Water for Asian Cities Programme

ANNuAl REPoRT 2009
South ASiA

uN-hABitAt’S WAtER FoR ASiAN CitiES PRoGRAMME
The UN-HABITAT’s Water for Asian Cities (WAC) Programme is a collaborative initiative between the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and governments of Asia. The programme was officially launched at the Third World Water Forum (WWF) on 18 March, 2003, and a memorandum of understanding was signed between ADB and UNHABITAT on the same day in Osaka, Japan. The first Asian Ministerial Forum was held in Osaka, Japan, on 19 March, 2003; participants adopted a ministerial declaration on the UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme. The overall objective of the UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme is to support partner countries in achieving their water and sanitation- related millennium development goals (MDGs) for urban areas. The Programme specifically promotes: • Pro-poor water and sanitation governance; • Urban water conservation and demand management; • Integrated urban environmental sanitation; and • Income generation for the urban poor through community-based water and sanitation services The UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme works at the local, sub-national, national and regional levels and seeks to achieve these four main objectives by mobilising political will; raising awareness through advocacy, information and education; providing training and capacity building; promoting new investments; demonstrating innovative approaches; and monitoring progress towards the achievement of MDGs. Gender mainstreaming, HIV/AIDS, capacity- building and advocacy are issues which cut across all four objectives and all UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme strategies.

WAtER ANd SANitAtioN tRuSt FuNd
On the occasion of World Habitat Day 2002, Mrs. Anna Tibaijuka, Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director of UN-HABITAT, launched the Water and Sanitation Trust Fund (WSTF). The overarching vision of the WSTF is to improve the access of the poor to water supply and basic sanitation. Its goal is to facilitate the achievement of MDG 7, target 10, which professes the aim to halve by 2015 the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, or, more precisely, the achievement of the redefinition of this goal issued at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD): to reduce by one-half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe water and basic sanitation. In seeking to achieve this goal, the WSTF aims to create an enabling environment for pro-poor investment in water and sanitation in the cities of developing countries and to improve significantly the volume and effectiveness of overseas development assistance (ODA) flows. The fund’s objective is to help developing countries achieve sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation for the poor, particularly those living in urban areas. Specifically, the fund supports quickimpact initiatives in participating UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme countries and helps secondary towns achieve their goals with respect to the provision of water and sanitation services. The WSTF has helped UN-HABITAT to forge a strategic partnership with the ADB designed to promote pro-poor investments in urban areas of Asia.

Contents
Overview Of 2009 PrO-POOr UrBAN wATer AND SANiTATiON GOverNANCe
nepal Poverty mapping institutionalisation of pro-poor urban water and sanitation governance Pro-poor financing for sanitation IndIa Sustainable wATSAN services for the poor

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7 7 8 8 8 8

UrBAN wATer DeMAND MANAGeMeNT
nepal Community-managed water supply in poor communities Management of traditional stone spouts rainwater harvesting Support to the Low-income Consumer Support Unit water bottling for the urban poor Support to water supply management boards IndIa Piloting district-metered areas, leak detection, rehabilitation and repair Community-managed pro-poor water purification scheme Urban local catchment management strategy Promotion of rwH and groundwater recharge Grey water reuse and rooftop rainwater harvesting

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9 9 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12

iNTeGrATeD UrBAN eNvirONMeNTAL SANiTATiON iNiTiATiveS
nepal institutional capacity-building of water and sanitation user committees in small towns Sanitation improvement in poor communities of Hetauda Municipality Sanitation improvement in poor communities in Bharatpur Municipality and Narayantole community Solid waste management Community-based waste management in Hetauda Municipality Testing of the household-centred environmental sanitation approach Sanitation improvement programme in Lubhu vDC Preparation and implementation of water and sanitation master plans The Bagmati Action Plan IndIa Slum environmental sanitation initiative rehabilitation of community toilets Solid waste management The post-sunami water and sanitation reconstruction project integrated urban sanitation programmes and city sanitation plans improved access to water and sanitation for Kosi flood-affected communities Safe drinking water and sanitation for schools

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13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 19 19

HUMAN vALUeS-BASeD wATer SANiTATiON AND HYGieNe eDUCATiON
nepal IndIa pakIstan

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20 21 21

wATer QUALiTY iMPrOveMeNT
nepal Declaration of safe water zones Arsenic blanket testing and mitigation Safe water and hygiene campaign IndIa water quality monitoring

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22 22 22 23 24 24

MAiNSTreAMiNG GeNDer iN THe wATer AND SANiTATiON SeCTOr
nepal Gender integration in all projects Basic gender training in four small towns Partnership with gender water alliance for gender mainstreaming in the wATSAN sector IndIa implementation of the gender mainstreaming strategy and action plan

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25 25 25 25 26 26

CAPACiTY-BUiLDiNG AND reSeArCH
nepal regional high-level rainwater harvesting meeting Support to the sector efficiency improvement unit interaction on links between Hiv/AiDS and water, sanitation and hygiene Support to Government of Nepal’s initiative to make Chitwan a sanitation model district follow-up on the international Year of Sanitation 2008 research on the recovery of struvite from urine at the community scale Development of tools and trainers for school- and community-led total sanitation Training on Nepal’s arsenic information management system Capacity-building training on arsenic mitigation Training and promotional activities in household water treatment Capacity-building of media personnel on water and sanitation Assisting partner organizations in communication plan international interns and volunteers IndIa Capacity-building programmes for elected representatives institutionalisation of training and capacity-building for water demand management Prevention of Hiv pakIstan Capacity building on wastewater management

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27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 32 32 32

reSOUrCeS AND PArTNerSHiPS
nepal IndIa partnershIp

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33 34 34

ANNexeS

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

overvIew of 2009

Annual Report 2009 outlines the key achievements made by the UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme in India, Nepal and Pakistan between January and December 2009 with support from the WSTF and significant contribution from governments, partners and local communities. The WAC continued to actively support and engage in the pro-poor urban water and sanitation (WATSAN) governance sector.

NePAl
in nepal, the UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme continued its support to three ADB-assisted projects, the Small Town water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project (STwSSSP), Urban environment improvement Project and the Kathmandu valley water reforms Programme. in addition, it also supported the Government of Nepal (GoN) in implementing wATSAN interventions in various urban and peri-urban areas and in developing various national policies. its main achievements are described below. • The poverty mapping tools developed by UN-HABiTAT’s

wAC Programme has been adapted and is being used by the Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC) /GoN in its programme areas. The DUDBC/GoN has committed to allocate funds to expand this initiative to the remaining 48 municipalities. • UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme is facilitating institutionalisation of pro-poor wATSAN governance at the municipality level. Two municipalities have already taken the initiative by allocating budget to and planning for the wATSAN sector.

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA • UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme supported in developing various national policies. Of them, the Bagmati Action Plan, the Solid waste Management Guideline and the legal framework for rainwater harvesting in building construction have been endorsed by the Government of Nepal (GoN) • UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme has furthered its partnership with private sector and education institutions for expanding its work in the wATSAN sector. The partnership with Bottlers Nepal Limited, Bentley University and local authority will promote groundwater recharge in Patan. in addition, research students will be provided research opportunities within the wAC activity areas. • UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme’s community based water bottling and distribution system, its innovative mechanism of distributing drinking water to the urban poor, has been extended to other poor communities. • There was an increased awareness on the importance of safe drinking water and on the different household water treatment technologies. The communities five selected municipalities started to declare safe water zones. An importance contribution was its support to mobilize youth in addressing the Cholera epidemic in the western region of the country. • UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme utilized the different sanitation intervention approaches and financing mechanisms to increase the sanitation coverage in its programme areas. Many communities in its programme areas were declared open defecation free (ODf) communities. • UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme continued its support to the GoN in mapping arsenic and providing mitigation options to the affected districts 4

INDIA
in India, UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme continued its activities in Madhya Pradesh in support of Urban water Supply and environmental improvement Project being implemented by the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) with support from ADB. in addition, it implemented various activities in partnership with the private sector and explored new strategic activities to contribute to pro-poor and sustainable access to wATSAN. its major achievements in 2009 are outlined below. • Baseline surveys and needs assessments for wATSAN

services were completed in 40 pockets of poverty in four project cities in order to help the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) undertake necessary infrastructure works for water and sanitation services for the poor. • in Madhya Pradesh, as provided for by the water Demand Management Strategy and Action Plan developed under UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme, the municipal corporations of Gwalior and Jabalpur created leak detection and control units to carry out regular leak detection and repair and rehabilitation works.

Box 1.1: UN-HABITAT’S WAC PRogRAmme ACHIevemeNT • UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme is currently engaged in 50 urban and peri-urban areas in South Asia. it benefited 0.5 million, largely the previously unreached; • Pilot and demonstration projects have had a positive impact: they are a real experience for all stakeholders, including governments, service providers, NGOs and communities; • UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme has set up strong partnerships with multiple stakeholders, including governments, international development agencies, the private sector, and civil societies; and • An information dissemination network has emerged through the organisation of various national and international seminars and exchange visits.

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA • Demonstration units for the treatment and reuse of wastewater and for rainwater harvesting (rwH) systems were established at Shri G. S. institute of Technology and Science (SGSiTS), indore, to institutionalise water demand management. Sixteen schools in four cities also saw the construction of rwH systems. • The community-managed water purification scheme in Jabalpur came into operation and now serves 3000 people. • in response to directives from the GoMP, the municipal corporations of the four project cities adopted gender mainstreaming strategies and action plans. • A community-based urban environmental sanitation project called Slum environmental Sanitation initiative covering about 20,000 households in four cities in Madhya Pradesh was concluded and 35 slums were declared ODf zones. • A partnership with BASf, a German chemical company was established to carry out the Post Tsunami water and Sanitation reconstruction Project in Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu and to improve access to wATSAN for Kosi floodaffected communities in Nepal and in the indian state of Bihar.

