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Seminar Report

Tire Force Distribution in a Four Wheel Independent
Steer-by-wire Vehicle

Raj Desai

Roll No-154100001
Under the Supervision
Prof. A. Guha

Department of Mechanical Engineering




Vehicle Modeling
2.1 Degrees of Freedom
2.2 Vehicle Evaluation tests
2.3 Tire Testing Machines Used For Determining cornering Force.

Evolution of automotive steering systems

3.1 Technical advantages of steer-by-wire
3.2 SBW Modeling
3.3 Steer-by-wire System with addition of toe angle adjustment.

Four wheel independent steer-by wire systems

4.1 Maximum cornering speed
4.2 The slip angle distribution
4.3 Utilization of the tire
4.4 The settling time
4.5 Behavior of the roll

Tire force distribution

5.1 Cornering Force characteristics.
5.2 Vehicle stability enhancement using distribution of tire forces
5.3 Braking Control Design [BFS]
5.4 Experimental determination of brake force distribution



List Of Figures
Fig 1 Two-degree-of-freedom bicycle model
Fig 2 Three-degree-of-freedom
Fig 3 Additionl Rotational DOF
Fig 3 Eight-degree-of-freedom
Fig 4 Tire testing
(a)Flat bed tire testing machine
(b)Flat surface tire testing
(c)External and internal drum tire testing
(d)Tire testing Setup
Fig 5 Steering wheel system
Fig 6 Steer by wire System
(a )steering actuator
(b) Structure of steering actuator
Fig 7 Benefits with toe angle adjustment
(a) Relationship between toe angle and F/W values
(b)Optimum toe angles for vehicle speeds
Fig 8 Four wheel independent steer-by-wire systems advantage over the other steering
(a)Maximum cornering speed
(b)Standard deviation of normalized slip angle
(c)Percentage utilization of tires
(d)Time taken by vehicle to arrive at steady state condition for different speeds
Fig 9 Response during lane change
(a)Response of a truck without load during lane-change maneuver (V = 80 km/h)
(b)Response of a truck with load during lane-change maneuver(V = 80 km/h).
Fig 10 Driving Control Algorithm
Fig 11 Simulation results
(a)Simulation Result of Vehicle Trajectory
(b)Simulation Result of Vehicle Yaw rate

(c)Simulation Result of Energy Consumption per second

Fig 12 Cornering force characteristics
(a)Effect of inflation pressure on Cornering Force characteristics
(b) Effect of road speed on Cornering Force characteristics
Fig 13 Results obtained using AODF
(a)9 DOF Non linear vehicle control structure
(b)Steering-wheel angle
(c) Side-slip angle response on a lane change
(d) Yaw rate response on a lane change
(e) Vehicle response lane change with a conventional integrated control system,
without any optimization.
(f) Vehicle response on lane change incorporating the AODF method
(g) Phase plane response incorporating the AODF method.
(h)Phase plane without any optimization method
Fig 14 Longitudinal force and tire slip ratio
Fig 15 Tire force characteristics (slip angle = 3 degrees)
Fig 16 Tire force characteristics (slip ratio = 0.03)
Fig 17 Experimental setup
Fig 19 Forces acting on a vehicle during braking
Fig 19 Brake force distribution diagram

1 Introduction
Vehicle dynamics is a complicated analytical and experimental technology that is used to
study and understand the responses of a vehicle in various in-motion situations. In the driver
education field, it is not necessary to deal with the specifics of this technology but rather with
some of the basic physical principles involved in it such as Kinetic energy, Centrifugal force,
Inertia, Friction, Traction etc[1].
Kinetic energy- Dissipated very quickly is when the vehicle strikes a solid object. When speed is
doubled, four times the energy is available to damage the vehicle and injure its passengers.
Centrifugal force-When a vehicle turns, centrifugal force acts on the vehicle and tries to push it
to the outside of the curve. Centrifugal force increases as the square of velocity. Centrifugal
force requires equally large amounts of counteracting force from the tires if the vehicle is to
remain on the road.
Inertia is the resistance to change the direction or velocity of a body, either at rest or in motion.
Force must be applied to cause a vehicle to turn. This force is called Centripetal force, and is a
result of tires stretching to pull the car from a straight path. Centripetal force must exceed
centrifugal force for the vehicle to turn.
Moments of inertia: Pitch the force felt in acceleration or braking movement around
(Horizontal axis) of vehicle, Roll the force felt in cornering, side to side movement (Lateral
axis) of the vehicle, Yaw the force felt in a spin movement around (Vertical axis) of the
Polar moment of Inertia- A high polar moment of inertia is when weight concentrations are
heavy and are far apart. The low polar moment of inertia is when weight concentrations are light
and are close together. A vehicle with a low polar moment of inertia gives a quick response to
steering commands. A vehicle with a high polar moment has high directional stability (resists
changing its direction).
Friction Resistance to motion between two surfaces. There are four basic types of friction.
Static the holding force between two surfaces at rest
Sliding the resistance to motion between two surfaces which are moving across each other
Rolling the resistance to motion of a rolling object like a ball, cylinder or wheel

