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with an introduction to material Inspection, its various applications. The sensors

are used to measure the material dimensions and this signal is given to control
Unit. The control unit gives the appropriate signal to the pneumatic cylinder. The
pneumatic cylinder is used to collecting mechanism of the improper dimension
materials. The inspection conveyor is very useful for material handling in modern
engineering industries. The motor is used to drive the conveyor. The materials are
transferred from one place to another place by using conveyor. In this top of the
conveyor, sensors are used to measure the dimension. This system gives smooth
operation and smooth movement of the belts to the jobs at required time. This is a
very efficient instrument for checking the dimensions like length, breadth, height
etc., to be used in modern engineering industries. The manual efforts can be
completely avoided by using this modern equipment. It also reduces the inspection
time and manual inspection errors. If the work piece is defective, the pneumatic
cylinder placed next to the sensor will be actuated to remove the defective work

This is an era of automation where it is broadly defined as replacement of manual
effort by mechanical power in all degrees of automation. The operation remains an
essential part of the system although with changing demands on physical input as
the degree of mechanization is increased. Degrees of automation are of two types,
Full automation.
Semi automation.
In semi automation a combination of manual effort and mechanical power is
required whereas in full automation human participation is very negligible.
Need For Automation
Automation can be achieved through computers, hydraulics, pneumatics, robotics,
etc., of these sources, pneumatics form an attractive medium for low cost
automation. The main advantages of all pneumatic systems are economy and
simplicity. Automation plays an important role in mass production. For mass
production of the product, the machining operations decide the sequence of
machining. The machines designed for producing a particular product are called
transfer machines. The components must be moved automatically from the bins to
various machines sequentially and the final component can be placed separately for
packaging. Materials can also be repeatedly transferred from the moving conveyors
to the work place and vice versa.

Quality Control and Inspection are the most important things in factory design.
Automation plays a vital role in mass production of a product, the machining

operations decides the sequence of machining. The machines designed for

producing a particular product are called transfer machines. Conveyor Automation
is a specialized activity for a modern manufacturing concern. It has been estimated
that about 60-70% of the cost production is spent in material transferring activities.

Need for Conveyor Automation:

Reduction of labour and material cost

Reduction of overall cost Increased production
Increased safety
To reduce the inspection time
Reduction in fatigue

The word pneuma comes from Greek and means breather wind. The word
pneumatics is the study of air movement and its phenomena is derived from the
word pneuma. Today pneumatics is mainly understood to means the application of
air as a working medium in industry especially the driving and controlling of
machines and equipment.
Pneumatics has for some considerable time between used for carrying out
the simplest mechanical tasks in more recent times has played a more important
role in the development of pneumatic technology for automation.
Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be
made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the
system. When the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it
wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.
The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using
reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a
certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.
Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered
and the volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions namely at
atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature.
The compressibility of the air was first investigated by Robert Boyle in1962 and
that found that the product of pressure and volume of a particular quantity of gas.

The usual written as

PV = C (or) PV = P2V2
In this equation the pressure is the absolute pressured which for free is about 14.7
Psi and is of courage capable of maintaining a column of mercury, nearly 30 inches
high in an ordinary barometer. Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but air is
the mostly used system now a days.

Features of PIC16F877
The PIC16FXX series has more advanced and developed features when
compared to its previous series. The important features of PIC16F877 series is
given below.
General Features
High performance RISC CPU.
ONLY 35 simple word instructions.
All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two
Operating speed: clock input (200MHz), instruction cycle (200nS).
Up to 3688bit of RAM (data memory), 2568 of EEPROM (data memory),

8k14 of flash memory.

Pin out compatible to PIC 16C74B, PIC 16C76, PIC 16C77.
Eight level deep hardware stack.
Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources).
Different types of addressing modes (direct, Indirect, relative addressing

Power on Reset (POR).
Power-Up Timer (PWRT) and oscillator start-up timer.
Low power- high speed CMOS flash/EEPROM.
Fully static design.
Wide operating voltage range (2.0 5.56)volts.
High sink/source current (25mA).
Commercial, industrial and extended temperature ranges.
Low power consumption (<0.6mA typical @3v-4MHz, 20A typical @3v32MHz and <1 A typical standby).

Peripheral Features
Timer 0: 8 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar.

Timer 1:16 bit timer/counter with pre-scalar.