PAkISTAN
in pakistan, UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme initiated the water, Sanitation and Hygiene education Programme (wSHeP) in selected schools in three towns in Sindh Province in conjunction with the ADB-supported Sindh Cities improvement investment Programme in late 2008. The wSHeP established a site to demonstrate various innovative technologies in water and wastewater management, solid waste management, and other wATSAN-related areas and

established wATSAN facilities in the project schools. it is conducting various awareness-raising and capacity-building activities to boost knowledge and awareness about wATSAN and hygiene issues. UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme provided technical support to the indus-for-All Programme to build its capacity for establishing decentralised wastewater management systems and to establish such systems in the districts of Nawabshah and Sanghar in Sindh Province.

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

FoCUS oF 2010
in 2010, the UN-HABiTAT wAC Programme will continue to provide support to improve the wATSAN situation in communities of the urban poor in various cities by promoting pro-poor governance, water demand management, increased attention to environmental sanitation, and wATSAN-linked income generation for the poor. The goal’s of the three participating countries follow.

• To implement a water safety plan • To support the GoN in implementing selected pilot projects recommended by the National Adaptation Programme of Action for Climate Change • To carry out monitoring and reporting and publication

PAkISTAN
• To expand the water, Sanitation and Hygiene education Programme to other Sindh Cities improvement investment Programme towns • To provide addition investment for both wATSAN hardware and software in selected schools in the 16 cities currently involved in the UN-HABiTAT Pakistan office’s water and Sanitation improvement in informal Settlements through Gender Mainstreaming and empowerment of Local Authority Project, which is being implemented with the support of a multi-donor trust fund based in Spain through its local partners • To provide technical assistance to the indus-for-All Programme to demonstrate, promote and to build capacity in decentralised wastewater management • To establish partnerships with Coca-Cola Pakistan and CocaCola Afghanistan for wATSAN interventions in communities of the urban poor • To support the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in capacitybuilding in and awarenessraising about rwH systems by supporting its ongoing rwH project

INDIA
• To implement an integrated urban sanitation programme in Nagar Panchayat of Nasrullaganj, india, and to develop a city sanitation plan for Gwalior • To up-scale and institutionalise human values-based water, sanitation and hygiene education through the development of communication tools, the capacity-building of teachers and the demonstration of classroom activities for students • To operationalise a gendermainstreaming strategy in cooperation with Mahila Chetna Manch in the four project cities of Madhya Pradesh • To develop a manual on the development of citizen report cards • To provide Kosi flood-affected people in Bihar access to wATSAN facilities • To develop a city sanitation plan and to pilot both a door-to door collection of waste and a community-based waste management programme in Mangalore City • To establish production and service units for sanitary and low-cost building materials • To pilot a decentralised wastewater treatment system in Orchha, Madhya Pradesh • To develop and implement a comprehensive plan for sustainable sanitation and wastewater management in Mulbagal, Karnataka

NePAl
• To up-scale and institutionalize human values-based water, sanitation and hygiene education through curriculum development and the capacitybuilding of teachers • To increase the institutional capacity to establish wATSAN user committees in 15 additional small towns in the STwSSSP i and to launch various awareness programme for improving sanitation coverage in the new ADBfunded STwSSSP ii • To provide capacity-building in wATSAN improvement to additional selected municipalities, in particular in poverty mapping, gender mainstreaming, and needs assessment • To develop an integrated urban catchment management plan and demonstrate a pilot project. • To support knowledge management in the Sector efficiency improvement Unit • To provide emergency wASH preparedness and capacitybuilding to ensure that there will be safe drinking water in Thimi, Bhaktapur and Kirtipur municipalities if there is a major earthquake in Kathmandu valley • To promote water sanitation and hygiene for disaster preparedness and response in 10 districts of Nepal together with UNiCef and the UN Country Team

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

pro-poor UrBan water and sanItatIon GovernanCe

The UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme’s pro-poor urban WATSAN governance component aims to strengthen the capacity of local authorities, utilities and governments to institutionalise the propoor WATSAN governance at the local level. Support is provided by developing information bases as well as by demonstrating WATSAN services to the urban poor.

NePAl
PoveRTy mAPPINg

Poverty mapping, gender assessment and needs identification exercises have been ongoing in eight ADBsupported Urban and environment improvement Project and two Government of Nepal (GoN)initiated Urban Development Programme municipalities in partnership with the Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC). So far, poverty mapping exercises have been completed in the municipalities of Bharatpur, Hetauda, Kamalamai and

ratnanagar, all of which have endorsed the findings in consensus with all stakeholders. in order to institutionalise this process, key municipal staff were taught to utilise and update this information regularly. The DUDBC/GoN recognised this initiative as a valuable exercise because it provides the local-level information municipalities need to be able to undertake pro-poor interventions in the municipalities and has allocated significant additional funds to gradually extend poverty mapping to all the remaining municipalities of the country.

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA mechanisms through appropriate planning and budgeting based on the information generated by study.
PRo-PooR FINANCINg FoR SANITATIoN

INDIA
SUSTAINABle WATSAN SeRvICeS FoR THe PooR

A pro-poor financing mechanism for affordable and easy access to wATSAN services among the urban poor was initiated in the form of a micro credit scheme introduced through the water and sanitation user committees (wSUCs) of nine 9 small towns of the Small Town water Supply and Sanitation Project. An operational guideline was developed to facilitate the initiative. Hetauda Municipality initiated a revolving fund scheme jointly with Urban Development through Local efforts (UDLe)/GTZ and UN-HABiTAT to provide loans at affordable interest rates to poor households and operated it successfully itself. in view of the scheme’s success in encouraging poor households to build toilets, the municipality has committed itself to allocating funds annually to continue the scheme. A minimum subsidy scheme for building private toilets in clusters of the urban poor was supported through various projects in Bharatpur and Kalaiya municipalities.

INSTITUTIoNAlISATIoN oF PRo-PooR URBAN WATeR AND SANITATIoN goveRNANCe

The demonstration of wATSAN service delivery to poor clusters encouraged the municipalities of Hetauda, Bharatpur and Kalaiya to institutionalise such services. in addition, the UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme established a partnership with water Aid Nepal and Practical Action Nepal to institutionalise pro-poor urban water governance in poor communities identified by poverty mapping. These organisations will facilitate municipalities in their efforts to institutionalise propoor municipal service delivery

in partnership with waterAid Australia, the wAC Programme initiated a project to bring about sustainable improvements in the wATSAN status of selected slums in major cities of Madhya Pradesh. its goals include community mobilisation, capacity-building and advocacy in support of the initiatives of the GoMP to provide wATSAN facilities using Area improvement fund (Aif) and community initiative funds under the loan covenant of the ADB. Baseline surveys and needs assessments for wATSAN services were conducted in 40 poverty pockets, 10 each in the four cities of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, namely indore, Gwalior and Jabalpur, and the reports were shared with GoMP to facilitate its implementation of wATSAN infrastructure facilities for the poor. Based on the outcome of this study, the municipal corporations of the four project cities developed concept proposals for community managed wATSAN services as per UN-HABiTAT supported demonstration projects, and provisions for livelihood opportunities for the poor. These proposals have been approved by the ADB for implementation. The first community managed water supply scheme become operational in ramnagara, Jabalpur, india.

Box 2.1: CommUNITy voICe: IT IS THe PooR WHo BeNeFIT moST
In my opinion, we (poor and marginalised groups) benefit the most from the water treatment plant constructed by UEMS and UN-HABITAT because we were never before able to afford good quality of water for cooking and drinking. We were excited when the Water Bottling plant was ready because it meant we could access clean drinking water for household consumption. – Mr Govinda Thakuri, water user, Chayasal

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

UrBan water deMand ManaGeMent

The UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme’s urban water demand management component aims to provide technological options to regular water supply and to strengthen the capacity of various stakeholders to advocate and promote such alternatives. Harvesting rainwater, utilising traditional sources, and bottling water are the major interventions promoted.

NePAl
CommUNITy-mANAgeD WATeR SUPPly IN PooR CommUNITIeS

The people of Kalyantaar in Hetauda Municipality have relied on a traditional water source (a spring) for years to meet their daily water demand. in 2009, the UNHABiTAT’s wAC Programme, in partnership with the municipality, established an improved community-based water supply system by protecting this source and building a 5000-litre overhead tank whose water is distributed to 57 households through seven community tapstands. The users operate and manage the system

themselves under the supervision of the municipality. in addition, the existing water supply system in ward no. 11 of Hetauda Municipality was expanded and the capacity of its user committee built through various trainings. in Bharatpur Municipality, a community-managed water supply system is serving 200 households was established in Jagati Mai. Also in Bharatpur, the Nepal water Supply Cooperation, with the support of the UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme, laid more than 2,000 metres of line and constructed community tapstands to extend supply to four squatter

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA
RAINWATeR HARveSTINg

Box 3.1: We NoW ReAlISe HoW ImPoRTANT WATeR CoNSeRvATIoN IS
The demonstration site in Kirtipur was very successful. It provided many opportunities to learn about the benefits of RWH. We used to face many hardships when it came to managing water. RWH has helped to minimise conflicts with neighbours over water and to make sure our children attend school regularly. Because of RWH, there is no shortage of water, even in the winter. We understand that it is important to conserve water now and in the future.

–Ms Sabita Dongol, house wife, Kirtipur

A national legal framework for rwH has been endorsed by the Government of Nepal’s Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. it guides municipalities in promoting and regulating rwH systems in building construction. in 2009, UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme further strengthened its partnership with Bottlers Nepal Limited in addition to establishing new partnership with Bentley University, USA. This partnership will see numerous activities being executed in Patan on harvesting rainwater and recharging groundwater through collaboration with the Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City and the communities.
mANAgemeNT oF TRADITIoNAl SToNe SPoUTS

communities. in addition, 70 hand pumps were installed in 31 poor communities of Kalaiya Municipality to provide 560 poor households with water. water supply improvement activities in Lubhu village development committee (vDC) this year included improving 20 traditional water sources to the benefit of 450 households to get drinking water and installing a rwH system in Mahalaxmi Higher Secondary School. The school’s 807 students drink the treated water and use the untreated water for sanitation.

in partnership with the Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City and local users committees, a communitybased water distribution and management system was established at one traditional stone spout and is in progress at two more. All three initiatives were demand-driven and are designed to serve the urban poor. in addition, three stone spouts were been rehabilitated. About 42,000 will benefit from this effort.

in order to address the problem of water scarcity in schools, rwH systems have been established in various schools located in Hetauda and Bharatpur municipalities and in Lubhu vDC. More than 2000 students have benefitted.

