

WHAT IS OUR MISSION?


To promote our economic, social and cultural advancement with enthusiasm, efficiency and dynamism by offering value, reliability and quality to ensure the lasting
success of our customers.
WHAT IS OUR VISION?
To be the worldwide leader and to be recognized as the
reference for innovative capability in the field of carbon
powder-based solutions.

Our value proposition

We at IMERYS Graphite & Carbon deliver tailormade solutions for PM and Hard
Metals applications with superior consistency of key products parameters: Purity,
Crystallinity, Particle Size Distribution, Oversize Control.
TIMREX GRAPHITE
POWDERS FOR POWDER
METALLURGY

Graphite powders are extensively used in PM mixes, for two main technical purposes:

PURPOSE
OF GRAPHITE

PM MATERIALS

APPLICATION FIELD
EXAMPLES

Hardening
by diffusion into Fe-matrix

Fe-based PM grades

Structural, engineering
components

Solid state lubrication and


friction moderation

Cu/bronze-PM grades

Self lubricating
engineering parts:
bearings, bushes,
valve guides, valve seats

Fe-based PM grades

Friction materials:
sintered brake pads,
clutch facings,
linings

High alloy steels

Cutting tools

It is possible to summarize the key requirements of PM Parts Manufacturing in four


interconnected targets that must be addressed by this Industry - the 4 Ps of Powder
Metallurgy:
KEY REQUIREMENTS
OF PM PARTS
MANUFACTURING

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
INVOLVED

BENEFITS FROM IMERYS


GRAPHITES

PRECISION
Tight dimensional control
(in-lot and lot-to-lot)

Good mixability, low


tendency to segregation
Dust-free handling
Good flowability, in terms
of high flow rate and flow
consistency
Low wear of compaction
tools & dies
Low and consistent
dimensional change during
sintering (in-lot and lot-to-lot)
Efficient sintering activity (in
terms of efficient reduction
of metal powders surface
oxides)
High mechanical strength of
the sintered parts
Smooth and defect-free
surfaces of the sintered parts
High consistency of powders
and sintered parts properties
(in-lot and lot-to-lot)

High consistency, tight


specification of key
properties:
Ash
Moisture
Particle size
Crystallinity
Defined raw material and
process for synthetic graphite
Full control of the supply
chain for the natural graphite:
from the mine, through the
processing, to the customer.
Due to its high reactivity
synthetic graphite is the
optimal solution to improve
the density of the final part
Good compressibility in
blends with iron low
spring back
High diffusion rate and
reactivity with Fe

PERFORMANCE
High mechanical strength
PRODUCTIVITY
High parts/minute rate,
minimized scrap/out of
spec rate
PRICE
PM parts cost competitiveness
versus other materials and
manufacturing technologies

We propose that a tailored selection of Graphite can effectively influence the 4 Ps mix of PM parts production.

Graphite selection for powder mixes properties

Graphite, Primary Synthetic or Natural, with d90 in the range of 10m-44m, has no
significant impact on PM mixes flowability [1].

GRAPHITE
TYPE

APPROX.
D90
[m]

A HALL
FLOW RATE

B HALL
FLOW RATE

(s/50 g)

(s/50 g)

Natural A

10

32

34

Natural B

25

36

F10

10

33

35

PG10

10

33

35

PG25

25

34

36

F25

25

33

34

KS44

44

33

PG44

44

33

Hall Flow Rate of several Powder Mixes containing Synthetic and Natural Graphites of three different particles
size distributions: 10m, 25m, 44m are the d90 values.
A: ANCORSTEEL B +0.65%C +2%Cu +0.8%wax. [courtesy of Hoeganaes Corporation Europe].
B: ATOMET DB46 +0.6%C +0.6%wax [courtesy of QMP - Rio Tinto Powders]

Consistent, fast flowability is connected to PM parts weight stability. Slight gain in


weight standard deviation (8 to 9%) when shifting from 10m to 25m d90 Natural
Graphite has been reported [1, Application Case 1].
In order to prevent the risk of fine powders dusting, it is typically recommended to limit
the use of Graphite powders with d90 lower than 10m to bonded mixes only [2, 3].