Internal the resistance to motion within elastic objects (tires get warm from internal friction as
they flex)
The amount of friction depends upon substance of material, roughness of the surfaces, amount of
force pushing the surfaces together, and presence of lubricants. Thus, the maneuvering ability of
a vehicle on a dry road depends primarily upon road surface and vehicle weight. As the vehicle
accelerates or slows down more rapidly, or as the vehicle corners at faster speeds, it demands
greater traction forces from the tire-road combination. The tire and road combination produce
these forces up to the friction limit.
Traction- Traction is defined as friction between a drive wheel and the surface it moves upon. It
is the amount of force a wheel can apply to a surface before it slips. A wheel will have different
traction on different surfaces; there are three traction forces: Driving Traction To accelerate
the vehicle, Braking Traction To slow or stop the vehicle, Cornering Traction To turn the
vehicle. If traction force becomes greater than friction the vehicle will get out of control. A
driver has the potential for exerting three forces. Sum of driving or braking traction and
cornering traction should not exceed the friction limit, or the vehicle will go out of control.
Should avoid braking or accelerating while cornering. This will allows all available friction to
be used in cornering. A spinning tire cannot provide full driving traction when accelerating. If a
driver causes drive wheel spinning when cornering, the vehicle may go out of control. A locked
tire provides no cornering traction and reduced braking traction. When a driver locks the wheels
in a corner, there will be no response to the steering input. During braking, the maximum
coefficient of friction; therefore, maximum braking ability, is when the driver applies the brakes
at a level of 15% slippage [1]. Flavio Farroni [2] presented a tool for the evaluation of tire/road
interactions road interaction forces, Jun Ni [3] found larger lateral slip angle of each tire during a
turn, is major reason for tire wear. Chung[4] developed algorithm for vehicle sideslip estimation
and compensation on banked road. Christoph [5] worked on implementation of brake warnings
for informative (driver assistance systems) DAS and the adaption of the brake intensity. By
means of experimental and numerical analyses Cristobal [6] quantified the effect of rotation on
the tire dynamic behavior for different operating conditions of the tire, such as load, air pressure
and rotation speed.

2 Vehicle Modeling
A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various
vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed
and applied to many different vehicle control systems. Many degrees of freedom are associated
with vehicle dynamics [7].

2.1 Degrees of freedom

Vehicle models consisting degrees of freedom from two to fourteen have been developed by
many researcher for complex analysis of vehicle motion. A complex, non-linear 14 degree-offreedom full vehicle model that can simulate vehicle rollover was developed and validated by
Ghike [8].
2.2.1 Two-degree-of-freedom Also called as bicycle model, shows below Fig. 1 the lateral and
yaw motions.

Fig 1 Two-degree-of-freedom bicycle model

2.2.2 Three-degree-of-freedom model having lateral, yaw motions and longitudinal acceleration
to the modeling as shown in Fig. 2

Fig 2 Three-degree-of-freedom
2.2.3 Five-degree-of freedom Model- Fig 3 shows additional
Rotational DOF added to 3DOF model. Lateral, yaw motions,
longitudinal and rotational degrees of freedom for the front and
rear wheels are provided to the model. Rotational degrees of
freedom include the effects of longitudinal slip. This fivedegree-of freedom model enables one to perform in-depth
study of traction and braking forces on handling maneuvers by
including the effects of wheel spin. This model is also used in

Fig 3 Additionl Rotational

analysis of combined braking and steering, and braking system


controller design.
2.2.4 Eight-degree-of-freedom- No symmetry in dynamic behavior between right and left sides.