Box 3.3: US STUDeNTS’ AID FoR WATeR PRoJeCT
Students at Bentley University in the US, have raised funds amounting to more than $10,000 (NPR 740,000) which will be utilized for a rainwater conservation project in Nepal.” The fund so collected under the UN-HABITAT’s Water for Asian Cities Programme by a team of students of Bentley University will support clean water initiatives in Nepal”, said a press statement issued by UN-HABITAT, today. Bentley International Student’s Association, Bentley Greek Council, Bentley Spring Day Donations, community members and paypals had collectively donated the fund, it added. The fund was handed over to UN-HABITAT by the President of the campaign Mr Ankur Agrawal. UN-HABITAT has allotted the fund to a rainwater conservation project in Lalitpur. Source: The Himalayan Times, 20 Nov. 2009

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

SUPPoRT To THe loW-INCome CoNSUmeR SUPPoRT UNIT

UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme in partnership with Kathmandu valley water Utility (KUKL) developed a project to support KUKL’s Lowincome Consumer Support Unit. As a major component of this project, a new water treatment and distribution system will be established in Tokha vDC. in addition, a sanitation master plan for Tokha will also be developed based on which additional fund will be sought with potential funding agencies including the GoN by the community in Tokha for improving the sanitation situation in the settlement.
WATeR BoTTlINg FoR THe URBAN PooR

approach in a poor settlement in Koteshwor, the preparatory activities was done in 2009.
SUPPoRT To WATeR SUPPly mANAgemeNT BoARDS

GoN has piloted an initiative to decentralize the water Supply Authority in the municipalities

of Bharatpur and Hetauda. Both municipalities prepared operational plans and established water supply management boards to institutionalize this process. A strategy for strengthening the capacity of local authorities to manage decentralized water supply was also developed.

Box 3.2: BoTTleRS NePAl, UN-HABITAT JoIN HANDS FoR A CAUSe
Water for Asian Cities programme of UN-HABITAT in Nepal and Bottlers Nepal Limited are set to install rainwater harvesting system in historical ponds located in Kathmandu and Lalitpur districts. The bid is believed to recharge sinking water aquifer caused by over-extraction of groundwater and climate change. The two parties signed an agreement yesterday to work together on rainwater harvesting at a number of places in collaboration with the communities. The partnership plans to employ indigenous ways of harvesting rain for groundwater recharge in select communities in Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City. According to the pact, LSMC and Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Management Board would be working together, technically aided by Centre for Integrated Urban Development. This initiative is claimed to be an example of public private partnership. The project is said to be crucial in generating the source of traditional stone spouts in the work areas. Source: The Himalayan Times, 6 June 2009

The success of the water bottling projects in Chyasal of Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City and Dhalko of Kathmandu Metropolitan City has proven that bottled water distribution system for the urban poor through publicprivate partnerships is a promising mechanism to meeting the water demands of poor communities. The success of the system in Chyasal inspired two adjoining communities to set up there water supply system through their own efforts. UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme is supporting the establishment of yet another such system through a new operation and management

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA the wATSAN situation at and to promote human values-based water, sanitation and hygiene education in all the participating schools by building the capacity of teachers and by educating students to change their attitudes and behaviour and adopt wise and sustainable wATSAN practices. To popularize rwH and promote groundwater recharge, 16 rooftop rwH demonstration units were established in 16 schools and a series of capacity-building programmes for the concerned teachers and students were organized in four cities. The rwH systems have a combined potential to harvest 3.5 Million Litres of rain water annually and would benefit nearly 18,000 students besides the communities around these schools by raising awareness regarding rain water harvesting.
gRey WATeR ReUSe AND RooFToP RAINWATeR HARveSTINg

charges to the poor people residing in slums. it succeeded in its aim by empowering the community of Sangram Sagar, Jabalpur, to install, operate and maintain a 1000 litreper-hour water purification unit which serves 600 households.
URBAN loCAl CATCHmeNT mANAgemeNT STRATegy

INDIA
PIloTINg DISTRICT-meTeReD AReAS, leAk DeTeCTIoN, ReHABIlITATIoN AND RePAIR

As is provided for in the water Demand Management Strategy and Action Plan developed under the UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme for Madhya Pradesh, the municipal corporations of Gwalior and Jabalpur have installed flow meters at strategic locations and created leak detection and control units which carry out regular leak detection, repair and rehabilitation works, which resulted in significant reduction in water losses in the targeted areas. Approximately 5000 households in each of the two cities are benefiting from improved water supply as a result of this work. The establishment of demonstration units for the treatment and reuse of wastewater and rwH systems in SGSiTS, indore, have also helped to institutionalize water demand management.
CommUNITy-mANAgeD PRo-PooR WATeR PURIFICATIoN SCHeme

in partnership with the Lake Conservation Authority of Madhya Pradesh, the UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme is developing an urban local catchment strategy and action plan for the four project cities in Madhya Pradesh, india. The Project aims to focus on management of water resources and make more water available to Urban local bodies for water supply.
PRomoTIoN oF RWH AND gRoUNDWATeR ReCHARge

in partnership with Coca-Cola and in cooperation with the Lake Conservation Authority of Madhya Pradesh, UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme is piloting rwH in selected schools. it aims to improve

UN-HABiTAT, in partnership with Shri G. S. institute of Technology and Science, indore, has operationalised a pilot project on grey water reuse and rooftop rwH to institutionalise water demand management. The project involves collecting and storing rainwater to meet the demand in periods of water stress, to reduce fresh water demand, and to treat and use treated wastewater to irrigate gardens and flush toilets.

Community-managed pro-poor water purification and bottling scheme was completed in Jabalpur. its objective was to provide two to three litres of safe drinking water (as per wHO specifications) per person per day at nominal service 12

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

InteGrated UrBan envIronMental sanItatIon InItIatIves

The integrated urban environmental sanitation component aims to demonstrate an integrated approach to total environmental improvement through the involvement and efforts of local communities. This initiative promotes locally-managed water supply systems, private and community- managed toilets, on-site sanitation, and hygienic behaviour education and builds the capacity of users to sustain services effectively.

NePAl
INSTITUTIoNAl CAPACITyBUIlDINg oF WATeR AND SANITATIoN USeR CommITTeeS IN SmAll ToWNS

focusing on poor households in fourteen small towns. Khairenitar managed to maintain water quality through installing pretreatment system. Khairenitar and Parsa managed to increase the water supply connection to 300 households to the reporting date. Similarly, in Lekhanth, Bandipur and Parsa, the awareness campaign managed to expand 600 private toilets as of the reporting date. This had also contributed towards declaration of ODf in three small towns. To strengthen the institutional capacity of wUSCs, a number of

with the support of the ADB, the GoN recently completed the STwSSSP in 29 small towns and handed over the systems to wSUCs for operation and management. UN-HABiTAT established a partnership with the Department of water Supply and Sewerage (DwSS) to strengthen their institutional capacity to increase the water supply connections and expand sanitation coverage

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

Box 4.1: A vIllAge SeTS exAmPle IN WASTe mANAgemeNT
People of Shreekhandapur village in Dhulikhel have proved that solid waste is not a problem, but a solution for alternative sources of energy and waste treatment. The establishment of the Waste Water treatment Plant was a joint effort of the locals, municipality and UN-HABITAT. This sustainable plant has stopped the waste water generated in the village from getting directly mixed with Punyamata River. Solid particles like human excreta are separated from the liquid waste and are first sent to two biogas reactors to produce biogas and the liquid is sent to reed bed treatment system. The liquid is then purified by reed´s roots that contain a huge amount of bacteria. The treated water is then discharged into the river and the digested sludge is converted into compost manure. Currently, the plant has been treating waste generated by around 200 households of Shreekhandapur village and has been generating over 30 kg methane gas every day. The plant is expected to produce biogas for cooking purposes to around 200 families. “The treated water is pure enough to be used in the bathrooms to flush toilets and irrigate in the kitchen gardens,” says Purna Bahadur Karmacharya, President of Shreekhandapur Waste Water Treatment Plant Users Committee. Source: The Republica

through the municipality-managed revolving fund. Among the toilets constructed in Kiran Chowk, Karra and Kalyantar 117 had attached biogas plants, 10 were eCOSAN toilets and 82 were simple toilets. in China Quarter, the population is too dense to allow for private toilets, so a communal toilet was constructed with separate male and female blocks as well as units for differently-abled people and children. This community-managed toilet is very much appreciated by the local people. Because this community-managed toilet works well, Hetauda Municipality provided matching funds to construct another such toilet in a school used as a meeting place and training hall. for the 150 students at Shree Bhairab Primary School and the 500 students at Shree Bal Jyoti Secondary School, the existing toilets were reconstructed with male and female units. The success of this integrated approach in four communities has inspired Hetauda Municipality to extend the initiative in the other 21 poor clusters. Those initiatives are in progress.
SANITATIoN ImPRovemeNT IN PooR CommUNITIeS IN BHARATPUR mUNICIPAlITy AND NARAyANTole CommUNITy

trainings in different areas were organised. To increase efficiency in managing service delivery, billing software was developed and the wSCUs of nine small towns were trained and under operation. This initiative will be extended to the other remaining 20 small towns. Similarly, 200 master trainers in community- and school-led total sanitation were developed in nine small towns. These trainers have been mobilized to promote awareness among local residents. This campaign by mobilizing trained female sanitation volunteers also helped three towns reach the status of declaring their towns as ODf towns. These volunteers also completed a 14

training of trainers in solid waste management as well. This training developed their understanding of the basic principles of waste management and trained to sensitize locals improving the household and community sanitation in nine small towns.
SANITATIoN ImPRovemeNT IN PooR CommUNITIeS oF HeTAUDA mUNICIPAlITy