Graphite selection for improved PM sintering process

Graphite plays a fundamental role in PM parts sintering process. Graphite powder particles dissolve in iron-based PM steel matrix if the system is above transformation
temperature and reduction of the iron oxide layer, covering powder particles surface,
has taken place.
Formation of inter-particles sinter necks begins after reduction of the surface iron
oxide layer. Significantly enhanced oxides reduction activity has been reported for primary synthetic graphite, compared to natural flakes of similar particles size distribution
[1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8].
Primary synthetic graphite presents smaller, isotropically oriented crystallites, compared to natural graphite of similar particles size distribution [1].
Benefits in the sintering process from using primary synthetic graphite TIMREX
F10, F25, KS44 instead of natural flakes of respective particles size distribution can
be summarized as:
earlier and more efficient iron-based powders oxide layer reduction [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]
prolonged effective sintering time for better necks formation or shorter sintering
time [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]
earlier for carbon diffusion, resulting in steeper Copper concentration gradient in
iron-based powders and stronger, Cu-richer sintering necks in FeCuC mixes [8; see
also 6, 7]
consequently: higher alloyed carbon in sintered PM parts, lower dimensional
change sintered-to-die, slightly higher mechanical performance [1, 6, 7, 8].

Primary synthetic graphite

1m

Mag = 10.00 K X

Natural graphite

EHT = 15.00 kV

2m

Mag = 10.00 K X

EHT = 15.00 kV

Fracture surface of PM compacts utilizing natural graphite PG10 (to the left) and primary synthetic graphite F10
(to the right) in a Hgans AB AstaloyCrM+0.5%C mix. Heating performed in dilatometer in 90%N2/10%H2 atmosphere to 1120C. The earlier formation of sintering necks allowed by primary synthetic graphite F10, compared
to natural flakes of the same particles size distribution is confirmed by finer dimples fracture in sinter necks fracture
surfaces [5 - by Chalmers University, Sweden].

Clear indication of benefits for pre-sintering stage have also been shown by ENSACO
250G carbon black, capable in a narrow temperature range to boost oxides reduction
[5]. Since 2012, several publications have been covering the collaboration of IMERYS
Graphite and Carbon with Chalmers University (Sweden).

Graphite selection for improved mechanical performance

Different concentration of alloyed Carbon in sintered PM parts is observed, when different graphite grades are used in powder mixes based on both Atomized and Sponge
Iron, as well as Diffusion-bonded powders. Higher Hardness, Tensile Strength are direct
consequences of higher level of alloyed Carbon, achieved by using TIMREX F10, F25,
KS44 instead of natural flakes of respectively the same particles size distribution.
Same trend is observed for sintering both in endogas and in 90/10 N2/H2 atmosphere [1].

FE / GRAPHITE MIXTURE

CONCENTRATION OF ALLOYED CARBON


NATURAL GRAPHITE
(EUROPE)

TIMREX F10
ASC 100.29
+0.8% Graphite
+ 0.8% Zn-stearate

0.78

0.74

ASC 100.29
+0.8% Graphite
+ 0.8% Zn-stearate
+ 2.0% Cu

0.78

0.72

NC 100.24
+0.8% Graphite
+ 0.8% Zn-stearate

0.67

0.63

DYSTALLOY AE
+ 0.6% Graphite
+ 0.5% Zn-stearate

0.53

0.50

The ASC- and NC-powders were prepared as STARMIX


Sintering conditions: 1120C / 30 min / N2/H2 / 90/10

Transverse rupture strength (N/mm2)

By courtesy of Hgans AB

1200

TIMREX F10
Natural graphite (Europe)

1000

SC 100.26
0.5% graphite
0.75% Kenolube P11
0.5% MnS
3% Cu
Sintering conditions:
1120 C / 25 min / Endogas

800

By courtesy of GKN (UK)

600
6.49

6.87

7.02

Hardness Rockwell B

Green density (g/cm3)

90

TIMREX F10

80

Natural graphite (Europe)

70
60
50
40
30
0.8% graphite
2.3% Cu
Sintering conditions:
1135 C / 30 min / N2/H2 = 90/10

20
10
0
6.6

6.8

7.0
Target density (g/cm3)

Graphite selection for reduced dimensional change

This is the workhorse of our primary synthetic graphite powders, the materials that
have advanced powder metallurgy into the modern age of high demands PM parts.

