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SDH MSPP

Thomas Jost

Coriant hiT 7025


Technical Description

Copyright 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the
introduction of this documentation. This documentation is intended for the use of Coriant customers only for the
purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be used, reproduced,
modified or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Coriant. The documentation has
been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full
responsibility when using it. Coriant welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous
development and improvement of the documentation.
The information or statements given in this documentation concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the
mentioned hardware or software products are given as is and all liability arising in connection with such hardware
or software products shall be defined conclusively and finally in a separate agreement between Coriant and the
customer. However, Coriant has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the
document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Coriant will, if deemed necessary by Coriant,
explain issues which may not be covered by the document.
Coriant will correct errors in this documentation as soon as possible. IN NO EVENT WILL CORIANT BE LIABLE
FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENTATION OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY LOSSES, SUCH AS BUT NOT
LIMITED TO LOSS OF PROFIT, REVENUE, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY OR
DATA,THAT MAY ARISE FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION IN IT.
This documentation and the product it describes are considered protected by copyrights and other intellectual
property rights according to the applicable laws.
Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective owners, and they are
mentioned for identification purposes only.
Copyright Coriant 2013. All rights reserved.

History of Changes
Control

Date

Author

Comments

04

18.06.2007

Rainer Koster

Rebranded to NSN layout

05

Feb 27, 2008

Th. Jost

New SW license structure added

06

Jun 05, 2008

Rainer Koster

New 4x STM-1 board and enhanced temperature variant


added

07

Sep 09, 2009

Christoph
Schwinghammer

Update with new core and OA shelf

08

Sep 15, 2009

Rainer Koster

Update of mapping table

09

Apr 15, 2010

Xie Yijian

Update of port cross connection & VLAN aggregation feature


Description of 4x GE/T card updated
Description of DNI feature added
List of electromagnetic compatibility requirements updated

10

Jun 15, 2010

Xie Yijian

Modification on description of 4x GE/T card


STM-1 I-1 optical interface added
modification on max. power consumption
update of thermal standard (ETSI Class 3.2 on environment)

Rainer Koster

12

Jul 15, 2013

Thomas Jost

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Contents
1.

Introduction ........................................................................... 8

1.1
1.2
1.3

Editorials ......................................................................................................... 8
Next Generation SDH ...................................................................................... 8
hiT 70 series.................................................................................................... 9

2.

hiT 7025 Overview .............................................................. 10

2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3

Overview ....................................................................................................... 10
Physical Structure ......................................................................................... 11
Cross Connection and Switching Capability .................................................. 12
Line/Service Interface .................................................................................... 12

2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.3.6
2.3.7
2.3.8

Data Capabilities ........................................................................................... 13


Advanced Data Service Support .................................................................... 13
IEEE 802.1Q (VLAN) ..................................................................................... 13
Input Information Rating Limiting ................................................................... 14
Class of Service ............................................................................................ 14
GFP Data Encapsulation ............................................................................... 14
Virtual Concatenation and LCAS ................................................................... 15
RSTP Based Protection................................................................................. 15
L2 Multicast Function..................................................................................... 15
Ethernet Transport Schemes ......................................................................... 15

2.4
2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.5.5

Network Protections ...................................................................................... 17


Main Features & Strengths ............................................................................ 17
Flexibility ....................................................................................................... 17
Reliability ....................................................................................................... 17
Modularity and Scalability .............................................................................. 18
Ease of use ................................................................................................... 18
Data Handling Capabilities ............................................................................ 18

3.

System Application ............................................................. 19

3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.6

Networking Capability .................................................................................... 19


Termination and Multiplexing (TM) ................................................................ 19
Hubbing and Local Cross Connect ................................................................ 20
Linear ............................................................................................................ 21
Ring ............................................................................................................... 21
Multiple Ring Closure .................................................................................... 22
OA extension shelf ........................................................................................ 22

3.2

Ethernet Service Applications ........................................................................ 23

4.