Five DOF model with addition

of Rotational degree of freedom
for four tires is considered and
also rolling motion, between left
and right sides of the vehicle.
This model is used in the






looking at the effects of these

issues with respect to roll and




shown in Fig 4.

Fig 4 Eight-degree-of-freedom

2.2.5 Nine-degree-of-freedom
9 DOF model includes longitudinal and lateral motions of the body in the x and y directions;
body roll, pitch, and yaw motions relative to the x, y, and z axes; and the rotational motion of
four wheels presented by Naraghi [9].

2.2 Vehicle Evaluation tests

One must be able to demonstrate capacity to exercise control over the process known as
conformity of production, which usually involves control over the vehicle design and
manufacturing processes, safety. Mandhata [10] presented the need in evaluating both steadystate and transient response behaviors.
Closed-Loop (driving performance test)
The test driver performs standard driving with the vehicle. The motion of the vehicle is recorded
and analyzed.
Open-Loop (driving behavior test)
Test conducted with standardized control inputs (steering wheel, gas pedal, brake pedal). The
motion of the vehicle is recorded and analyzed. Open loop can be categorized in two sub
categories. Fixed control: Predefined steering angle function such as fixed steering wheel during
crosswind. Free control: the steering wheel is free to move

Some of the tests include.

Steady-state skidpan

Transient response

Braking during cornering

Crosswind sensitivity,

Straight-running stability, and

Reaction to throttle change on skidpad.

1.3.1 Slowly Increasing Steer Test (Skid Pad Test)- Evaluates the vehicle steady state handling in
both linear and non-linear ranges of operation presented in Bosch automotive handbook [11].
There are three forms: constant speed, constant steer, and constant radius. Constant speed is
maintained but steer angle is slowly increased at constant speed. Constant steer angle is
maintained, but vehicle speed is gradually increased. In a steady state circle maneuver, a constant
radius of turn is maintained, while steering angle and speed are slowly increased
1.3.2 Step Steer Test- A steer input in the form of a step function is applied at a specific speed to
produce a specific lateral acceleration. Therefore, quickness of vehicle response to the steering
input in terms of yaw rate or lateral acceleration, overshoot in yaw and roll responses can be
1.3.3 Braking in Turn Test- Brakes are suddenly applied in a steady state turn of specified lateral
acceleration. This test primarily evaluates vehicle stability and predictability, sensitivity of
vehicle yaw response to braking and associated load transfer.
1.3.4 Dropped Throttle in a Turn- The driver applies throttle in order to maintain maximum
speed then the throttle is then suddenly released. Test evaluates vehicle stability and
predictability in response to the change in longitudinal tire forces.
1.3.5 Open Loop Test with Steer Reversal- In this test, a steering input is applied which a pattern
similar to that has experienced either in a single lane change or a double lane change maneuver.
Demonstrates the vehicle response in maneuvers involving steering reversal. This is important,
because some vehicles may be stable in a step steer maneuver, but may be difficult to control in
maneuvers involving steer reversals, when performed at limit. An example of this type of test is a
transient response test with the steer angle being one period of a sinusoid (a pseudo single lane

change test) steer input can have rectangular (stepwise) or trapezoidal pattern, which may be
more demanding due to the sudden changes in the steer input.
1.3.6 Steer Reversal with Driver in the Loop- The driver is told as late as possible whether to go
left or right. Performance measure in the test is the shortness of time. Outcome is determined by
the driver-vehicle system. The main result of the test is the maximum possible speed of entry at
which the test can be completed without striking any cones. Large lateral acceleration is
generally achieved. This test has been criticized on several grounds. The path of the vehicle and
the steer pattern are not likely to occur in real world driving.
1.3.7 Frequency Sweep Test - This test is performed primarily to quantify vehicle handling
response to a steer input that covers a significant range of frequencies, a resonance frequency in
vehicle yaw response, which can lead to instability under harmonic steer input at that frequency.
Quickness of vehicle response can also be measured in this test.
1.3.8 Impulse Steer Test- Vehicle is driven straight at a specific speed and a sudden steer input is
generated with restoration to straight ahead.

2.3 Tire Testing Machines Used For Determining cornering Force.

1.4.1 Flat bed tire testing -machine shown in Fig 4(a) Useful in determining static elastic
properties of tire but due to stroke limitation test speed lower than actual speed of tire[12].