The high reproducibility of sintered dimensions results in enhanced quality of PM


parts production. Possible cost reductions due to less sizing, machining, out of specs
in lot-to-lot inspections are also to be considered.

GRAPHITE

SINTERED
DENSITY
[g/cm3]

DIMENSIONAL CHANGE

| [%]

Standard deviation

TIMREX F10

7.11

0.03

0.008

NATURAL GRAPHITE
(EUROPE)

7.13

0.03

0.018

ASC 100.29 / 0.8% graphite / 0.8% Zn-stearate (STARMIX)


Number of investigated parts: 2000
Sintering conditions: 1120C / 30 min / N2/H2 / 90/10
By courtesy of Hgans AB

Dimensional change (%)

DIMENSIONAL CHANGE
AND ITS STANDARD
DEVIATION AS A
QUALITY PARAMETER

0.7

TIMREX F10

0.6

Natural graphite (Europe)

0.5

SC 100.26
0.5% graphite
0.75% Kenolube P11
0.5% MnS
3% Cu
Sintering conditions:
1120 C / 25 min / Endogas

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

By courtesy of GKN (UK)

0
6.49

6.87

7.02
Green density (g/cm3)

TIMREX graphite and ENSACO carbon black


for powder metallurgy and hard metals

TYPICAL PROPERTIES
Ash

Crystallite height

Scott density

[%]

Lc [nm]

[g/cm3]

Particle size distribution


d50
[m]

d90
[m]

(*) Vibrated sieving

(*) Vibrated sieving

PM special
F10

< 0.6

80

0.09

6.8

12.6

F25

< 0.6

> 90

0.14

11.0

27.2

KS4

0.07

50

0.07

2.4

4.7

KS6

0.06

60

0.07

3.4

6.5

KS10

0.06

70

0.09

6.2

12.5

KS15

0.05

90

0.10

8.0

17.2

KS44

0.06

> 100

0.19

18.6

45.4

KS75

0.07

> 100

0.24

23.1

55.8

KS5-75 TT

0.04

> 100

0.41

38.8

70.0

KS150

0.06

> 100

0.42

40% > 63 m (*)

20% > 100 m (*)

KS150-600 SP

0.06

> 100

0.67

83% > 250 m (*)

22% > 500 m (*)

PG10

3-4

> 100

0.06

6.4

12.5

PG25

3-4

> 200

0.07

10

22

PG44

3-4

> 200

0.10

22.4

49.6

-100 mesh FR

<7

> 350

0.75

50% > 75 m (*)

7% > 150 m (*)

50x100 mesh FR

<7

> 350

0.78

68% > 180 m (*)

10% > 300 m (*)

Ash

Moisture (as packed)

Sulphur

Pour Density

[%]

[%]

[%]

[kg/m3]

BET Nitrogen Surface


Area
[m2/g]

ENSACO 150G

0.01

0.1

0.01

190

50

ENSACO 250G

0.01

0.1

0.01

170

65

TIMREX synthetic graphite

KS graphite

CARBON BLACK

TIMREX natural graphite

PM special

FR graphite

Recommended
Especially Recommended

APPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDED GRADES


Special
alloys

[Al, Mg, Ti]

Hard
metals

HSS

[WC, TiC,
mixed
carbides]