System Description ............................................................. 24

4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2

Physical Structure and Module Construction ................................................. 24


Chassis Slot Naming ..................................................................................... 24
hiT 7025 interface options ............................................................................. 25

4.2
4.3
4.4

Power Supply ................................................................................................ 26


FAN 26
System Controller (SC, SCE and SCE plus) .................................................. 26
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4.5
4.6
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4

System Interface Panel (SI) ........................................................................... 27


Cross-Connect Switching (CC) ...................................................................... 27
SDH Interfaces .............................................................................................. 27
1x STM-4 Interface Board ............................................................................. 27
2 STM-1 Interface Board ............................................................................. 27
4 STM-1 Interface Board ............................................................................. 28
2 STM-1E (W/P) Interface ........................................................................... 28

4.8
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4
4.8.5
4.8.6
4.8.7

PDH and Data Service Interfaces .................................................................. 29


8x FE/L2 Service Interface Card .................................................................... 29
4xGE/L2 Service Interface Card .................................................................... 31
8x FE/T Service Interface Card ..................................................................... 32
1x GE/T Service Interface Board ................................................................... 33
4x GE/T Service Interface Board ................................................................... 34
3 E3/DS3 (W/P) Interface Card.................................................................... 37
21 E1 (W/P) Interface Card ......................................................................... 38

4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.13.1
4.13.2

Optical Amplifier ............................................................................................ 38


User Channel (F1) ......................................................................................... 41
Engineering Order Wire (EOW) ..................................................................... 41
Miscellaneous Discrete Input/Output (MDI/MDO) .......................................... 42
Introduction to Software licensing .................................................................. 43
General Structure of new SW items............................................................... 43
Software license structure of hiT 7025 ........................................................... 44

5.

Protection and Redundancy ................................................ 46

5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.1.7

Network Protection ........................................................................................ 46


MS-SPRing ................................................................................................... 46
MSP .............................................................................................................. 46
SNCP ............................................................................................................ 47
DNI ................................................................................................................ 47
LCAS ............................................................................................................. 48
Ethernet Shared Protection Ring ................................................................... 48
Multiple Layers Protection ............................................................................. 48

5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6

Equipment Redundancy and Protection ........................................................ 49


Redundant Power Supply .............................................................................. 49
Redundant Cross-Connect ............................................................................ 49
Electrical Interface Module Protection ........................................................... 49
Protection under Abnormal Condition ............................................................ 49
Software Fault Tolerance .............................................................................. 50
Data Security ................................................................................................. 50

6.

Technical Specification ....................................................... 51

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5

Multiplexing Structure .................................................................................... 51


SDH Overhead .............................................................................................. 53
Interface Types.............................................................................................. 54
Electrical Interfaces ....................................................................................... 55
Optical Interfaces .......................................................................................... 55
Optical amplifier card: OA .............................................................................. 56
Optical Amplifier (OA) .................................................................................... 57
Management and Maintenance Interface....................................................... 60
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6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.4.3
6.4.4
6.4.5
6.4.6
6.4.7
6.4.8
6.4.9
6.4.10
6.4.11

Interface Performance Specifications ............................................................ 61


Optical Interface Performances ..................................................................... 61
STM-1 Optical Interface Performance ........................................................... 62
STM-4 Optical Interface Performance ........................................................... 63
STM-16 Optical Interface Performance.......................................................... 64
Multi-rate CWDM interface Optical Performance ........................................... 65
2.5G DWDM interface Optical Performance .................................................. 66
GE Optical Transmitter and Receiver Interfaces ............................................ 68
Electrical Interface Performances .................................................................. 70
Timing and Synchronization Performance ..................................................... 73
Jitter Performance ......................................................................................... 73
STM-N Interface Output Jitter ........................................................................ 74

6.5
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2
6.6.3

Timing ........................................................................................................... 76
Power Source ................................................................................................ 77
Power Supply ................................................................................................ 77
Power Consumption ...................................................................................... 77
Cooling .......................................................................................................... 77

6.7
6.8
6.8.1

Mechanical Structure ..................................................................................... 77


Environment Requirements ........................................................................... 78
Enhanced Temperature Variant ..................................................................... 78

6.9
6.10
6.10.1
6.10.2

Electromagnetic Compatibility ....................................................................... 79


Vibration Tests .............................................................................................. 81
Shipping Test ................................................................................................ 81
Office Test ..................................................................................................... 81

6.11
6.11.1
6.11.2
6.11.3
6.11.4

Alarms and Events ........................................................................................ 81


Alarm Types .................................................................................................. 81
Alarm Severity Level...................................................................................... 82
Alarm Reports ............................................................................................... 82
Events ........................................................................................................... 82

7.

Standard Compliance.......................................................... 85

8.