Timer 2: 8 bit timer/counter with 8 bit period registers with pre-scalar and
Two Capture (16bit/12.5nS), Compare (16 bit/200nS), Pulse Width Modules
10bit multi-channel A/D converter
Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (master code) and I2C
Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) with
9 bit address detection.
Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8 bit wide with external RD, WR and CS controls
Brown Out circuitry for Brown-Out Reset (BOR).
Key Features

Maximum operating frequency is 20MHz.

Flash program memory (14 bit words), 8KB.
Data memory (bytes) is 368.
EEPROM data memory (bytes) is 256.
5 input/output ports.
3 timers.
2 CCP modules.
2 serial communication ports (MSSP, USART).
PSP parallel communication port
10bit A/D module (8 channels)

Analog Features
10bit, up to 8 channel A/D converter.
Brown Out Reset function.
Analog comparator module.

Special Features

100000 times erase/write cycle enhanced memory.

1000000 times erase/write cycle data EEPROM memory.
Self programmable under software control.
In-circuit serial programming and in-circuit debugging capability.
Single 5V,DC supply for circuit serial programming
WDT with its own RC oscillator for reliable operation.
Programmable code protection.
Power saving sleep modes.
Selectable oscillator options.

Pin Diagrams
PIC16F877A chip is available in different types of packages. According to
the type of applications and usage, these packages are differentiated. The pin
diagrams of a PIC16F877 chip in different packages is shown in the figure below.

Pin Diagrams of PIC 16F877 Chip

Input/output ports
PIC16F877 has 5 basic input/output ports. They are usually denoted by
These ports are used for input/ output interfacing. In this controller, PORT A is
only 6 bits wide (RA-0 to RA-7), PORT B , PORT C,PORT D are only 8 bits
wide (RB-0 to RB-7,RC-0 to RC-7,RD-0 to RD-7), PORT E has only 3 bit wide
(RE-0 to RE-7).


RA-0 to RA-5
RB-0 to RB-7
RC-0 to RC-7
RD-0 to RD-7
RE-0 to RE-2

6 bit
8 bit
8 bit
8 bit
3 bit

All these ports are bi-directional. The direction of the port is controlled by using
TRIS(X) registers (TRIS A used to set the direction of PORT-A, TRIS B used to set
the direction for PORT-B, etc.). Setting a TRIS(X) bit 1 will set the corresponding
PORT(X) bit as input. Clearing a TRIS(X) bit 0 will set the corresponding
PORT(X) bit as output.
(If we want to set PORT A as an input, just set TRIS(A) bit to logical 1 and want
to set PORT B as an output, just set the PORT B bits to logical 0.)
Analog input port (AN0 TO AN7) : these ports are used for interfacing

analog inputs.
TX and RX: These are the USART transmission and reception ports.
SCK: these pins are used for giving synchronous serial clock input.
SCL: these pins act as an output for both SPI and I2C modes.
DT: these are synchronous data terminals.
CK: synchronous clock input.
SD0: SPI data output (SPI Mode).
SD1: SPI Data input (SPI mode).
SDA: data input/output in I2C Mode.
CCP1 and CCP2: these are capture/compare/PWM modules.
OSC1: oscillator input/external clock.
OSC2: oscillator output/clock out.
MCLR: master clear pin (Active low reset).
Vpp: programming voltage input.
THV: High voltage test mode controlling.
Vref (+/-): reference voltage.

SS: Slave select for the synchronous serial port.

T0CK1: clock input to TIMER 0.
T1OSO: Timer 1 oscillator output.
T1OS1: Timer 1 oscillator input.
T1CK1: clock input to Timer 1.
PGD: Serial programming data.
PGC: serial programming clock.
PGM: Low Voltage Programming input.
INT: external interrupt.
RD: Read control for parallel slave port.
CS: Select control for parallel slave.
PSP0 to PSP7: Parallel slave port.
VDD: positive supply for logic and input pins.
VSS: Ground reference for logic and input/output pins.
Take a look at the specifications of the PIC 16F87X Series

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display
module and find a wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic
module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits. These modules
are preferred over seven segments and other multi segment LEDs. The reasons
being: LCDs are economical; easily programmable; have no limitation of




even custom

characters (unlike



segments), animations and so on.

A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and
there are 2 such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix.
This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data.
The command register stores the command instructions given to
the LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task like
initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position, controlling display etc.
The data register stores the data to be displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII
value of the character to be displayed on the LCD. Click to learn more about
internal structure of a LCD.