1.4.2 Flat surface tire testing- Flat bed testing limitation is eliminated. Speed up to 250km/h and
surface coating to simulate different road conditions can be easily done as shown in Fig 4(b).

1.4.3 Drum type tire testing-Simple and low cost setup. Complexity of flat surface machine is
eliminated by drum type test machine as shown in Fig 4(c).
Actual tire testing setup is shown in Fig 4(d).


(a)Flat bed tire testing machine

(b)Flat surface tire testing

(c)External and internal drum tire testing

(d)Tire testing Setup

Fig 4 Tire testing[12]


2 Evolution of automotive steering systems

The rapid increase of electronic control systems is more apparent in the modern
automobile presented by Yih [13]. During the last two decades, advances in electronics have
revolutionized many aspects of automotive engineering, especially in the areas of engine
combustion management and vehicle safety systems such as anti-lock brakes (ABS) and
electronic stability control (ESC). The benefits of applying electronic technology makes
improved performance, safety, and reliability with reduced manufacturing and operating costs.
However, only recently has the electronic revolution begun to find its way into automotive
steering systems in the form of electronically controlled variable assist. The basic design of
automotive steering systems has changed little since the invention of the steering wheel: the
drivers steering input is transmitted by a shaft through some type of gear reduction mechanism
(most commonly rack and pinion or recalculating ball bearings) to generate steering motion at
the front wheels. One of the more prominent developments in the history of the automobile
occurred in the 1950s when hydraulic power steering assist was first introduced. Since then,
power assist has become a standard component in modern automotive steering systems. Using
hydraulic pressure supplied by an engine-driven pump, power steering amplifies and
supplements the driver-applied torque at the steering wheel so that steering effort is reduced. In
addition to improved comfort, reducing steering effort has important safety implications as well,
such as allowing a driver to more easily swerve to avoid an accident. The recent introduction of
electric power steering in production vehicles eliminates the need for the hydraulic pump.
Electric power steering is more efficient than conventional power steering, since the electric
power steering motor only needs to provide assist when the steering wheel is turned, whereas the
hydraulic pump must run constantly. The assist level is also easily tunable to the vehicle type,
road speed, and driver preference.


3 Steer-by-wire
An added benefit is the elimination of environmental hazard posed by leakage and
disposal of hydraulic power steering fluid. The next step in steering system evolutionto
completely do away with the steering column and shaftrepresents a dramatic departure from
traditional automotive design practice. The substitution of electronic systems in place of
mechanical or hydraulic controls is known as by-wire technology. This idea is certainly not new,
many modern aircraft, both commercial and military, rely completely on fly-by-wire flight
control systems -wire technology paved the way for high performance aircraft designed to have a
degree of maneuverability never before possible. If not for the intervention of flight control
computers, some of these planesbecause they are inherently unstablecould not be flown by
human pilots without crashing as mentioned by Yih [13].

3.1 Technical advantages of steer-by-wire

The SBW system has many advantages because it can easily eliminate the interference between
the driver and the steering system presented by Kazemi [14].

Increased packaging flexibility

Simplified assembly

Reduced mass

Advanced vehicle control systems and superior performance.

The SBW system can reduce a vehicle's weight by reducing the number of necessary parts which
can lead to energy reduction effectiveness. A special advantage is also increased without
mechanical linkage In addition, the danger of a driver being crushed when there is a front-end
collision is eliminated as there is no steering column. Also, it is suited to active front steering
control, improving vehicle stability, dynamics and maneuverability.


3.2 SBW Modeling The SBW system has three subsystems as shown in Fig 5
3.2.1. Steering wheel subsystem This system
contains torque sensor, steering angle sensor
and steering wheel motor. The steering wheel
motor provides torque feedback to the driver to
feel in relation to the position of the steering
wheel and the motion of the vehicle.
3.2.2 Wheel subsystem This system contains
position sensor, rack pinion gear, other
mechanical mechanisms, and wheel motor.
Wheel motor positions the tire according to
inputting data provided by the driver via

Fig 5 : Steering wheel system[14]

steering wheel subsystem

3.2.3 Electronic control unit (ECU). This system the steering wheel motor and the front wheel
motor for the driver's steering feel and for improving vehicle maneuverability and stability. To
model the steering wheel subsystem and the front wheel subsystem, the bond graph theory is
used. Bond Graph is one of the modeling tools which are used to model the complex multienergy engineering systems including mechanical, electrical, hydraulic subsystems and etc. ECU
generates input signals to control the reactive torque of the steering wheel motor by considering
the data coming from the sensors monitoring steering wheel angle and steering column torque.