The sanitation situations in Kiran chowk, China Quarter, Karra and Kalyantar, four out of the 25 poor communities identified by Hetauda Municipality, were improved by providing loans at a very low rate of interest (3% with 24 months of easy installments)

environmental sanitation has improved with the construction of about 750 latrines in 12

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA clusters, the conduction of various sanitation-related awareness and promotional activities, and the ODf declarations of eight communities. The UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme also constructed two demonstration sites: a rwH system at Shree rastriya Prathmik vidhyalaya and a communitymanaged biogas plant in Lanku. The entire catchment areas of 15 schools and the partial catchments of seven schools were declared ODf, to the benefit of a population of more than 41,000. Similarly, Narayan Tole of Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) saw a significant improvement in their community after UN-HABiTAT’s intervention in partnership with waterAid Nepal and KUKL. All the 31 households have access to toilets most of which is connected to on site treatment system (anaerobic biofilters). water supply was improved with the establishment of another water storage tank and improved distribution mechanism. Construction of retaining wall and pavement gave a sense of safety to the community. Multiple trainings on health and hygiene brought about significant behavioural changes.
SolID WASTe mANAgemeNT

The Solid waste Management Act was approved by the ministerial cabinet and is under review by the Ministry of Law and Justice. The Solid waste Management Guidelines was approved by the Board of Solid waste Management and resource Mobilisation Centre (SwMrMC) of the Ministry of Local Development. Together these documents will help municipalities manage solid waste more effectively. in partnership with the SwMrMC, the UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme is currently implementing a project to develop the capacities of municipalities to plan strategically for municipal solid waste management (SwM) and to understand climate change and clean development mechanisms. To the date, 25 municipalities have been trained in municipal SwM and have developed action plans, execution of which is supervised by SwMrMC. five municipalities have developed and 10 additional municipalities will be developing extensive long-term plans. UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme, in partnership with SOPHeN is conducting a study on integrating SwM into STwSSSP ii. The main objective of this study is to assess the SwM scenario in emerging

towns and the feasibility of integrating SwM into STwSSSP ii. The findings of the study and a proposed plan for integration will be submitted to ADB for consideration.
CommUNITy-BASeD WASTe mANAgemeNT IN HeTAUDA mUNICIPAlITy

in Hetauda, various capacity building activities were conducted at different levels in other project areas to improve SwM and approaches like public-private partnerships, household and community composting, reduction, recycling and reuse were promoted. A community-based compost plant with the capacity to handle three tonnes daily was constructed in Neureni. it is one of the largest of its kind in Nepal. The Public Private Partnership for Urban environment Project and the SwrMC provided technical and financial support.. Similarly, a lowcost medical waste incinerator was established at the Central regional Hospital in Hetauda. it is a good demonstration site for a low-cost system of disposing of medical waste managed by hospital itself.
TeSTINg oF THe HoUSeHolDCeNTReD eNvIRoNmeNTAl SANITATIoN APPRoACH

in partnership with the Swiss federal institute of Aquatic Science (eAwAG)/SANDeC), Switzerland, a Box 4.2: ToIleTS WITH BIogAS yIelD TWo ADvANTAgeS
“Within just three years, the face of the village has been completely changed. The whole village used to stink of human faeces and animal dung. It was as if there was shop for human faeces along the banks of the Karra River. Ever since the project provided us with loans to construct family toilets with biogas connections, we have been enjoying two advantages: we save the money we used to spend on firewood and the village looks neat and clean. I have been cooking on biogas for two years and have never spend a single rupee on firewood or LPG.” -Sushila Lama, member, Safal Tole Bikas Sanstha

15

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA Box 4.3: lUBHU FolkS lIve THe lIFe oF RIley NoW
Until two years ago, Rupa Shrestha, 26, housewife from Pigantole-Lubhu, in the outskirts of Kathmandu Valley, used to get up early in the morning and walk almost one hour to Lamatar just to get a bucketful of water. This was her routine throughout the year. “But, that is history now,” said Shrestha. Things have changed not only for her, but also for over 1,100 households in Lubhu. Life for women has become easier ever since Lubhu Infrastructure and Environment Improvement Committee (LIEIC) launched an integrated infrastructure and environment project in the area. Earlier, all the locals were using highly contaminated water from traditional sources like wells and ponds located in the area, after the piped water line connected by the Drinking Water Corporation became useless since no water was being supplied through it. However, now the locals can heave a sigh of relief at not having to face such problems anymore. They have formed over 30 users’ groups and each member of the group has been entrusted with the complete care of the system. “Now, no one here has to face the agony of water shortage like in the past,” said Ram Bahadur Shrestha, the president of LIEIC. A long unused water pipe from Chanpakharka was repaired and a new pipeline was also connected from the nearby river for drinking water and other purposes. Both the pipelines linking every household, and over 50 traditional wells and ponds revived, there is now enough water to meet the demand. It was a joint effort. Department of Urban Development and Building Construction, Centre for Integrated Urban Development, WaterAid Nepal and UN-HABITAT, all of whom had jointly come up with a NPR 5.2 million aid to build the system and train the locals in maintaining it. end of open defecation The main livelihood earning of over 32 households in Galchhitole-Lubhu in Lalitpur is dependent on rearing of pigs and supplying the meat to the market. Until two years ago, almost all the people in the area used to attend to nature’s call in open places, not because they did not have toilets, but because of the fear that the pigs would eat the human waste. They would also slaughter animals and throw away the entrails and bones everywhere. “But ever since some youths formed a consumers’ group and initiated the upgrading of the drainage system and raised awareness, we have succeeded in changing the area’s look,” said Naresh Shahi, member of consumer’s group.

household-centred environmental sanitation (HCeS) approach is being tested in Nala vDC of Kavre District. its objectives are to demonstrate HCeS in a peri-urban settlement and to validate the key steps of this approach through field research so that locally-adapted version for widespread application can be developed. HCeS is a novel approach which places households, communities and neighbourhoods at the centre of the entire planning process, from planning to implementation. it is an integrated approach which addresses safe water supply, sanitation and hygiene simultaneously. An HCeS plan is being prepared for Nala following a 10-step planning process, the key steps of which include the assessment of user priorities, the identification of technological and feasible service combination options, and the formulation of a consolidated urban sanitation service plan in collaboration with local stakeholders. The plan covers four wards of Nala vDC and a total of 388 households.
SANITATIoN ImPRovemeNT PRogRAmme IN lUBHU vDC

Source: The Kathmandu Post, January 4, 2009

The sanitation-related programmes in Lubhu vDC benefitted 5,143 people and improved sanitation remarkably. A total of 151 toilets were constructed, of which 101

16

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA are double pit latrines and 50 are eCOSAN toilets. The community has declared itself ODf. The project also constructed 1500 metres of storm water drainage and 2000 metres of paving. The conduction of various trainings in community-led total sanitation, health and hygiene, the construction and operation of toilets and SwM has enhanced the awareness level of the community.
PRePARATIoN AND ImPlemeNTATIoN oF WATeR AND SANITATIoN mASTeR PlANS

in partnership with Practical Action Nepal, UN-HABiTAT is developing a participatory wATSAN master plan for the seven municipalities of Bharatpur, ratnagagar, ramgram, Siddharthnagar, Butwal, Guleriya and Tikapur and for the three small towns of Sunwal, Kawasoti and Bardhaghat. in addition, process is underway for developing wATSAN master plans for municipalities of Hetauda in partnership with the Hetauda municipality and in Kamalamai and itahari in partnership with waterAid Nepal. The plan will act as a baseline for

donors, NGOs, and the concerned municipalities and small towns to plan wATSAN interventions to serve the poor. The plan will include the following elements: • A detailed description of the wATSAN current situation; • Detailed technical reports on feasible wATSAN schemes for the municipalities and the small towns; • Alternative participatory approaches like HCeS and community and school led total sanitation; • A guideline for institutionalising the wATSAN master plan; • The identification of priority clusters for wATSAN intervention; and • Approaches for awareness and education programmes.
THe BAgmATI ACTIoN PlAN

valley. The plan was prepared by the Bagmati Civilization integrated Development Committee and the National Trust for Nature Conservation with support from UN-HABiTAT and the UNeP. The project is estimated to cost at least NPr 14 billion.