Ground (0V)
Supply voltage; 5V (4.7V 5.3V)
Contrast adjustment; through a variable resistor
Selects command register when low; and data register Register

when high
Low to write to the register; High to read from the Read/write


Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is given Enable
8-bit data pins
Backlight VCC (5V)
Backlight Ground (0V)

4.7.1 Introduction
There are many things which you can do with your DC motor when interfaced with
a microcontroller. For example you can control the speed of motor, you can control
the direction of rotation, you can also do encoding of the rotation made by DC
motor i.e. keeping track of how many turns are made by your motors etc. So you
can see DC motor runs in both forward and reverse direction. Usually H-bridge is

proffered way of interfacing a DC motor. These days many IC manufacturers have

H-bridge motor drivers available in the market like L293D is most used H-Bridge
driver IC. H-bridge can also be made with the help of transistors and MOSFETs
etc. rather of being cheap, they only increase the size of the design board, which is
sometimes not required so using a small 16 pin IC is preferred for this purpose.
4.7.2 Features
Voltage: 12.0VDC
Output Speed: 200 +/- 10% RPM
No-Load output current: =< 50 mA
Rotation Output: CW / CCW
Noise: No Gear Noise
4.7.3 L293D motor driver
L293D is a dual H-Bridge motor driver, So with one IC we can interface two DC
motors which can be controlled in both clockwise and counter clockwise direction
and if you have motor with fix direction of motion the you can make use of all the
four I/Os to connect up to four DC motors. L293D has output current of 600mA
and peak output current of 1.2A per channel. Moreover for protection of circuit
from back EMF ouput diodes are included within the IC. The output supply
(VCC2) has a wide range from 4.5V to 36V, which has made L293D a best choice
for DC motor driver.A simple schematic for interfacing a DC motor using L293D
is shown below.

Figure 4.5 L293D with dc motor

As you can see in the circuit, three pins are needed for interfacing a DC motor (A,
B, Enable). If you want the o/p to be enabled completely then you can connect
Enable to VCC and only 2 pins needed from controller to make the motorwork.As
per the truth mentioned in the image above its fairly simple to program the
microcontroller. Its also clear from the truth table of BJT circuit and L293D the
programming will be same for both of them, just keeping in mind the allowed
combinations of A and B. We will discuss about programming in C as well as
assembly for running motor with the help of a microcontroller.

High Left

High Right

Low Left

Low Right






Motor runs clockwise





Motor runs anti-clockwise





Motor stops or decelerates





Motor stops or decelerates

Table 4.1 Truth table of dc motor

Now you might be thinking why i did not discuss the cases like High side left on
and Low side left on or high side right on and low side right on. Clearly seen in the
diagra, you don't want to burn your power supply by shorting them. So that is why
those combinations are not discussed in the truth table.

So we have seen that using simple switching elements we can make our own HBridge, or other option we have is using an IC based H-bridge driver.

Linear Power Supply:

A linear power supply is the oldest and simplest type of power supply. In these
power supplies, electrical isolation can only be provided by bulky line frequency
transformers. The ac source can be rectified with a bridge rectifier to get an
uncontrolled dc, and then a dc-to-dc converter can be used to get a controlled dc
output. Figure 4.9 shows the block diagram of the Linear power supply and figure
4.10 shows the circuit diagram of the power supply. The output voltage is regulated
by dropping the extra input voltage across a series transistor (therefore, also
referred to as a series regulator). They have very small output ripple, theoretically
zero noise, large hold-up time (typically 12 ms), and fast response. The action of
a transformer is such that a time-varying (AC) voltage or current is transformed to
a higher or lower value, as set by the transformer turns ratio.

Step Down




Fig 4.5 Block Diagram of Linear Power Supply

The transformer does not add power, so it follows that the power (V I) on either
side must be constant. That is the reason that the winding with more turns has
higher voltage but lower current, while the winding with less turns has lower

voltage but higher current. The step down transformer converts the AC input with
the higher level to some lower level.

A bridge rectifier converts the AC voltage into DC voltage. A four-transistor

converter (Bridge Rectifier) that can generate the highest output power than other
types of rectifiers. The filter circuit resists the unwanted AC signals. The regulator
down-convert a DC voltage to a lower DC voltage of the same polarity.