3.3 Steer-by-wire System with addition of toe angle adjustment.

Steering system makes it possible to adjust the toe angle presented by Mogi [15]. The steering
system developed by Mogi has fail-safe functions which enables it to respond various failures in
the system. Adjustable of toe angle in the system prevents wheels from slipping. Steering
actuator Fig 6(a) includes two motors (main and sub), screws, a ball screw and a ball spline. The
ball screw shaft and the ball spline shaft arranged coaxially and coupled each other by means of
screws, forming a steering rod. The rotation of the main motor is converted into linear motion via
gearing by means of the ball screw as shown in Fig 7(b). This mechanism allows the steering rod
to move laterally, with the link mechanism consisting of a tie rod and a knuckle arm to steer the

tires. The components shown in blue are those associated with steering. The rotation of the sub
motor causes the ball spline shaft to rotate via gearing, causing the coupling length of the screw
to change. As the coupling length of the screw changes, thus total length of the steering rod,
allowing the toe angle of the tire to be adjusted. The components shown in red are associated
with the toe angle adjustment.
If main motor fail, the power transmission path is switched over to the sub motor, helping the
vehicle maintain steering capability. When the main motor is operating normally, the sub motor
adjusts the toe angle of the steered wheel, and if the main motor fails, the sub motor functions as
a backup motor for steering. The toe angle adjustment function can contribute to increasing the
precision of vehicle control.


steering actuator

(b) Structure of steering actuator

Fig 6 Steer by wire System[15]

Vehicle corners at a speed of 60 km/h on a circle with a radius of 50 m. The direction of

cornering is counter clockwise based on the vehicle seen from above. Coefficient of road surface
friction assumed to be 0.7, a toe-out setting causes the front left wheel to slip as shown in Fig
7(a). A 2-deg. toe-in setting also causes the front right wheel to slip. If the front right wheel,
which needs large lateral force, slips, the driver becomes unable to control the vehicle, resulting
in a very dangerous condition. Provide a 1-deg. toe-in setting, the F/W on both sides becomes
smaller than 0.7, preventing the front wheels from slipping. Furthermore, with a toe-in setting at
the cross-section of the two straight lines, namely, at about 0.5 deg., the F/W values on both sides
are equal, decreasing the risk of the front wheel losing traction. The optimum toe angle that


equalizes the F/W values on both sides has a relationship with the vehicle speed as shown in Fig
7(b) allows one to adjust to the optimum toe angle while running.

(a)Relationship between toe angle and F/W values

(b)Optimum toe angles for vehicle speeds

Fig 7 Benefits with toe angle adjustment[15]


4 Four wheel independent steer-by wire systems

In a four wheel independent steer-by-wire system, all four wheels of a vehicle are steered
independently by separate actuators which respond to computer generated signals. This freedom,
if judiciously used, can lead to better vehicle performance investigated by Mody [16].
Some of the research for four wheel independent steer-by wire includes low friction
emulation of lateral vehicle dynamics, Vehicle Handling Characteristics, Omni-directional steerby-wire interface and control, implementation to in-wheel drive compact electric vehicle etc.
Russell [17] presented lateral dynamics of a vehicle on a low friction surface. This approach can
be useful for testing control systems, studying human-vehicle interaction near the limits of
handling, and training drivers to respond appropriately to changing conditions The control
structure described by author can be readily extensible to a more complex scheme that includes
longitudinal modeling and control. The control structure is a combination of linear and nonlinear
state feedback with feed forward of reference model yaw moment, lateral force, and longitudinal
force at the vehicle center of gravity also present by Russell [18]. The modified closed-loop
system is demonstrated to be stable and has robust tracking performance to reasonable levels of
model uncertainty. This paper has demonstrated a method for modifying the handling dynamics
of a vehicle with a tire force-based model approach. This method can emulate any planar
reference dynamics model by controlling the front and rear steer angles, the drive torque, and the
braking force. Russell showed that the formulation of the controllercombining feed forward,
nonlinear feedback, and linear feedbackresults in linear error dynamics that allow
straightforward analysis of stability. The control strategy extends easily to treating other desired
improvements to vehicle handling, including compensation for changes in mass distribution or
cornering stiffness. Lam presented [19-20] a novel omni-directional steer-by-wire interface for
four wheel independent steering vehicle. The proposed steering interface by Lam is an extension
of a traditional steering interface that provides three steering inputs. By combination of which,
driver can control the vehicle in traditional way or omni-directionally without any mode
switching operation. Independent Steering system show a great improvement of mobility as it
can perform better maneuverability compared to current commercial car. It improves space
efficiency during tight cornering and parking condition. Rasul designed the system that it is easy
to drive and user friendly.