INDIA
SlUm eNvIRoNmeNTAl SANITATIoN INITIATIve

UN-HABiTAT implemented a community-based urban environmental sanitation project called the Slum environmental Sanitation initiative (SeSi) for about 20,000 households in four cities of Madhya Pradesh. The main objectives of this initiative was to demonstrate how communities can be empowered to acquire adequate sanitation that meets their needs, generate felt demand for sanitation facilities. The activities involved awareness creation, health education, and capacity building to encourage

The Ministerial cabinet of the Government of Nepal endorsed the five-year Bagmati Action Plan in 2009 and approved it as the official framework document for the rehabilitation and conservation of the river system of the Kathmandu

Box 4.4: CABINeT’S go-AHeAD FoR BAgmATI ACTIoN PlAN
With an aim of saving the Bagmati River from gradual degradation and encroachment, the government has provided full authority to High Powered Committee for Integrated Development of the Bagmati Civilisation. In this regard, the Cabinet also passed Bagmati Action Plan on August 11, 2009. “Much has been talked and a considerable amount of money has been spent on Bagmati but the expected outcome is not satisfactory which compelled us to plan the integrated management of the Bagmati and its tributaries,” said Mahesh Basnet, chairman of the committee. The committee, under the Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, was also empowered to work on Bagmati following the then Cabinet decision on 8 June, 2008. The action plan was finalised by Nepal Trust for Nature Conservation with financial support of UN-HABITAT and UNEP a month before. The total estimated cost is NPR 14.55 billion. According to Anil Bhadra Khanal, member secretary and project chief of the committee, the action plan has divided Bagmati into five major zones from its origin at Baghdwar in Shivapuri to its outlet at Chovar. “These major zones will be focused separately as the part of integrated programme.” The Bagmati is an important tributary of the Ganges and has a catchments area of 3,710 square km in Nepal. The river rises in the Kathmandu Valley, which comprises just 15% of the area of the Bagmati basin in Nepal. Ministry of Physical Planning and Works has also prepared a bill to this regard. “If the bill for formation of Bagmati Civilisation Development Council is passed, then the present committee will be much more powerful legally and every organisation should take its prior permission,” Khanal said. Meanwhile, the government of India has shown interest over the action plan. “I’ve talked with the economic counsellor of the Embassy of India in Kathmandu recently and according to him a technical team will arrive for study within two weeks.” Source: The Himalayan Times, 25 Aug. 2009

17

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

cost effective and appropriate technologies in all aspect of sanitation. A revolving sanitation fund operated by the Community water and Sanitation Committees (CwASC) facilitated construction of household toilets. The project ensured total open defecation free slums by promoting constructions of low cost individual Household latrines, community managed sanitation complexes and school sanitation blocks. To ensure access to water supply, various water points were created. GoMP has felicitated the CwASC of the selected slums in recognition

of their contribution in making locality open defecation free zones. Based on the learning on the implementation of SeSi, GoMP is piloting initiative for improving water and sanitation services in 80 slum communities in 4 cities of Madhya Pradesh using Area improvement fund and Community initiative fund under the ADB loan covenant.
ReHABIlITATIoN oF CommUNITy ToIleTS

in order to provide sanitation facilities, Urban Local Bodies (ULB) in Madhya Pradesh made sizable investments in the construction of community toilets, but many

were not well-maintained because user groups, lacking a sense of ownership, did not participate in their operation and maintenance. To rehabilitate these degraded facilities, the Government of Madhya Pradhesh (GoMP), incollaboration with UN-HABiTAT, initiated two projects, one each in Jabalpur and Gwalior, to empower users to operate and maintain the toilets by collecting service charges. Altogether 20 community toilets in Gwalior and 10 community toilets were rehabilitated in Jabalpur which were handed over to the local Community water and Sanitation Committees for its operation & maintenance through collection of user charges.
SolID WASTe mANAgemeNT

UN-HABiTAT has taken up a pilot project designed to generate city-wide awareness regarding door-to-door collection of segregated waste in Gwalior. in Jabalpur, it is implementing a demonstration of communitymanaged solid waste disposal in the five contiguous wards of George Desilwa, Gupteswar ward, Pt. Banarsidas Bhanot, Napier town and Shahid Gulab Singh. The project is attempting to create a zero garbage zone within the city, which it hopes to scale up to convert Jabalpur into a zero garbage city. in Gupteshwar, waste is segregated at the source 18

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA Soda factory—BASf), Germany approved funding of a project to improve access to wATSAN for Kosi flood- affected communities in the state of Bihar, india. The project aims to create sustainable human settlements in floodaffected areas of selected settlements in Madhepura District in Bihar by promoting sustainable access to wATSAN facilities for the communities living in flood-prone areas along river Kosi. The project will benefit about 240 households. Detailed project documents are being developed in consultation with the UN-HABiTAT’s regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
SAFe DRINkINg WATeR AND SANITATIoN FoR SCHoolS

and a participatory door to door collection service has been started.
THe PoST-SUNAmI WATeR AND SANITATIoN ReCoNSTRUCTIoN PRoJeCT

The Post Tsunami water and Sanitation reconstruction Project was started in Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu in partnership with BASf, a German chemical company. its aim is to provide adequate access to wATSAN facilities to 13,500 people and to provide 2000 people with disabilities with access to public places and to enhanced livelihood opportunities.
INTegRATeD URBAN SANITATIoN PRogRAmmeS AND CITy SANITATIoN PlANS

building activities. The project aims to complement NPN’s proposal for making the town open defecation free as per the Government of india’s National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) and integrated Low-Cost Sanitation Scheme and the GoMP’s integrated Urban Sanitation Programme. Another project to develop a city sanitation plan is being implemented in partnership with the municipal corporation of Gwalior.
ImPRoveD ACCeSS To WATeR AND SANITATIoN FoR koSI FlooDAFFeCTeD CommUNITIeS

in 2009, Badische Anilin- und Soda-fabrik (Baden Aniline and

in partnership with Coca-Cola and through the CCDU-PHeD of the Government of west Bengal, UNHABiTAT is implementing a project to provide safe drinking water and sanitation to 150 schools in west Bengal. The project focuses on promoting and installing household- and community-based water treatment systems and on promoting HvwSHe in schools. in 2009, CCDU-PHeD conducted rapid situational assessments of existing wATSAN facilities in 150 schools in five districts of west Bengal namely, Malda, Purulia, Bankura, South 24 Paraganas and North 24 Paraganas and initiated the construction of new ones.

UN-HABiTAT recently signed an agreement to cooperate with the Nagar Panchayat of Nasrullaganj (NPN) to support it in preparing a city sanitation plan and demonstrating appropriate and integrated sanitation options and technologies. The objectives of the project are to ensure improved access to sanitation through city-level planning for sanitation, promotion of household sanitation facilities, demonstration of community-owned and managed facilities, introduction of a decentralised wastewater treatment system, and sensitisation to the needs of the vulnerable through awareness- and capacity19

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

hUMan valUes-Based water sanItatIon and hYGIene edUCatIon

The UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme’s human valuesbased water sanitation and hygiene education (HvWSHe) component aims to promote the ethical use of water by providing values-based information on water, sanitation and hygiene. HvWSHe inspires and motivates behavioural change leading to the wise and sustainable use of WATSAN facilities.

NePAl
The Human value Based water and Sanitation Hygiene education (HvwSHe) project in Nepal has successfully established close linkages with the Ministry of education (Moe). The Moe has drafted training materials, curriculum materials and lesson plans for integrating HvwSHe in the formal education system. Moe plans to test the drafted documents before finalizing them. in order to foster awareness about human values related to water, sanitation and hygiene, the project established a water classroom in a

public secondary school and is in the process of establishing another one at the Central Zoo. in partnership with Stepping Stone, the UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme will be disseminating the HvwSHe concept to teachers at 57 schools of Dharan. The project will supplement the ongoing School environment Promotion Programme (SePP) of The Strengthening of environmental Administration and Management at the Local Level. it aims to provide technical support to integrate and to up-scale HvwSHe in schools to help bring about behavioural change among

20

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA Box 5.1: STUDeNTS ARe AT THe FoReFRoNT IN ImPRovINg SANITATIoN
“Sanitation in the village improved after teachers and students participated in the SLTS training to. Child clubs comprising students in grades 3, 4 and 5 were formed under the supervision of an advisory board of teachers. Students are in the forefront of efforts to maintain sanitation in and around the school.” – Mandira Ghimire, Teacher Srikrishna Primary School

PAkISTAN
various activities were conducted under the water, Sanitation and Hygiene education Programme (wSHeP) in selected schools in three towns of Sukkur, rohri and Khairpur in Sindh Province in conjunction with the ADB-supported Sindh Cities improvement investment Programme. Some major activities included establishment of a demonstration centre on various innovative technologies in water and wastewater management, solid waste management, and other wATSAN-related areas. water and sanitation improvement activities were conducted in the twenty pilot schools. Campaigns and awareness raising activities on water, sanitation and hygiene were conducted. 14 professionals were trained on water, sanitation and hygiene as master trainers in Nepal. These master trainers supported in developing various ieC materials. The master trainers also conducted series of trainings in the three towns.

the immediate target groups of SePP and among associated communities and organisations.

INDIA
in partnership with Centre for environment education (Cee), has established HvwSHe classrooms in one school each in the four project cities in Madhya Pradesh. To facilitate regular HvwSHe classroom activities, a guidebook on HvwSHe was developed and capacity-building for teachers was conducted. However, the application of HvwSHe was limited because other schools did not have the resources they need to organise visits to HvwSHe classrooms for their students. in order to promote HvwSHe, specifically to build the capacity

of teachers to use communication tools and to demonstrate classroom activities for the students at approximately 300 schools in each project city with a view toward reaching the community at large, the UNHABiTAT’s wAC Programme signed an HvwSHe project agreement with viBHAvAri. Madhya Pradesh government launched the integrated Urban Sanitation Programme (iUSP) to provide 100% sanitation facilities in all 338 urban local bodies. This project would, therefore, form a part of the state level urban sanitation campaign. in collaboration with Coca-Cola india, a series of capacity-building programmes for teachers and students on HvwSHe and rwH were organised in the four project cities of Madhya Pradesh.

21

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

water QUalItY IMproveMent

The UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme’s water quality improvement component aims to sensitize stakeholders about the importance of safe drinking water by promoting various technologies as well as by establishing a monitoring programme for assessing water quality and proposing options for improving quality.

NePAl
DeClARATIoN oF SAFe WATeR zoNeS

in partnership with Coca-Cola india, environment and Public Health Organisation and municipalities, the UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme promoted household water treatment options such as boiling, filtration, chlorination and the solar disinfection system (SODiS) in five municipalities . The main objective of this collaboration was to ensure the use of safe drinking water at the household level. Three clusters in Lalitpur with a total of 179 households of Loan

La, Chochhen and Chusika, one cluster in Butwal and two clusters in Hetauda municipalities have been declared safe water zones. All targeted municipalities will gradually adopt this concept. Several franchises run by local entrepreneurs were established in the municipalities of Lalitpur, Butwal and Hetauda to inform the public and to supply water treatment products.
ARSeNIC BlANkeT TeSTINg AND mITIgATIoN

Blanket testing of arsenic was completed in the seven Tarai districts of Jhapa, Morang, Mahottari, Chitwan, Dang,

22

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA door-to-door visits, mass media outreach and the development and distribution of ieC and training materials. As a part of awarenessraising activities, the children of 68 schools were informed about arsenic and its mitigation options. Altogether 25 capacity-building trainings were conducted in four programme districts to build local capacity to combat the arsenic problem at the grassroot level.
SAFe WATeR AND HygIeNe CAmPAIgN

Banke and Bardiya in partnership with the DwSS and UNiCef. Of the 445,757 wells tested, only 3,251 wells (0.73%) had arsenic concentrations above the national standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb). The majority (97.6%) had arsenic contents below 10 ppb and about 1.6% wells contained arsenic concentrations between 11 and 50 ppb. The data was integrated into the Arsenic information Management System (AiMS) for use in producing The State of Arsenic in Nepal which will be useful in planning, implementing and monitoring mitigation programmes.