PIM/
MIM

Fe-sintered
Fe-self
engineering lubricating
parts
engineering
parts

Diamond
tools

Copper/
bronze
bearings

Copper friction
parts copper
clutch facings

PM special

F10

F25

KS4

KS6

KS75

KS5-75 TT

KS150

KS150-600 SP

KS10

KS15
KS44

TIMREX synthetic graphite

KS graphite

PG25
PG44

FR graphite

-100 mesh FR

50x100 mesh FR

ENSACO 150G

ENSACO 250G

CARBON BLACK

PG10

TIMREX natural graphite

PM special

Application cases

CASE 1:
MEDIUM-LOW
DENSITY PARTS

Optimized production of complex shape PM parts, like water pump pulleys or ABS
sensor rings has been recently discussed in literature [1, 2, 3, 8, 9]. Such components
are typically based on FeCuC mixes, at sintered density levels below <6.7g/cm3.
Sintering is typically run at 1120C for 30min or even shorter time. Components main
requirement is dimensional stability (inner diameter). Key-feature requested to PM
mixes is consistent and possibly enhanced flowability, in order to reduce weight scatter and possibly increase productivity. The selection of graphite powder for such applications can focus on one main aspect: at low density levels a shift from 10m-d90
to larger particles size distributions (25 or 44m d90) can be rather easily managed in
compaction set-up.
Production trials have been run on two water pump pulleys (one with geared flank).
Servo-Hydraulic presses were utilized (Dorst TPA250/3HP and Dorst TPA160/3HP),
with bag-on-press system, in order to optimize mass flow. Gravity filling method was
utilized. Presses were equipped with weight and compaction force measurement
on every individual compacted part. About 8000 parts per each component were
produced. The table summarizes the effective reduction of weight standard deviation obtained simply by shifting from 10m to 25m d90 graphite powder in the mix.

COMPONENT
CODE

GRAPHITE
TYPE

TYPE

APPROX. D90
[m]

AVERAGE
PARTS WEIGHT
[g]

STANDARD
DEVIATION
[g]

P1

PG25

Natural

25

291.91

1.14

P1

Natural A

Natural

10

292.92

1.25

P2

PG25

Natural

25

295.00

0.77

P2

Natural A

Natural

10

294.91

0.96

Weight Stability of pressed Water Pump Pulleys. Over 8000 parts production trials. Powder mixes consisting of Fe
+1.5% Cu +0.65% C +0.8% Lubricant. Selection of Natural Graphites with two particles size distributions:
10m and 25m d90.

Water pump pulleys type P1 (above) and P2 (below).

10

Weight (g)

The suggested choice for similar medium-low density PM parts is natural graphite
TIMREX PG25 (25m-d90). For components requiring particularly tight dimensional
specifi cations, the recommended choice is primary synthetic graphite TIMREX F25
(25m-d90).
300

295

290
Weight Scatter Water Pump Pulleys P1
Green Density 6.7g/cm3.
FeCuC mix with PG25 graphite

285
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

Weight (g)

No. parts

300

295

290
Weight scatter water pump pulleys P1
Green density 6.7 g/cm3.
FeCuC mix with graphite natural A

285
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

Weight (g)

No. parts

300

295

290
Weight scatter water pump pulleys P2
Green density 6.7 g/cm3.
FeCuC mix with PG25 graphite

285
0

4000

8000

12000

16000

Weight (g)

No. parts

300

295

290
Weight scatter water pump pulleys P2
Green density 6.7 g/cm3.
FeCuC mix with graphite natural A

285
0

4000

8000

12000

16000
No. parts

11

Application cases

CASE 2:
VALVE GUIDES

In year 2000 a publication by Kanezaki [10] benchmarked Cast Iron and PM Valve Guides
(Fig. 2) with regards to durability i.e. wear resistance.

Typical example of valve guide.

Kanezaki indicates for such components a reference- chemical composition of Fe +16%Cu-P +0- 0.4%Mo +1-3%C. Sintered density is in general below 6.8g/cm3. Sintering
is typically run at 1050-1120C for 30min. Graphite plays double role in this application:
Iron matrix hardening as well as friction coefficient modifier, by solid lubrication. The first
function is achieved by efficient diffusion into the original Iron powder particles. It must be
pointed out that such components are usually machined after sintering and consequently
a certain level of mechanical resistance must be achieved typically Pearlite is desired
as dominant microstructure. Solid lubrication is instead obtained by nondiffused Graphite
particles that remain within the pores of the microstructure. Selection of Graphite powder
for this application typically consists of splitting the total required Carbon in two selected
Graphite powders. Typically a Primary Synthetic or Natural graphite (10md90) in the range
of 0.5-0.8% is meant to diffuse and reinforce the Iron matrix and a coarser Graphite powder (44m d90) is meant to work as solid lubricant.