4.1 Maximum cornering speed Provide more stability when it comes to the estimation of
maximum cornering speeds at different radius presented by Mody [16]. In real world the turning
radius and speeds are constantly changing in a normal drive and sudden changes in steering input
or vehicle speeds can cause instability when driving near limit conditions with conventional
steering. The front wheel and the four wheel dependent steering system are at 81% and 83% tire
utilization respectively at their maximum cornering speeds, the four wheel independent steering
can reach values of greater than 95%. This is the main reason behind significantly higher
cornering speeds as compared to the other two steering systems shown in Fig 8(a).

4.2 The slip angle distribution Best when standard deviation of the individual steady state
slip angles of the four wheels, normalized by their peak load, is minimum. At a 100 m turning
radius it shows that the 4 wheel independent steer-by-wire system is the best shown in Fig 8(b).
More importantly, the four wheel independent steer by wire system does well at high speeds,
bringing the slip angles close to each other hence boosting performance in this regime. It is also
the only steering system that does not cause an increase in the normalized standard deviation of
slip angle as the speed increases. At the maximum vehicle speed all the four tires are at the limit
of traction. The front wheel steering system shows optimized in the 50-100km/hr region and
hence in this range it is able to match up to the four wheel steering system but this is at the
expense of performance at other speeds.
4.3 Utilization of the tire shown in Fig 8(c) is the ratio of the lateral force produced by the tire
and its maximum force producing capacity. The percentage utilization of the tire is indicative of
the harshness the tire faces. Mainly attributed to lower utilization results in lower slip angles
which mean there is lesser slip within the tire which is the main source of graining and
permanent rubber damage. Higher slip angles also contribute to rolling friction.

4.4 The settling time Shows indication of how fast the steady state conditions are achieved.
Fig. 8(d) shows that the four wheel steering systems have a more advantage over the front wheel
steering system. The four wheel independent steering system is marginally faster than the four
wheel dependent steering system but the difference increases with the operating speed of the


(a) Maximum cornering speed

(b) Standard deviation of normalized slip angle

(c) Percentage utilization of tires

(d) Time taken by vehicle to arrive at steady state

condition for different speeds

Fig. 8 Four wheel independent steer-by-wire systems advantage over the other steering systems[16]

4.5 Behavior of the rollThe vehicle rollover has been reported as the number one harmful event of non-collision
fatal crashes, even despite of fact that, it constitutes a small amount of all car accidents. The
prevention of vehicle rollover has been an active research area in recent years. A number of
methods have been proposed and explored to prevent vehicle rollovers. Research on such
rollover prevention systems is focused on two basic types: rollover warning system and active
roll control system. The rollover warning systems use a prediction algorithm to determine the
risk of impending rollover based on vehicle roll angles, lateral load transfer, and/or lateral
acceleration [21-23]. They provide some type of warning so that the driver can take corrective
action. The active roll control systems reported in literature [24-27] can be categorized into about

four different types based on its actuation schemes: four wheel steering [24], active suspension
[25], active roll-bar [26], and differential braking [27]. The active roll-bar and active suspension
are designed to directly control the vehicle roll motion; the four wheel steering and differential
braking are to reduce the vehicle yaw motion.
Roll and other motions in dynamic situations, truck was driven at 80 km/h and steered to
move 3.6m in the lateral direction while traveling 50 m. Fig 9 indicate that the roll angle is
higher for a given lateral acceleration when the vehicle has some load, and therefore higher h.
Also, the yaw rate for a given steer angle stays the same regardless of the load, which also agrees
with the analysis obtained by simulation using the 3-DOF model [28].