The arsenic mitigation programme was implemented in nine districts—Sunsari, Saptari, Siraha, Sarlahi, Bara, Parsa, rautahat, Banke, and Bardiya—by conducting several preparatory activities such as planning, staff orientation, and baseline survey in total 10,990 households were surveyed out of which only 9,127 wells were contaminated with arsenic. 1400 Kanchan Arsenic filters were installed. New tube wells continue to be installed and dug wells improved. Activities in 2009 were mainly focused on awareness-generating activities such as focus group discussions,

To address the regular outbreak of water-borne diseases like cholera, diarrhoea, and typhoid, youth volunteers were mobilised and temporary booths established in different places of Kathmandu and Lalitpur to raise public awareness about safe drinking water and personal hygiene. volunteers provided information to the general public about household water purification techniques like chlorination, boiling, filtration and SODiS. This year no cholera patients were reported in Kathmandu valley hospitals. in order to respond to the diarrhoea epidemic in the Mid and far-western development regions that lasted from July to August 2009 and killed more than 300, various civil society and youth groups initiated a campaign

23

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA called “Paschim Paila” or “Mission Mid-west” in mid- July 2009 to sensitise locals about water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour and to distribute immediate relief to the affected people in Jajarkot and the neighbouring districts of rukum, Dailekh and Surket. UN-HABiTAT, in partnership with eNPHO, also joined this campaign. its main contribution was to provide technical support

INDIA
Box 6.1: No CHoleRA PATIeNTS IN THe vAlley’S HoSPITAlS
None of the hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley have registered a single case of cholera this year. Epidemiology and Disease Control Division started that the hospitals have not witnessed a single cholera patient this year because of the public awareness campaign launched this year before the arrival of Monsoon. Pranay Kumar Upadhaya, senior public health officer at Epidemiology and Disease Control Division informed that the hospitals in the Kathmandu valley have not recorded a single case of cholera this year. “This is because of the “Safe Water and Hygiene Campaign” launched this year before Monsoon.” Guthi, a social not for profit organization, in association with Department of Water Supply and Sewerage, Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited, UN-HABITAT, UNICEF, Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO), District Public Health Office, Kathmandu Metropolitan City and Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City are conducting safe water and hygiene campaign to make people aware about pure drinking water, hygienic food behaviour, personal hygiene and environmental sanitation. Birendra Man Shakya, chief, Water Quality Improvement and Monitoring Section of Department of Water Supply and Sewerage told that the public awareness campaign has been successful to aware people about waterborne diseases and household water disinfection techniques. “The government should stress for launching such public awareness campaign in other parts of the country to aware people about waterborne diseases.” Source Rajdhani daily, 17 July 2009 WATeR qUAlITy moNIToRINg

A project in Gwalior which is designed to promote decentralised drinking water quality monitoring with community participation and is being implemented in partnership with the municipal corporation of Gwalior. Under this project, a series of capacitybuilding programme on water quality monitoring were organised, and the trained community representatives were provided with water quality monitoring kits so they could assess the quality of drinking water regularly. These individuals will support the efforts of the municipal corporation in drinking water quality monitoring and surveillance.

24

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

MaInstreaMInG Gender In the water and sanItatIon seCtor

Social inclusion and gender mainstreaming are one of the major cross-cutting themes of the UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme. every project makes an effort to integrate these issues in order to ensure the equitable and justifiable distribution of the services and facilities provided irrespective of gender, age, caste, religion, and other differences.

NePAl
geNDeR INTegRATIoN IN All PRoJeCTS

All UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme projects incorporate capacity-building on gender as a major cross-cutting theme. Capacity-building is executed at various levels, from government officials to partners to community leaders. General monitoring of project progress examines the benefits of the interventions provided from a gender dimension.
BASIC geNDeR TRAININg IN FoUR SmAll ToWNS

conducted for the water and Sanitation User’s committees (wSUC) of nine small towns under the STwSSSP. The objectives of the training were to familiarize members with basic gender concepts and enhance their knowledge about and skills in analysing gender situations using various tools and making gendersensitive action plans for wATSAN projects.
PARTNeRSHIP WITH geNDeR WATeR AllIANCe FoR geNDeR mAINSTReAmINg IN THe WATSAN SeCToR

Basic gender training was

in partnership with Gender and water Alliance, nine different

25

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA different government agencies, municipalities, NGOs and iNGOs discussed various aspects of gender mainstreaming in the wATSAN sector. all the four cities to adopt the plan and thereby create a meaningful space for gender issues. As a result, gender issues are now in the forefront of the GoMP’s agenda. it was the first state in the country to introduce gender-responsive budgeting, introducing it in 13 departments during the fiscal year 2007-2008 and extending it to 23 departments in the fiscal year 2008-2009, increasing the total allocation by 24 percent. The GoMP did not just allocate more resources for womenspecific schemes but also looked at “gender- neutral” departments like industry to make them more women-friendly. A genderbudgeting cell was set up under the director of budgets to monitor the flow of funds to womenspecific and pro-women schemes.

INDIA
ImPlemeNTATIoN oF THe geNDeR mAINSTReAmINg STRATegy AND ACTIoN PlAN

Box 7.1: WomeN BeNeFIT moST
In our culture, it is usually women who have to fetch water. We sometimes spent four to five hours daily in our search for good quality water from stone spouts. As a result, we were not able to provide the best care possible to our school-going children. Now that the plant is complete, we do not have to go far to fetch water. Housewives have benefited more than anyone else from this project.

in partnership of Mahila Chetna Manch and the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP), developed the Gender Mainstreaming Strategy and Action Plan for its four project cities in Madhya Pradesh in 2006 in order to empower women to facilitate pro-poor governance. The GoMP then issued directives to the municipal corporations of

-Ms Sabitri Awale, water user, Chayasal

country-level workshops in Nepal, Lao PDr, vietnam and Cambodia and one regional level workshop in india have been proposed to enhance awareness about and understanding of gender issues in wATSAN in order to develop the practical ability to apply gender concepts and analysis. The workshop aims to develop a gender resource book specific to the UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme. Country-level workshops in Nepal, Laos, Cambodia and vietnam were completed and planning for the regional workshop is in process. Nepali participants from

26

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

CapaCItY-BUIldInG and researCh

The capacity-building component of the UNHABITAT’S WAC Programme aims to build the technical and management capacities of UN-HABITAT’s WAC Programme partners, institutes, and local communities in the WATSAN sector in order to foster efficient service delivery and to institutionalise WATSAN governance. Research and studies in the WATSAN sector aims to identify and disseminate innovations with widespread applicability to WATSAN improvements.

NePAl
RegIoNAl HIgH-level RAINWATeR HARveSTINg meeTINg

The Ministry of Physical Planning and works (MPPw) organised a regional high-level meeting on rwH in association with UN-HABiTAT, Helvetas, rain foundation/Biogas Sector Project Nepal, the government of finland, Plan Nepal, rural water Supply and Sanitation fund Development Board, water Aid, wHO, Bottlers Nepal Limited and other sector partners from 28 to 30 June, 2009, in Kathmandu. The meeting supported the summit declaration of the 15th SAArC Summit held in

Colombo in August 2008, which re-emphasised the need to harness rainwater for development and sustainability and urged countries to take appropriate action. The programme was inaugurated on 28 June 2009 by Honourable Prime Minister Mr. Madhav Kumar Nepal. At the meeting, the secretaries, senior policy makers and officials of the participating SAArC countries shared their field experiences and research results on technical, social, ecological and economic aspects of rwH, and discussed to explore the potential of using rainwater for drinking, groundwater recharge and for

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA other domestic applications. The current policies and guidelines adopted in the regional countries were also discussed upon. in addition, discussions were also held on very important aspects of rwH like the water quality, private sector participant among others. The meeting concluded with a nine-point recommendation that advises countries in the region to consider indigenous knowledge and skills while designing and constructing rwH systems. it has also suggested forming a South Asia networking centre to promote regional cooperation in rwH. The recommendation also emphasised using private-public partnerships as a way of exploring cost-effective options for rwH and thereby promote the sustainable water services in the region. The recommendation was handed over to Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for MPPw Mr. Bijay Kumar Gachhedar at the closing ceremony. UN-HABiTAT and GUTHi also organised a photo exhibition on rwH technologies and other water-related issues. The best three photos, as selected by viewers’ votes, were awarded.
SUPPoRT To THe SeCToR eFFICIeNCy ImPRovemeNT UNIT

with water, sanitation and hygiene issues. At the programme, representatives of government agencies, national and international organisations working in the wATSAN and Hiv&AiDS sectors, and media persons discussed the current status of Hiv&AiDS and wATSAN in Nepal and in other parts of the world. Ms. Lynette injette Ochola of UN-HABiTAT, Nairobi, shared her experiences in African countries, saying that people living with Hiv&AiDS are more susceptible to diseases caused by unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation. She added that not having access to reliable wATSAN services can increase the health risks of these people. in her estimation, the life expectancy of can be increased by ensuring they have access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation facilities. At the end of the interaction programme, the participants recommended that a study be conducted into the access that the infected people and their families have to safe drinking water and proper sanitation facilities prior to initiating any wATSAN activities for them.