Appendix 1: Definitions and Abbreviations .......................... 87

9.

Appendix 2: Basis Technologies ......................................... 94

9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5

Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) ................................................................ 94


Virtual Concatenation (VCat) ......................................................................... 96
Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS).................................................... 97
Ethernet Functions and Services ................................................................... 97
Port Cross Connection and Port+VLAN Cross Connetion.............................. 98

10.

Appendix 3: Related Documents ....................................... 101

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List of Figures
Figure 1 - Future Traffic Growth .......................................................................................................... 8
Figure 2 - hiT 7025 chassis ............................................................................................................... 10
Figure 3 hiT 7025 Physical Structure ............................................................................................. 11
Figure 4 - Three Ethernet data transmission methods in hiT 7025 ring ........................................... 16
Figure 5 - hiT 7025 termination and multiplexing capability .............................................................. 19
Figure 6 - hiT 7025 termination and multiplexing capability .............................................................. 20
Figure 7 - hiT 7025 linear network configuration ............................................................................... 21
Figure 8 - hiT 7025 2-fiber MS-SPRing application .......................................................................... 21
Figure 9 - Multiple Ring closure at a single hiT 7025 node ............................................................... 22
Figure 10 - hiT 7025 Chassis view .................................................................................................... 24
Figure 11 - hiT 7025 chassis slot naming ......................................................................................... 25
Figure 12 - hiT 7025 Cards List ......................................................................................................... 26
Figure 13 - Functional block diagram of 2 STM-1E (W/P) card protection ..................................... 28
Figure 14 - 8 FE/L2 card functional block diagram ......................................................................... 30
Figure 15 - 8 FE/L2 interface card external interfaces .................................................................... 31
Figure 16 - 8 FE/L2 card LEDs ....................................................................................................... 31
Figure 17 - 8 FE/T card functional block diagram ........................................................................... 32
Figure 18 - 8 FE/T interface card external interfaces ...................................................................... 33
Figure 19 - 8 FE/T card LEDs ......................................................................................................... 33
Figure 20 - 1 GE/T service board module functional block diagram ............................................... 34
Figure 21 - Functional block diagram of 3 E3/DS3 (W/P) card protection ...................................... 37
Figure 22 OA module functional building block diagram ............................................................... 39
Figure 23 OA module safty procedure ........................................................................................... 40
Figure 24 OA card external interfaces ........................................................................................... 41
Figure 25 OA card LEDs ................................................................................................................ 41
Figure 26 External XOW box .......................................................................................................... 42
Figure 27: Software license structure in Next Generation Metro ...................................................... 43
Figure 28: Software license structure of hiT 7025 ............................................................................ 45
Figure 29 - Cross-Connect Multiplexing Structure (ITU-T G.707) .................................................... 51
Figure 30 - Terminated Mapping Structure ....................................................................................... 52
Figure 31 - Payload Mapping ............................................................................................................ 52
Figure 32 hiT 7025 supported SDH overhead process ................................................................. 54
Figure 33 hiT 7025 Interface Types ............................................................................................... 54
Figure 34 - hiT 7025 optical service interfaces supported ................................................................ 56
Figure 35 - STM-N Optical Interface Parameters and Application Codes ........................................ 61
Figure 36 - hiT 7025 STM-1Optical Interface Specifications ............................................................ 62

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Figure 37 - hiT 7025 STM-4 Optical Interface Specifications ........................................................... 63