(a)Response of a truck without load during lane-change

(b)Response of a truck with load during lane-change

maneuver (V = 80 km/h)

maneuver (V = 80 km/h).
Fig 9 Response during lane change[28]


5 Tire force distribution

Driving safety has always been the primary concern of automotive industry and research
community. To enhance stability of vehicle steering, many researchers have proposed different
control strategies such as four-wheel steering control, differential braking, direct yaw moment
control, optimum tire force distribution etc. Farshd [29] designed controller for vehicle stability
improvement using optimal distribution of tire forces. Sang [30] investigated motion control
method of 6WD/6WS (6-wheel-drive and 6-wheel-steering) for independent driving and steering
system using optimum tire force distribution method. Chun [31] presented motion control
scheme for a front-wheel-steering/rear-wheel-driving (FWS/RWD) vehicle using the optimum
tire force distribution method. Tingyou [32] included the tire-road adhesion and actuators
constrains while designing optimum tire force distribution.
To improve the vehicle stability under the high speed cornering condition and save
electric energy tire force distribution study is very much important. To control lateral vehicle
motion, the desired yaw moment is calculated by yaw rate control, PID theory is used by Kim
[33]. Longitudinal force required is determined by acceleration of pedal signal. The tire force
distribution method calculates the longitudinal tire forces at left and right wheel using desired
yaw moment and total desired longitudinal force and accordingly torque input is given to motor.
Kim presented driving control algorithm shown in Fig 10 and simulated vehicle motion dry and
wet asphalt road and found with controlled algorithm vehicle behaved well for trajectory, yaw
rate and also found energy consumption to be lowered. As shown in Fig 11 (a), (b) and (c)

Fig 10. Driving Control Algorithm[33]


(a)Simulation Result of Vehicle Trajectory

(b)Simulation Result of Vehicle Yaw rate

(c)Simulation Result of Energy Consumption per second

Fig. 11 Simulation results [33]


5.1 Cornering Force characteristics.

Tnk [12] presented finite element model for estimation of tire cornering force. He also

compared FEM results with experimental data obtained using tire testing and found to be similar.
For small slip angles cornering Force is linear function of slip angles and constant of
proportionality is called as cornering stiffness. At higher value of slip angles cornering force
becomes non linear. Thus there is requirement for non linear model if larger slip angles involved.

Effect of inflation Pressure shown in Fig 6(a) for low loads and low slip angle are not much
significant. But for higher load and higher slip angle there is considerably increase in tire force
generated. Whereas for increased test speed form 30km/h to 60km/h the cornering forces
generated by tire decreases shown in Fig 6(b). Reduction may be due to decrease in coefficient
of friction or may be due to increase in temperature which softens the tire rubber.

(a) Effect of inflation pressure on Cornering Force

(b) Effect of

road speed on Cornering Force characteristics


Fig 12 Cornering force characteristics[12]

5.2 Vehicle stability enhancement using distribution of tire forces

Adaptive optimal distribution of braking and lateral tire forces (AODF) is employed
using individual wheel steering and braking for each wheel data by Naraghi [9]. Sliding-mode
control technique is used to make the vehicle follow the desired trajectory obtained from the
driver steering angle. The controller uses the yaw rate and side-slip angle as inputs in order to
compute the total yaw moment and lateral force required. Angle between the orientation of the
vehicle and the direction of travel at the CG called as vehicle sideslip angle. Simulation is done
using lane change maneuver without braking or throttle input from the driver. 9DOF control
algorithm structure is shown in Fig 13(a). The vehicle runs with velocity of 110 km/h for 0.5 s,

followed by a 65degrees sine wave steering-wheel command, with a frequency of 0.5 Hz, on a
dry road surface shown Fig 13(b). Vehicle integrated control, without optimization, cannot track
the desired yaw rate and side-slip angle. Yaw rate response of the system with the AODF method
successfully follow the desired values, and the side-slip angle converges rapidly to zero shown in
fig 13(c) and (d). Can also follow the desired trajectory well, whereas the system without any
optimization becomes unstable shown in Fig 13 (e) and (f). Figures 13 (g) and (h) show the
phase plane plots of side-slip angle versus the yaw rate which indicates that the system utilizing
the AODF method is more suitable for improvement in stability and handling.