SUPPoRT To goveRNmeNT oF NePAl’S INITIATIve To mAke CHITWAN A SANITATIoN moDel DISTRICT

in partnership with the DwSS, the entire catchment areas of 12 schools and the partial catchments of seven schools, with a population of about 41,000 in total, were declared open defecation free (ODf) zones. Some 2000 stakeholders, including headmasters, teachers, child club members, women’s groups and members of school management committees and parent teacher associations were informed about total sanitation. About 3000 community people received an orientation on hygiene and sanitation on various occasions, including local fairs and festivals, world water Day, the 10th National Sanitation week, and world environment Day. in addition, in partnership with Practical Action Nepal, the UNHABiTAT’s wAC Programme provided training on school led total sanitation to more than 25 school principals and teachers of eight schools in Chitwan District. These trainees have been mobilised to sensitise residents within the school catchment area and have been able to increase the construction and use of private toilets in the school catchments areas. Already four schools have

The Sector efficiency improvement Unit was recently established at the MPPw in order to initiate a sectorwide approach in the wATSAN sector. The major task of this unit is to develop an efficient, effective and accountable wATSAN sector by establishing and implementing relevant policies, service standards, benchmarking and monitoring, and enhancing sector coordination. UN-HABiTAT is providing support for strengthening this unit and acting as a key stakeholder.
INTeRACTIoN oN lINkS BeTWeeN HIv/AIDS AND WATeR, SANITATIoN AND HygIeNe

UN-HABiTAT’s wAC programme, in association with GUTHi, organised an interaction programme on 26 October, 2009 to discuss Hiv&AiDS and its linkage 28

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

declared their catchment areas, with a total population of 6000, ODf zones.
FolloW-UP oN THe INTeRNATIoNAl yeAR oF SANITATIoN 2008

The activities of the international Year of Sanitation 2008 were enhanced in 2009 by monitoring school and community sanitation and celebrating the 10th National Sanitation week in Chitwan, Nuwakot, Sunsari, Tanahun, Kaski, Dhading, Bhaktapur, Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Mahottari districts. These efforts facilitated on-going activities run by the DwSS, UNHABiTAT and the members of the Steering Committee for National Sanitation Action. During the monitoring visits, more than 200 experts, local-level facilitators, and teachers were consulted to check the effectiveness of the sanitation programmes. The Central Human resource Development Unit, the training centre for the wATSAN sector in Nepal, with support from the DwSS, UN-HABiTAT and wHO was established as a model on ecological sanitation. The Master Plan of Hygiene and Sanitation was developed by stakeholders under the leadership of the Steering Committee for National Sanitation Action and Stakeholder.

More than 100 media personnel were sensitised through the efforts of the DwSS, UN-HABiTAT, NewAH, waterAid Nepal, GUTHi, UNiCef and other concerned stakeholders on the occasions of the world water Day 2009, the 10th National Sanitation week and the Nepal wASH campaign. UN-HABiTAT’s support for activities conducted under the banner of the international Year of Sanitation 2008 was successful in sensitising policymakers and resulted in their allocating about USD 1.0 million to a stand-alone sanitation fund in 2009. This step will increase the focus on sanitation by dissociating it from water supply.
ReSeARCH oN THe ReCoveRy oF STRUvITe FRom URINe AT THe CommUNITy SCAle

first phase of the research on recovery of Phosphorus (known as struvite) from urine in partnership with eAwAG, Switzerland was completed . The main objective of this research was to conduct an assessment of the feasibility of producing struvite at the community level as a way of managing excess urine. The study, which was conducted in Siddhipur vDC, showed the possibility of setting up a lowcost struvite reactor with locally available materials and production of struvite at the local level. The

findings demonstrated that while struvite was used with no greater problem, the physical mechanism of liquid-solid separation did not meet expectations. The following recommendations were made: • establish a struvite reactor in a site with high urine output to examine in order to adapt the struvite production process to a real-life scale. • Test alternative methods for separating liquids and solids, including various filter textiles and continuous flow reactors with settlement chambers. • Study the sources and channels of supply of magnesite, with a focus on both local magnesite processing and bittern reuse. • emphasise effluent treatment in order to recover other nutrients, principally nitrogen, and transform them into a more convenient form. • Based on these recommendations, further work will be continued in the next year.
DeveloPmeNT oF ToolS AND TRAINeRS FoR SCHoolAND CommUNITy-leD ToTAl SANITATIoN

UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme, in partnership with the Community Development forum, trained 60 master trainers in total sanitation and drafted a total sanitation guideline. 29

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA
TRAININg oN NePAl’S ARSeNIC INFoRmATIoN mANAgemeNT SySTem

A two-day training on Nepal’s Arsenic information Management System (AiMS) was organised by the DwSS in collaboration with GeNeSiS. The main objective of the training was to train participants to use the AiMS for use in arsenic database management and analysis. The 30 participants included computer operators from seven programme districts, field monitors and staff from key stakeholders working on arsenic programmes. All the data Nepal has on arsenic will be incorporated into the AiMS.
CAPACITy-BUIlDINg TRAININg oN ARSeNIC mITIgATIoN

with the technical support of eNPHO, a series of 25 capacitybuilding trainings were conducted in the districts of Bara, rautahat, Banke and Bardiya for 423 participants. The main objective of the trainings was to increase knowledge about arsenic and its health effects and about options for mitigating it so that the trained professionals could be mobilised at the local level. The contents of the trainings included information about safe drinking water, water pollution, microbial and arsenic contamination, the nature and health effects of arsenic, and different options on arsenic mitigation. A hands-on tutorial on constructing, installing and operating and maintaining arsenic filters was conducted during trainings for local district-level technicians and entrepreneurs.
TRAININg AND PRomoTIoNAl ACTIvITIeS IN HoUSeHolD WATeR TReATmeNT

municipalities. To date approximately 20,000 individuals have been trained in various water treatment options. various promotional and awareness activities were conducted in five municipalities. They included 50 trainings on HwT options conducted in 55 schools for a total of 27,368 students, an initiative which helped promote the household water treatment options at the community level. Several options were set up in these schools as demonstration sites. Such promotional, mass awareness-generating activities increased demand for the treatment options. The quality of the water at all 55 schools was tested using the eNPHO presence/ absence vial, which detects bacteriological contamination. Seventy-five percent of the sources tested were contaminated. To disseminate information on these options, the media has been actively mobilized. radio jingles and Tv commercials has been developed and aired by various fM radio and Tv stations. As a promotional medium, Local newspapers were also used.
CAPACITy-BUIlDINg oF meDIA PeRSoNNel oN WATeR AND SANITATIoN

GUTHi, has conducted various capacity-building and sensitising programmes for the media since 2006. in 2009, it continued these trainings in Kathmandu and Bharatpur municipalities, focusing on making the media aware about the UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme’s activities so that information about these innovative approaches would be effectively disseminated. in Kathmandu about 24 journalists from various media houses participated, while in Bharatpur 21 journalists participated. The trainees visited various project areas to see completed UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme Nepal activities and assess for themselves their impacts. Over 50 articles on UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme Nepal activities were written in 2009.
ASSISTINg PARTNeR oRgANIzATIoNS IN CommUNICATIoN PlAN

UN-HABiTAT, in collaboration with the GoN, Coca-Cola india, local authorities and eNPHO, has been promoting four household water treatment options: chlorination, SODiS, boiling and filtering. Altogether 10 training programmes in water treatment options were conducted in selected five 30

The UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme, in collaboration with

The UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme Nepal, in association with GUTHi, conducted a twoday training to improve the communication skills of the communication officers and focal persons for media-related issues of its partners. Among the 20 participants were staff from various wATSAN organisations and government officials. The training helped them develop strategies to initiate good relations

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA with the media so that they can share information about their organisational effectively and thereby increase media advocacy of wATSAN issues
INTeRNATIoNAl INTeRNS AND volUNTeeRS

Box 8.1: RAINWATeR HARveSTINg HAS moRe PoTeNTIAl
Rainwater harvesting has big potential in Nepal and can ease current scarcity of water, participants at the high level regional meet said. In their 9-point recommendation, they said that rainwater harvesting had important role in conserving of water in the urban areas, and managing drainage and flooding. “Not only this, rainwater harvesting can be a instrument to address the challenges of the Millennium Development Goals, poverty alleviation, equitable development and climate change,” they said after concluding the three-day Regional High-Level meet on rainwater harvesting organized by the Ministry of Physical Planning and Works (MoPPW). It had a theme ‘Gain from the Rain: Collect, Preserve and Use. The programme attended by experts, researchers, policy-makers, entrepreneurs from South Asian Region and other countries including Spain, the Netherlands, said that good design, construction and management would make rainwater harvesting systems multi-functional, serving many domestic and environmental needs, while keeping water safe and avoiding breeding of mosquitoes. It further says “Rain is a gift from the skies which can be harnessed effectively, always, and especially during emergencies”. The recommendation suggests, “The indigenous knowledge and skills applied in the design and construction of such systems be studied and well documented for application in present times with appropriate modification under the prevailing context”. It calls for fostering regional cooperation in sharing knowledge and best practices, strengthening and formalizing through the establishment of a South Asia Networking Centre for Rainwater Harvesting. According to the recommendation, cost-effective options should be explored to develop rainwater harvesting systems under Private Public Partnership (PPP) to enhance sustainability of water supply services, including local traditional knowledge/entrepreneurship. It stressed on the need to launch mass awareness campaigns, advocacy campaigns and to formulate and implement rain water harvesting policies to promote rainwater harvesting in the country. It maintains that good quality water will require public health authorities to institutionalize suitable water quality surveillances. Scientific research and evaluation of rainwater harvesting applications through research and development may be carried out for encouraging affordable and economic solutions to enhance the effectiveness of systems and adaptation to the impacts of climate change. Source: The Rising Nepal, 1 July 2009

in 2009, four interns from the University of Utrecht conducted an impact evaluation of wATSAN projects in Siddhipur and Lubhu and studies of the reasons poor households are excluded from wATSAN services and of the organisational development of wSUCs. A Shell/United Nations volunteer conducted a study of biogas plants implemented by UN-HABiTAT and a Nepali student from the US carried out a cost-benefit analysis of Dhulikel wastewater Treatment Plant, Sano Khokhana Biogas and Mirabel Hotel Biogas.