Figure 38 - hiT 7025 STM-16 Optical Interface Specifications ......................................................... 65
Figure 39 - hiT 7025 CWDM Optical Interface Specifications .......................................................... 66
Figure 40 - hiT 7025 DWDM Optical Interface Specifications .......................................................... 67
Figure 41 - hiT 7025 DWDM Wavelenthes ....................................................................................... 67
Figure 42 - 1000 Base-SX transmitter interface parameters ............................................................ 68
Figure 43 - 1000 Base-SX receiving interface parameters ............................................................... 69
Figure 44 - 1000 Base-LX Transmitter interface parameters ........................................................... 69
Figure 45 - 1000 Base-LX receiver interface parameters ................................................................. 70
Figure 46 - 2048 kbit/s Electrical Interface Parameters .................................................................... 71
Figure 47 - Electrical Interface Output Signals Bit Rate Allowable Deviation ................................... 71
Figure 48 - Electrical Interface Allowable Input Attenuation ............................................................. 72
Figure 49 - Electrical Interface Allowable Input Port Frequency Deviation ....................................... 72
Figure 50 - Electrical Interface Input Port Anti-interference Capability ............................................. 72
Figure 51 - Timing Output Jitter ........................................................................................................ 73
Figure 52 - Internal Timing Source Output Frequency...................................................................... 73
Figure 53 - STM-1/-4/-16 Interface Output Jitter ............................................................................... 74
Figure 54 - STM-1 Interface Jitter Tolerance .................................................................................... 74
Figure 55 - STM-4 Interface Jitter Tolerance .................................................................................... 75
Figure 56 - STM-16 Interface Jitter Tolerance .................................................................................. 75
Figure 57 - PDH mapping jitter generation specification................................................................... 75
Figure 58 - hiT 7025 PDH interface combined jitter generation spec ............................................... 76
Figure 59 - hiT 7025 Environment Requirements ............................................................................ 78
Figure 60 - hiT 7025 Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements .................................................. 80
Figure 61 - Shipping Test Standards ................................................................................................ 81
Figure 62 - Office test standards ....................................................................................................... 81
Figure 63 - Management Events ....................................................................................................... 83
Figure 64 - Hardware Events ............................................................................................................ 83
Figure 65 - Software Events .............................................................................................................. 84
Figure 66 - GFP mapping .................................................................................................................. 95
Figure 67 - Comparison between GFP and PPP .............................................................................. 96
Figure 70 Port Cross Connection ............................................................................................... 98
Figure 71 VLAN aggregation.......................................................................................................... 99

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1.

Introduction

1.1

Editorials

This document is a technical description for the product hiT 7025. The technical
descriptions of other products of the hiT 70 series are also available. This document is not
a marketing document. The target of this document is to inform on detail about the
product, product features and the application in the network environment.
It is not a document for advertisement purposes but it is useful to inform our customer in
detail in the after sales period. For marketing and advertisement related product
information please contact the sales department.
If the reader is looking for information on the basis technologies please refer to 9
Appendix 2: Basis Technologies.

1.2

Next Generation SDH

For almost two decades, Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) has been the preferred
transport technology over optical fibers. SDH is the dominant transport protocol in virtually
all long-haul networks (voice and data) as well as in metro networks that were originally
developed for voice traffic. As a resilient, well-understood transport mechanism, SDH has
stood the test of time. Its reliability is uned. The ability of SDH to support 50-msec
switching to backup paths, combined with extensive performance monitoring features for
carrier-class transport.
Legacy SDH was designed mainly to transport circuit oriented services like voice and as
such is an inherently rigid and inefficient method for transporting data. Traditionally a
single wire speed Gigabit Ethernet service (1.25G) will be allocated to one STM 16
channel (2.5G). This means 48 % of the of this STM-16 pipe remains as idle capacity.

Figure 1 - Future Traffic Growth

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The phenomenal growth in bandwidth, connectivity and content generated by the Internet,
Intranet and broadband applications, has made native data transfer a very important
criteria for telecommunication infrastructure (see Figure 1). Ethernet has become the de
facto standard for enterprise networks. In Storage Area Networks (SAN), ESCONTM,
FICONTM and Fiber Channel are by far todays most dominating technology as well.
The solution is Next Generation SDHtechnology that transforms rigid, circuit-oriented
SDH networks to a universal transport mechanism that is optimized for both voice and
data. The technology enables carriers to keep up with growing demands for bandwidth, to
efficiently carry both streaming and bursty traffic, and adapt to constantly changing traffic
patterns. Multiple protocols and thus services are supported: from basic TDM voice,
Ethernet, as well as SAN.

1.3

hiT 70 series

Coriant has introduced a new range of equipment that makes the promise of Next
Generation SDH a reality: the hiT 70 series. This platform provides the flexibility of true
packet switching and Ethernet transport, while operating with the inherent reliability of
SDH. Multiple network applications are integrated and consolidated into a single compact
unit. The efficiency of this approach, together with extensive use of highly integrated
components allows the hiT 70 series to be offered at lower costs than current solutions.