(a)9 DOF Non linear vehicle control structure

(b)Steering-wheel angle

(c) Side-slip angle response on a lane change

(d) Yaw rate response on a lane change

(e) Vehicle response lane change with a conventional

(f) Vehicle response on lane change incorporating the

integrated control system, without any optimization.

AODF method


(g)Phase plane response incorporating the AODF method

(h)Phase plane without any optimization method

Fig 13 Results obtained using AODF[9]

5.3 Braking Control Design

In this process braking force distribution is calculated without considering vehicle lateral motion.
Peng [34] Assumed that the vehicle lateral and yaw motions are small, a bicycle model of the
vehicle was utilized during the design.
Lateral tire forces are assumed to be small,
tire longitudinal force characteristic described
by the curve shown in Fig 14, where the
normalized tire longitudinal force increases
almost linearly with tire slip ratio when is
small, and gradually decreases after a peak
value, is reached.
Fig. 14 Longitudinal force and tire slip ratio[34]
When the vehicle is following a sharp curve, or swirling to avoid obstacles, large tire lateral
forces are present. If large tire longitudinal forces are also requested (e.g. hard braking while
following a curve), the longitudinal force distribution should take vehicle lateral forces into
consideration. This kind of coordination is necessary because of the interaction between vehicle
lateral and longitudinal dynamics. Two of the strongest interaction mechanisms are weight shift
and the nonlinear tire force characteristics. When the vehicle is under lateral acceleration (e.g.
following a curve), part of the load will shift from inner wheels to outer wheels. Similar weight
shift occurs between front and rear axles when the vehicle is accelerating/decelerating.
Therefore, force capacity of each wheel will be different. To achieve optimal performance, it is
necessary to control each tire according to its capacity. Thus the tire slip angle and the tire slip
ratio should be less than p and p , respectively for optimum design as shown in Fig 15 and 16.

Fig15 Tire force characteristics (slip angle = 3 Fig 16 Tire force characteristics (slip ratio =


5.4 Experimental determination of brake force distribution

Rear tires lock up, the vehicle will lose directional stability and if Lock of front tires occurs then
will cause a loss of directional control. During braking, a dynamic load transfer from the rear
axle to the front axle occurs. The load on an each axle is the static plus the dynamic load transfer.
Experimental setup for tire force distribution is shown in Fig 17.

Fig 17 Experimental setup

Fig 18 Forces acting on a vehicle during braking


Maximum deceleration and stability criterion is satisfied where

According to EC regulations, for the passenger cars, rear tires should not lock up between
decelerations of 0.15 g and 0.8 g and 5 % tolerance is allowed between 0.3 g and 0.45 g. In order to
satisfy the stopping distance requirements, installed braking force distribution should be above the
curve determined by:

Figure 19, axes show the braking force at front and rear axles relative to weight. The intersection
of the straight lines, representing equal adhesion coefficients, at front and rear axles form the
parabola describing ideal braking force distribution. Distribution of braking forces on the front
and rear axle is accomplished through brake proportioning. If no braking-force proportioning

device is provided, then the distribution of the braking force as installed in the unit also forms a
straight line. The slope is the ratio of the braking forces at front and at rear axles as determined
by the dimensions of brakes. The wheels always lock on the front as long as the installed braking

distribution remains below the ideal distribution. The point at which the front wheels lock is
found at the intersection of installed distribution and the lines representing the respective
coefficient of adhesion. When the rear tires lock up, the vehicle will lose directional stability.
The lock up of front tires will cause a loss of directional control.

Fig 19 Brake force distribution diagram[36]


6 Conclusions
Recent advances toward steer-by-wire technology have significant contribution in vehicle
handling performance and safety. The complete separation of the steering wheel from the road
wheels provides exciting opportunities for vehicle dynamics control. There are some of the
issues associated with control of a steer-by-wire system. Importance in understanding how the
tire self-aligning moment acts as a disturbance on the steering system. Tire Brake force is very
such important during vehicle cornering. If proper distribution of brake force during lane change
or cornering is not done then it may lead to fatal injury. Combining four wheel independent
steering system with brake force distribution can be a interesting research area with development
of control algorithm for un even terrain, failure analysis of electronic system, drivers response to
sudden obstruction, tire wear rate analysis, inflation pressure effect, camber caster toe angle
alignment with detailed vehicle model.


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