CASE 3:
HIGH DENSITY/HIGH
PERFORMANCE PARTS

12

General indications can be given for the selection of optimal graphite powder for high
performance/high precision PM parts:
due to higher reactivity during sintering, primary synthetic graphite TIMREX F10,
F25, KS44 are the preferred choice when sintering activity and hardenability need
to be boosted: this is the case for Cr-alloyed powders, sinter-hardening parts,
structural components like con-rods and gears [1, 5, 6, 7, 11].
when the desired performance is Dimensional Stability (for instance when weight
classes are established for a given PM part production), primary synthetic graphite
like TIMREX F10, F25, KS44 contribute to reproducibility of dimensional change
values [1, 6].
earlier start of sintering process thanks to TIMREX F10, versus natural flakes of similar particles size distribution [5], suggest that sintered cracks or residual tensions in
complex-shape PM parts might be reduced by selecting primary synthetic graphite.
for higher density parts 10m-d90 is the suggested particles size. Finer particles
size distributions are suggested only in combination of bonding treatments.

Conclusions

KEY
REQUIREMENTS

GRAPHITE TYPE SELECTION

high mechanical performance

TIMREX KS4

high dimensional stability

TIMREX F10

sinter-hardened, Chromium-based

TIMREX F25

PM steels

TIMREX KS44

complex shape PM parts


valve guides/seats
Reduction of PM parts cost

coarser natural flakes:

(by higher productivity,

TIMREX PG25

lower raw-material cost)

TIMREX PG44

LITERATURE
REFERENCES

1. L. Alzati, R. Gilardi, G. Pozzi, S. Fontana, Dimensional Consistency and mechanical performance of PM Parts
addressed by Graphite TYPE selection, PowderMet2011, San Francisco CA, U.S.A. (2011).
2. D. Edman, L. Alzati, G. Pozzi, C. Frediani, R. Crosa, Reduced Weight Scatter with Bonded Powder Mixes,
World PM2006 Congress, Busan, South Korea (2006).
3. S. Berg, L. Alzati, S. Fontana, G. Pozzi, Benefits from bonded mixes for complex Powder Metallurgy parts
production, EURO PM2007, Toulouse, France (2007).
4. E. Hryha, L. Nyborg, Oxide transformation during sintering of prealloyed water atomized steel powder, World
PM2010, Florence, Italy (2010).
5. E. Hryha, L. Nyborg, L. Alzati, Effect of Carbon Source on Oxide Reduction in Cr-Prealloyed PM Steels, World
PM2012, Yokohama, Japan (2012).
6. S. St-Laurent, P. Lemieux, S. Pelletier, Factors affecting the Dimensional Change of Sinter Hardening Powder
Grades, PM2TEC Conference, Chicago IL, U.S.A. (2004).
7. S. St-Laurent, E. Ilia, Improvement of Dimensional Stability of Sinter Hardening Powders under Production
Conditions, World PM2010, Florence, Italy (2010).
8. Krishna Praveen Jonnalagadda, Influence of graphite type on Copper Diffusion in Fe Cu C PM alloys,
Diploma Work, KTH University, Stockholm, Sweden (2012).
9. K. McQuaig, S. Patel, P. Sokolowski, S. Shah, G. Schluterman, J. Falleur, Improved Die Fill Performance
Through Binder Treatment, PowderMet2012, Nashville TN, U.S.A. (2012).
10. N. Kanezaki, High Wear and Heat Resistant P/M Valve Guides, Presented at SAE World Congress, Detroit,
U.S.A. (2000).
11. A. Lawley, R. Doherty, C. Schade, T. Murphy, Microstructure and mechanical properties of PM Steels alloyed
with Silicon and Vanadium, PowderMet2012, Nashville TN, U.S.A. (2012).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
(IN ALPHABETIC ORDER)

Chalmers University (Sweden), GKN Hoeganaes (U.S.A.), Hgans AB (Sweden), Metalsinter S.r.l. (Italy) , QMP-Rio
Tinto Powders (Canada). CAD drawings have been made by Metalsinter S.r.l. (Italy).