Data + Voice = hiT 70 series


In order to address the varying needs and requirements of carriers carrier, carrier and
enterprise, the hiT 70 series consists of a diverse range of products, namely:
hiT 7080

ADM / CC, multiple STM-64

hiT 7065

ADM / CC, multiple STM-64

hiT 7060 HC

ADM 64, multiple STM-16

hiT 7060

ADM, multiple STM-16

hiT 7035

ADM, STM-16, STM- 4, STM-1

hiT 7025

ADM, STM-16, STM-4, STM-1

hiT 7030

ADM 4/1 modular

hiT 7020

ADM 4/1 single board CPE

This Technical Description covers hiT 7025, only. For detailed description of the other
product please refer to 10 Appendix 3: Related Documents.

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2.
2.1

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

hiT 7025 Overview


Overview

hiT 7025 is a compact carrier class full blown STM-16/-4/-1 add-drop-multiplexer. hiT
7025 supports core equipment protection with no single point of failure, and PDH electrical
protection.
It offers rich Ethernet features.
Applications:
Optimized for SDH applications with data capabilities
In transmission networks of mobile network
Central office STM-16/-4/-1 add drop multiplexer
Highend enterprise services
hiT 7025 offers a High Order cross connection capacity up to 33G and a Low Order cross
connection capacity up to 10G.

Figure 2 - hiT 7025 chassis

hiT 7025 offers a powerful and cost-effective product design for PDH, SDH and data
applications independent if these applications capabilities are requested for use in central
offices, fixed part of mobile networks or in combination with highend enterprise services.
hiT 7025 supports the complete range of PDH and SDH interfaces ranging from E1,
E3/DS3, STM-1 el./opt. up to STM-4 and even STM-16. It provides a full suite of SDH
functions including mapping, multiplexing, cross-connection and various protection
schemes.
hiT 7025 has a modular and scalable design, enabling a pay-as-you-grow deployment
plan. The system can be initially deployed as a low cost, modest capacity system, and
then enlarged to a high capacity, multi-service system. A large variety of service modules
ensure a cost-effective match with service demands of today while retaining superior
flexibility to meet future service requirements.
Its advance software architecture design results in a highly fault-tolerant system.
Combined with built-in hardware redundancies, hiT 7025 achieves carrier-class reliability
with 99.999% availability.
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The system is fully compliant with ITU-T and/or IEEE standards, and is inter-operable with
other standards-based SDH, multi-service transport, and data communication products.
Utilizing hiT 7025 in combination with the multi-service capabilities of Coriant TNMS
network management system, service providers can cost-effectively grow their embedded
base networks or launch new networks

2.1.1

Physical Structure

The physical dimensions of hiT 7025 chassis are 445mm (wide) 238mm (high)
240mm (deep) (300mm back to door), which is compliant to 19 and 21 inch industry
standards.
LC1

LC5

IO1

LC2

LC6

IO2

LC3

LC7

IO3

LC4

LC8

IO4

F
A
N

CC1 w STM-16/4/1

SI

CC2 w/ STM-16/4/1

PWR1

SCE

PWR2

Figure 3 hiT 7025 Physical Structure

The dimension of physical cards is:


CC cards

253 mm x 264 mm x 30mm

Short cards

238 mm x 130 mm x 30 mm

IO1-4/

229 mm x 130 mm x 33 mm

SI/PWR

198 mm x 130 mm x 33 mm

FAN

246 mm x 225 mm x 36 mm

All external interfaces have front access.

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2.1.2

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Cross Connection and Switching Capability

hiT 7025 supports two types of cross connection and switching capabilities:
ADM-4/-1: 7.2G/2.5G CC with 1x STM-4/-1 line interface:
HOCC: (7.2G)
LOCC: (2.5G)
ADM-16/-4: 15.2G/5 CC with 1x STM-16/-4 line interface:
HOCC: 15.2G
LOCC: 5G

ADM-16/-4/-1: 33G/10 CC with 2*STM-16 or 1*STM-16+4*STM-4/1:


HOCC: 33G
LOCC: 10G

2.1.3

Line/Service Interface

hiT 7025 provides the following line interfaces:

1) SDH: 1 STM-4 Optical Line Interface Board


2) SDH: 2 STM-1 Optical Interface Board
3) SDH: 4 STM-1 Optical Interface Board
4) SDH: 2 STM-1E (W/P) Electrical Interface Card
5) SDH: 2 STM-1E PaddleCard
6) PDH: 3 E3/DS3 (W/P) interface card
7) PDH: 3 E3/DS3 Paddle
8) PDH: 21 E1 (W/P) client interface card
9) PDH: 21 E1 75ohm Paddle
10) PDH: 21 E1 120ohm Paddle
11) IP/Ethernet: 8 FE/L2 interface card
12) IP/Ethernet: 8 FE/T Ethernet interface card
13) IP/Ethernet: 1 GE/T interface card