INDIA
CAPACITy-BUIlDINg PRogRAmmeS FoR eleCTeD RePReSeNTATIveS

A national workshop entitled “infrastructure to Services: water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor” was organised in partnership with the Government of Madhya Pradesh (GoMP) and waterAid in March 2009. More than 100 development experts, elected representatives and officials from all over india participated. in partnership with the Administrative Staff College of india, a series of five-day capacitybuilding programmes entitled “Promoting effective Delivery of wATSAN Services” were organized in which about 160 councillors and officers from various municipal corporations have been trained.
INSTITUTIoNAlISATIoN oF TRAININg AND CAPACITyBUIlDINg FoR WATeR DemAND mANAgemeNT

A 60-kilo-litre-per-day wastewater treatment and reuse facility and a rwH facility were established at SGSiTS, indore, to reduce the demand for water and to 31

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

institutionalise water demand management. The municipal corporations of Gwalior and Jabalpur established leak detection and control units, hands-on training programmes for the senior and middle level officers of the water works departments of Gwalior, and Jabalpur municipal corporations have been organized to operationalize water demand management through leak detection and the repair and rehabilitation of water distribution systems. A series of capacity-building programmes for teachers were organised to encourage them to include information about rwH systems in the curriculum and to promote HvwSHe.
PReveNTIoN oF HIv

PAkISTAN
CAPACITy BUIlDINg oN WASTeWATeR mANAgemeNT

Technical assistance was provided to indus for All Programme to demonstrate, promote and to build capacity on decentralised wastewater

management. Demonstration of five decentralized wastewater management systems was implemented at Nawabshah and Sanghar districts of Sindh province, Pakistan. The designing of these systems was completed with the support of UN-HABiTAT wAC Programme.

To prevent the spread of Hiv and to facilitate care to vulnerable and high-risk groups in selected urban and peri-urban areas of Madhya Pradesh, awareness and capacitybuilding programmes have been undertaken. These programmes have had a positive impact on the community with respect to the attitudes of the community towards Hiv-affected people.

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

resoUrCes and partnershIps

NePAl
TReND IN CoNTRIBUTIoNS

Annual contributions are shown below. The contributions of the UN-HABiTAT and its partners are almost equal. The greatest expenditure was in year 2007, when the UN-HABiTAT contributed USD 1.623 million and its partners, USD 2.224 million. in 2009, the contribution of UN-HABiTAT was USD 0.713 million and that of its partners, USD 0.903 million.
FUNDINg By THemATIC AReA

1,623,332

2,224,087

1,332,773

327,500

210,898

566,400

719,478

949,724

713,070

2005 Un-haBItat

2006 partners

2007

2008

2009

from 2005 till 2009, UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme in Nepal invested a total of USD 9.7 million (see

903,670

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA the figure below). The greatest proportion—39%—was invested in capacity-building, the greatest concern of the wAC Programme in this area.
FUNDINg IN 2009
33% integrated urban water & sanitation initiative 12% Pro-poor urban wATSAN governance 14% Urban water demand management 2% HwSHe 39% Capacity building and advocacy

in nepal, six agreements were signed in 2009. A total of USD 1.616 million was committed, USD 0.713 million by UN-HABiTAT and USD 0.903 million by its partners. Of the entire fund contributed by UN-HABiTAT to the wAC Programme-Nepal, the greatest proportion—about 42% of the total fund—will be used to meet the water demands of the urban poor.

FUNDINg By THemATIC AReA
36% Capacity building and advocacy 20% integrated urban water & sanitation initiative 42% Urban water demand management 2% Pro-poor urban wATSAN governance

FUNDINg IN 2009

INDIA
TReND IN CoNTRIBUTIoNS

The annual contributions of UN-HABiTAT and its partners to wATSAN services since the inception of the wAC Programme in india are shown below. The highest investment was in 2008, when UN-HABiTAT contributed USD 0.705 million and its partners, USD 2.94 million. in 2009, UN-HABiTAT contributed USD 0.550 million and its partners, USD 0.450 million
FUNDINg By THemATIC AReA

2,940,000

687,000

718,923

370,000

561,420

590,300

681,837

715,000

550,000

2005 UN-HABiTAT

2006 Partners

2007

2008

2009

39% integrated urban water & sanitation initiative 3% HwSHe 6% Capacity building and advocacy 14% Urban water demand management 41% Pro-poor urban wATSAN governance

Since the inception of the wAC Programme in india in 2005, UNHABiTAT has invested a total of USD 8.2 million in the wATSAN (see the figure below). The greatest proportion of funding— 41%— went to pro-poor urban wATSAN governance, the wAC Programme’s greatest concern in this area.
FUNDINg IN 2009

FUNDINg By THemATIC AReA
4% Pro-poor urban wATSAN governance 12% HwSHe 5% Gender mainstreaming 79% Pro-poor water and sanitation governance

in india, seven agreements were signed for 2009. Their total value was USD 1.0 million. UN-HABiTAT contributed USD 0.550 million and its partner contributed USD 0.450 million. About 79% of the UN-HABiTAT’s contribution to india was used to improve wATSAN services for the poor.

FUNDINg IN 2009

PARTNeRSHIP
The UN-HABiTAT’s wAC Programme strongly believes in the 34

value of partnerships to achieve a broad-based consensus, to mobilise resources and to effectively implement programmes for sustainable wATSAN interventions to meet MDG 7. in 2009, the wAC Programme continued to build and expands its partnerships with government agencies, UN

agencies, NGOs and iNGOs, the private sector and the media. The equal contributions of various partners has assisted the wAC Programme in executing its projects more efficiently. A list of the wAC Programme’s partners is in Annex 2.

450,000

ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

annexes
ANNex 1: SUmmARy oF UN-HABITAT’S WAC PRogRAmme-SUPPoRTeD PRoJeCTS AND PRogRAmmeS IN NePAl, INDIA, AND PAkISTAN)
Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 total Agreement made 13 17 37 17 13 97 Agreement Completed 13 17 20 1 0 51 Total Contribution (In USD and Millions) WAC Programme 1.014 0.936 2.213 1.778 1.281 7.222 Partner 0.929 1.220 2.952 4.082 1.377 10.560 Total 1.944 2.157 5.166 5.861 2.658 17.786

ANNex 2: lIST oF PARTNeRS NePAl
Government • Ministry of Physical Planning and Works • Department of Water Supply and Sewerage • Department of Urban Development and Building Construction • Ministry of Local Development • Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilisation Centre • Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee • Municipalities Government-associated agencies • Town Development Funds • Municipal Association of Nepal • National Trust for Nature Conservation Non-governmental organisations and academic institutions • • • • • • • • • • • Nepal Red Cross Society NGO Forum for Urban Water and Sanitation Environment and Public Health Organisation Centre for Integrated Urban Development Lumanti Support for Shelter Centre for Energy Studies Urban Environment Management Society Nepal Solar Energy Society Biogas Sector Partnership Nepal Environment Camp for Conservation Awareness GUTHI UN Agencies • • • • UNICEF WHO UNDP/PPPUE UNDP/GE

International partners • Water Aid Nepal • Practical Action Nepal • Coca-Cola India

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ANNUAL rePOrT 2009 SOUTH ASiA

INDIA
Government bodies • • • • • • • • • • • Government of Madhya Pradesh Urban Administration and Development Department School Education Department Municipal Corporation of Bhopal Municipal Corporation of Indore Municipal Corporation of Gwalior Municipal Corporation of Jabalpur District Urban Development Agency, Jabalpur Nagar Panchayat of Nasrullaganj National Housing Bank Communication and Capacity Development Unit under Public Health Engineering Department, Government of West Bengal UN agencies • UNDP

Government-associated agencies • Lake Conservation Authority of Madhya Pradesh

International partners • Water Aid UK, Australia and India • Leonard Cheshire Disability, UK and India • Coca-Cola India

Non-governmental organisations and academic institutions • • • • • • Administrative Staff College of India Mahila Chetna Manch National Centre for Human Settlements and Environment VIBHAVARI Foundation for Ecological Research, Advocacy and Learning Centre of Environment Education (CEE)

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Suman Sharma Joint Secretary Ministry of Physical Planning and Works Singhadurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal Tel +977-1-4211651 Fax +977-1-4228420 Web www.moppw.gov.np Email spsharma77@gmail.com

Andre Dzikus Chief, Water and Sanitation Section II Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure Branch (WSIB) United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) P.O. Box 30030, Gigiri Nairobi 00100, Kenya Tel +254-20-7623060/ 7625082 Fax +254-20-7623588 Email Andre.Dzikus@unhabitat.org Web www.unhabitat.org | www.unwac.org Roshan Raj Shrestha Chief Technical Advisor, South Asia Water for Asian Cities Programme United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) Pulchok, P.O. Box - 107 Kathmandu, Nepal Tel +977-1-5542816 Fax +977-1-5539877 Email roshan.shrestha@unhabitat.org.np Pradip Nandi Chief Technical Advisor, India Water for Asian Cities Programme United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) E-1/191, Arera Colony Bhopal-462016, Madhya Pradesh, India Tel +91-755-4233804/4233803 Fax +91-755-4291440 Email nandi.pradeep@gmail.com

Deepti Gaur Mukerjee Project Director, Project Uday (Urban Water Supply and Environmental Improvement Project) Government of Madhya Pradesh Urban Administration and Development Department Beej Bhawan, Arera Hills, Bhopal 462011 Madhya Pradesh, India Tel +91-755-2763060 - 62 Fax +91-755-2763868

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