13

TIMREX graphite and ENSACO carbon black for hard metals

GRAPHITE AND CARBON


BLACK POWDERS
FOR HARD METALS

IMERYS Graphite & Carbon has a long term presence in Hard Metals market as supplier of high purity, high consistency Primary Synthetic Graphite Powders [1].
TIMREX fine grades, like KS4, KS6, KS15, can be offered with tailored specifications
on maximum levels of impurities like Sulphur, Calcium, Silicon, Iron, that are detrimental for Hard Metals manufacturing [2, 3]. In addition to graphite, we also offer
high purity carbon black with high BET. The high reactivity of ENSACO carbon black
make these products particularly suitable for the synthesis of nano-sized WC powders starting from tungsten oxide [4, 5, 6, 7].
Tungsten metal powder (W) and Tungsten oxide powder (WO3) have been mixed with
different carbon powders (E250G and N991 carbon blacks, KS4 and KS44 graphites)
for 2 hours at 300 rpm in a Fritsch Pulverisette planetary mill. Carburization has been
performed in a Netzsch DIL402C dilatometer [5,6,7].
WC produced from metallic tungsten powder (W)
Relative Intensity (%)

1100C 30 min, Ar

XRD patterns of WC powders obtained


after carburizing W+C mixes in Ar at
1100C
40

60

80

100

120

140
2 Theta

SEM pictures of WC powders obtained after carburizing W+C mixes


in Ar at 1100C.
KS4

E250G

Inert atmospheres are recommendable for the synthesis of WC when metal W


powders are used as precursors. In these conditions, fine WC powders can be
obtained at 1100 C using either graphite or carbon black powders.
The resulting WC powders consist of agglomerates of submicron particles with
irregular platelet morphology.

WC POWDERS

14

S
[ppm]

BET
[m2/g]

PARTICLE SIZE
[nm]

KS4

31

2.67

144

E250G

20

2.55

151

WC produced from tungsten oxide powder (WO3)


Relative Intensity (%)

1100C 30 min, Ar-50H2

XRD patterns of WC powders obtained


after carburizing WO3+C mixes in
Ar-50%H2 at 1100C
40

60

80

100

120

140
2 Theta

SEM pictures of WC powders obtained after carburizing W+C mixes


in Ar at 1100C.
E250

N991

It is possible to synthesize WC directly from WO3 powders. In this case, atmospheres


containing hydrogen are needed to activate reduction of oxides at lower temperatures,
whereas at higher temperatures reduction is promoted by the presence of carbon.
Carburization reaction takes place at lower temperatures for carbon black (E250G <
N991) compared to graphite.
Carburization in Ar50%H2 of mixes containing WO3+Carbon black is complete at
1100C , whereas for WO3+graphite powders complete transformation to WC is
achieved at higher temperatures (1300C).
The resulting WC powder have spherical morphology, sub-micron particle size and
crystalline grain sizes below 30 nm (estimated by XRD).
The BET surface area is higher compared to WC powders obtained by metallic W.
In particular, E250G gives much higher BET values compared to N991, indicating a
finer grain size.
S
[ppm]

BET
[m2/g]

PARTICLE SIZE
[nm]

N991

22

2.92

131

E250G

18

6.90

56

WC POWDERS

LITERATURE
REFERENCES

1. Li Zhang et alii, Ultrafine and nanoscaled tungsten carbide synthesis from colloidal carbon coated nano tungsten precursor, Powder Metallurgy 49(4), p. 369, 2006.
2. L. Zhang et alii, The promise of nano hardmetals can be spoiled by impurities, Metal Powder Report, February 2007, p.21.
3. Li Zhang et alii, Surface adsorption phenomenon during the preparation process of nano WC and ultrafine
cemented carbide, International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials 25(2), p.166, 2007.
4. R de Oro et alii, Synthesis of Nanostructured Tungsten Carbide Powders from Mechanically Activated Mixes of
Tungsten Oxide with Different Carbon Sources, EuroPM2013, Gteborg, Sweden (2013).
5. R. Gilardi et alii, THE ROLE OF CARBON SOURCE IN THE PRODUCTION OF WC POWDERS, WorldPM Congress
- Tungsten, Refractory & Hardmaterials Conference, Orlando FL , U.S.A. (2014).
6. R. de Oro et alii, Optimizing the synthesis of nanostructured tungsten carbide powders by defining the most
effective combination of carbon sources and atmospheres, WorldPM Congress - Tungsten, Refractory & Hardmaterials Conference, Orlando FL , U.S.A. (2014).
7. R. de Oro et alii, Effective synthesis of nanocrystalline tungsten carbide powders by mechanical and thermal activation of precursors, WorldPM Congress - Tungsten, Refractory & Hardmaterials Conference, Orlando FL , U.S.A. (2014).

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