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14) Optical Amplifier cards (13, 15 and 18 dBm)


15) Optical Pre-Amplifier card (20dB)
16) 4 x GE/T interface card

2.2

Data Capabilities

hiT 7025 supports GFP (ITU-T G.7041 / Y.1303) encapsulation for Ethernet data.
hiT 7025 supports VC-12-nv, VC-3-nv and VC-4-nv virtual concatenation (ITU-T G.707 /
Y.1322) efficiently mapping data traffic into SDH payload. hiT 7025 also supports LCAS
(G.7042) at VC-12-nv, VC-3-nv and VC-4-nv level, which provides dynamic bandwidth
adjustment.
hiT 7025 provides SDH network protection functions including Multiplex Section Shared
Protection Ring, Multiplex Section Protection 1 + 1 unidirectional/bi-directional, and SubNetwork Connection Protection (SNCP) at VC-12/-3/-4 levels.

2.3

Advanced Data Service Support

hiT 7025 supports the following Layer 2 data functions:


1) IEEE 802.1Q (VLAN)
2) Input information limiting
3) Class of Service
4) GFP
5) VCAT and LCAS
6) RSTP
7) Layer 2 multicast
8) ESR
9) Port aggregation and VLAN aggregation

2.3.1

IEEE 802.1Q (VLAN)

hiT 7025 supports Ethernet switching function, which is in compliance with IEEE Standard
802.1Q. hiT 7025 supports VLAN on a per port basis. Each data port can be enabled or
disabled for VLAN function.

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At the ingress, each port can be set either to accept both VLAN-tagged and untagged
frames, or to accept only the VLAN-tagged frames depending on the application
requirements. At the egress, each port can be set to remove the VLAN tags or keep the
VLAN tags. It is also possible to assign each port a PVID (Port-based VLAN ID), which will
be inserted to the untagged frames as a VLAN ID when the frames come into the port. In
addition, each port can be put into one or more VLANs by assigning a VLAN list to it,
allowing different customers or different applications to share the same port. All services
within the specific VLAN in the list can dynamically share the bandwidth of the port and
still retain security. If the port belongs to a VLAN, the frames of that VLAN will be able to
pass-through the port; otherwise the frames will be discarded.
Optionally, each port can be set to transparent mode, meaning that no switching functions
will be performed on the frames. In this case, the pairing of one LAN (customer) port and
one WAN (internal uplink) port must be established.

2.3.2

Input Information Rating Limiting

hiT 7025 supports Input Rate Limiting function on a port basis or a VLAN basis.
An input information rate-limiting feature allows the one to control the maximum bandwidth
an end user can obtain from the network. The minimum rate is 128 Kbit/s, and the
bandwidth incremental granularity is as low as 128 Kbit/s.

2.3.3

Class of Service

hiT 7025 supports 802.1p CoS at a port basis or a VLAN basis.


At the ingress of every port, there is a buffer to accommodate the input burst when the
output port is congested. The memory for buffering is shared among all ports on a card,
and the total capacity is up to 16 Mbytes. At the egress of every port, there are four
queues, which can be assigned with different priorities or weights. The scheduling scheme
can be set either to strict policing or Weighted Round-Robin.

2.3.4

GFP Data Encapsulation

hiT 7025 incorporates advanced Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) (G.7041 / Y.1303)
mapping scheme to encapsulate Ethernet traffic into SDH payloads. GFP encapsulated
data is then mapped into SDH payloads using Virtual Concatenation techniques of ITU-T
standard G.707/Y.1322. This process provides the most efficient mapping of the packets
and the greatest bandwidth

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2.3.5

Technical Description hiT 7025


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Virtual Concatenation and LCAS

hiT 7025 supports VC-12-nv, VC-3-nv and VC-4-nv. The VC provides fine-tuned SDH
pipes to match the needs of packet and to boost carriers traffic-handling scalability and
efficiency. The system can accommodate up to 48ms (for all transparent cards) or 32 ms
(for FE/L2 card) delay deference between the fastest VC-4 member and the slowest VC-4
member and accommodate 16 ms delay deference between the fastest VC-12 member
and the slowest VC-12 member..
hiT 7025 supports LCAS. The combination of VCAT and LCAS provide soft protection
schemes. LCAS provides dynamic adjustment of the size of a virtually concatenated group
of channels.