Fig 4.6 Circuit Diagram for 5V power Supply

Multi output Power Supply:

It is also possible to generate multiple voltages using linear power supplies. In

multi output power supply a single voltage must be converted into the required
system voltages (for example, +5V, +12V and -12V) with very high power
conversion efficiency.Fig 4.11 shows the circuit diagram of the multiple output
power supply

Fig 4.7 Multi output linear power Supply

The working of the ultrasonic sensors is quite simple and they are easy to interface
with the microcontroller. The sensor module has 4-pins out of which Pin-1 and Pin4 are +Vcc and Gnd respectively.Pin-2 is Trigger and Pin-3 is Echo pin.The
working of sensors can be described from the below figure :


When a High pulse of 10us is applied at TRIG pin, the ultrasonic transmitter sends
8 consecutive pulses of 40kHz frequency. As the Eighth pulse is sent the ECHO
pin of the sensor becomes HIGH. Now when the ultrasonic waves reflect from any
surface and are received by the Receiver, the ECHO pin becomes LOW. The time
it takes to leave and return to sensor is used to find the distance from the reflecting

Distance in centimetres = (Time/58) cms

In Inches = (Time/148)
Distance can also be calculated by taking into account the speed of Sound


Method of Fabrication:
The two conveyor roller is fixed to the two ends of the frame stand with the help of
end bearing (6202) with bearing cap. The conveyor roller shaft is coupled to the
D.C. permanent magnet motor with the help of spur gear mechanism. This total
arrangement is used to transfer the material from one place to another place with
the help of conveyor.
The IR transmitter and IR receiver circuit is used to sense the length of the
material. It is fixed to the frame stand with a suitable arrangement. The pneumatic
cylinder is fixed to the frame stand by right angles to the limit sensor frame stand.
This cylinder arrangement is used to remove the dimensionless material from the
conveyor. The pneumatic cylinder is controlled by the flow control valve, single
acting solenoid valve and control unit.

The 12 volt power supply is used to drive the permanent magnet D.C motor.
The two conveyor roller is fixed to the two ends of the frame stand with the help of
end bearing (6202) with bearing cap. The conveyor roller shaft is coupled to the
D.C. permanent magnet motor with the help of spur gear mechanism. This total
arrangement is used to transfer the material from one place to another place with
the help of conveyor.
The limit sensor switch is vertically fixed on the limit sensor frame stand by
means of rack and pinion arrangement. This sensor is used to measuring the
abnormal height variation of the material. The rack and pinion is used to adjust the
limit switch up and down motion. This arrangement is used to set the height of the
material. The IR transmitter and IR receiver circuit is used to sense the minute
height variation of the material. It is fixed to the frame stand with a suitable
arrangement. This mechanism is also adjustable with the help of bolt and nut. The
pneumatic cylinder is fixed to the frame stand by right angles to the limit sensor
frame stand. This cylinder arrangement is used to remove the dimensionless
material from the conveyor. The pneumatic cylinder is controlled by the flow
control valve, single acting solenoid valve and control unit.


The Inspection Conveyor is more efficient in the technical field

Quick response is achieved
Simple in construction
Easy to maintain and repair
Cost of the unit is less when compared to other
No fire hazard problem due to over loading
Comparatively the operation cost is less
Continuous operation is possible without stopping

While working, the compressed air (For Punching Operation) produces noise
therefore a silencer may be used.

Discharge of work piece:The Conveyor Feed has a wide application in low cost automation industries. It can
be used in automated assembly lines to carry up the finished product from
workstation and place them in bins. It can also be used to pick raw material and
place them on the conveyor belts.
Improper Material Removing operation:This unit can also be used in improper material collected in a collecting box. The
solenoid operated pneumatic cylinder is used for this mechanism.

This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience,
to use our limited knowledge. We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding,
planning, purchasing, assembling and machining while doing this project work. We
feel that the project work is a good solution to bridge the gates between institution
and industries. We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited
time successfully.
The INSPECTION CONVEYOR is working with satisfactory
conditions. We are able to understand the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances
and also quality. We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of
available facilities. In conclusion remarks of our project work, let us add a few
more lines about our impression project work.
Thus we have developed an INSPECTION CONVEYOR which helps to
know how to achieve low cost automation with sensor arrangement. The operating
procedure of this system is very simple, so any person can operate. By using more
techniques, they can be modified and developed according to the applications.


Catalogue of Janatics pneumatic product, Janatics Private Limited Coimbatore.
Design data book compiled by faculty of mechanical engineering P.S.G. college
of technology,Coimbatore
Festo Didactic KG Fundamentals of control technology, Esslingen- 1998.
Festo Pneumatic Catlogue- FestoPvt Ltd. Bangalore.
Werner Deppert/Kurt Stoll., Cutting Cost With Pneumatics, Vogel Buchverlag
Wurzburg, 1998.