2.3.6

RSTP Based Protection

The Rapid Spanning Tree protocol acc. IEEE 802.1w and MSTP acc. IEEE 802.1s
prevent against loops at the WAN side of the network while providing L2 protection.

2.3.7

L2 Multicast Function

hiT 7025 supports Layer 2 multicast functionality including pre-provisioned static


multicast, or IGMP Snooping controlled dynamic multicast.

2.3.8

Ethernet Transport Schemes

hiT 7025 supports three Ethernet data transport schemes, which are described below:
Point-to-point transparent
In this mechanism, dedicated bandwidth is assigned to end-to-end traffic. The Virtual
Concatenation technique is used in the hiT products to provide more efficient
bandwidth assignment. This scheme is more suitable for high security requirements
and delay-sensitive traffic as each traffic has a dedicated bandwidth. The drawback is
the limited bandwidth efficiency. As we know, Ethernet traffic has bursty
characteristics and is delay insensitive. Statistical multiplexing is usually employed in
data network to achieve bandwidth efficiency. Dedicated bandwidth per data flow is
not efficient for bursty traffic transmission.
Layer 2 aggregation
In this mechanism, the Ethernet switching and aggregation is performed at the NE to
allow local user traffic to be aggregated into a higher rate SDH trunk. The statistical
multiplexing of multiple Ethernet traffic makes the bandwidth utilization more efficient.
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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Port Cross Connection


That means the frame from ingress port (both WAN or LAN) will be forward to egress
port (both WAN or LAN) according to the ingress port. At the ingress port a forward
table is configured by operator to define the egress port base on the ingress port
Port + VLAN Cross Connection (VLAN aggregation)
That means the frame from ingress port from ingress port (both WAN or LAN) will be
forward to egress port (both WAN or LAN) according to its VLAN tag. At the ingress
port a forward table is configured by operator to define the egress port based on
VLAN. Untagged frame will be discarded.
Ethernet Shared Ring (ESR)
The ESR (Ethernet Shared Ring) is a variable length packet switched multi-node ring.
Data traffic shares the same ring bandwidth
Nodes on ring have IEEE802.3 Address
Header has IEEE802.3 type Destination Address and Source Address
MAC and VLAN based switching
Destination strips unicast packets
Drop and continue for broadcast and multicast
Source node strips broadcast packets
Class of Service indication in the header supports multiple traffic priorities on ring
Rapid Spanning Tree protocol (IEEE 802.1w and IEEE802.1s) to prevent building
loops and to provide layer 2 protections in ring configuration.
The ESR (Ethernet Shared Ring) technology can efficiently add/drop or duplicate the
data traffic on a ring. This dramatically increases the transport efficiency when
compared with the traditional point-to-point networking technology that may lead to
back-haul traffic and inefficient multicast traffic.
ESR is based on the RSTP technology to prevent the Ethernet Loop and Broadcast
Storm. If using the Multi-STP, functionality of the spatial reuse, different VLAN can go
through different path, and can balance the traffic between the different paths.

(a) Point-to-point
(transparent)

9WAN
Interfaces

3 LAN
interfaces

(b) Local Aggregation


-Layer 2switching
-VLAN aggregation
3WAN
interfaces

3 LAN
interfaces

(c) Ethernet Shared Ring

2WAN
interfaces

3 LAN
interfaces

Local muxing

Figure 4 - Three Ethernet data transmission methods in hiT 7025 ring

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2.4

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Network Protections

hiT 7025 provides traffic protection in the SDH layer:


MS-Spring at STM-4 and STM-16 level,
1+1 MSP at STM-1and STM-4 and STM-16 level,
Both of SNCP/I and SNCP/N at VC-12, LO VC-3, HO VC-4, and HO VC-4-4c level.
DNI at STM-16 and STM-4 Level
hiT 7025 also provides traffic protection in the Ethernet layer:
LCAS soft protection (Diverses routing),
Link aggregation at LAN and WAN side.

2.5

Main Features & Strengths

2.5.1

Flexibility

hiT 7025 offers the flexibility to be used as full blown ADM-1/ ADM-4 to compact ADM-16.
Interconnection to your SDH network can be at STM-16, STM-4 or STM-1 level.
For reach of very long and ultra long distance applications without use of intermediated
regenerators optical booster and preamplifiers are offered. Maximum distances up to 160
km (in compliance with ITU-T Recommendation G.692 U-16.2/3) can be achieved.

2.5.2

Reliability

hiT 7025 is due to its full redundancy concept a very reliable product:
The system is based on the standardized SDH technology, which is a market proven
networking technology.
Highly integrated components guarantee for highest system reliability:
Optical transmission can be protected using Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring,
Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP), and Multiplex Section Protection 1+1
unidirectional / bidirectional.
Thermal Sensor detects if the internal temperature exceeds the threshold and raise the
over temperature alarm.

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2.5.3

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Modularity and Scalability

hiT 7025 is of modular design and allows therefore a high configuration versatility.
All optical line interfaces uses SFP optical modules. This modularity reduces the sparepart
stock and increases the flexibility of the system as on the same card different types of
SFP modules can be used on different ports (e.g. short haul and long haul).
The scalability from full blow ADM-1/ ADM-4 to compact ADM-16 allows for flexible growth
with evolving networking needs.
hiT 7025 offers the ability to interface with all NSN and other vendors optical networking
systems.
The same applies for data processing equipment offers standardized Ethernet interface
(10/100 BaseT, 1000/100/100 BaseT, 100 Base FX , FC1G or 2G and Gigabit Ethernet).

2.5.4

Ease of use

All optical and electrical interfaces have front access.


Support for Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) optical interfaces for STM-16, STM-4,
STM-1, and GE SFP optical interfaces, allow convenient field replacement of the optical
interfaces. As the network evolves, different optical modules can be inserted to meet the
changing network environment and growth.
Additional, state-of-art electrical SFP module is supported for STM-1 interface card and
GE card.

2.5.5

Data Handling Capabilities

Support for 4094 VLANs per L2 switch card in order to transport end-user data securely
with a variety of Class-of-Service options that allow differentiated services between users
or between applications with a given user.
Ethernet traffic is encapsulated into SDH using either GFP. This provides the most
advanced and efficient way to carry data traffic within a SDH network.
Virtual Concatenation is used to provide scalable, efficient, compatible, and resilient use of
SDH to move traffic. This greatly increases the useable bandwidth of the network.

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3.

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

System Application

hiT 7025 multi-service access platform is a highly flexible product capable of supporting a
variety of network applications like bandwidth access, service-on-demand and LAN
services.
hiT 7025 can be configured in such a way that it supports a large variety of network
applications with any mix of PDH, SDH and Ethernet services.

3.1

Networking Capability

hiT 7025 provides high flexibility and compactness supporting a large variety of
configurations for STM-16, STM-4 and STM-1 network applications:
Termination and multiplexing
Small local cross connect
Linear
Ring
Multi Ring closure

3.1.1

Termination and Multiplexing (TM)

hiT 7025 system can be configured to function as a hub-Terminal at STM-16, STM-4 or


STM-1 level.
E1
E3/DS3

STM-1/-4/16

10/100M
10/100/1000M

hiT 7025

100M FX
GE
STM-1E
STM-1/4
ATM IMA
FC

Figure 5 - hiT 7025 termination and multiplexing capability

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3.1.2

Technical Description hiT 7025


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Hubbing and Local Cross Connect

hiT 7025 system can be used to function as a small local cross-connect system (or can
be applied in hubbing configurations). This allows various hybrid network architectures
with a variety of connection speeds and network topologies such as rings, multi-rings,
subtending rings, or linear structures. This eliminates the need for back-to-back terminals
and greatly increases network flexibility.
hiT 7025 can serve a cluster of other terminals, for example hiT 7030 or other vendors
products that have standard SDH interfaces, located at remote sites, through point-topoint connections with optional 1+1 MSP protection. It also serves as an aggregation Hub
for Subtending Rings. This feature eliminates back-to-back terminals that would be
required to serve multi-ring connections using equipment with less ring-closure
capabilities.

STM-1/-4/16

STM-1/-4/16

hiT 7025

E1
E3/DS3
100/100M
10/100/1000M
100M FX
GE
STM-1E
STM-1/4
ATM IMA
FC

Figure 6 - hiT 7025 termination and multiplexing capability

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3.1.3

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Linear

hiT 7025 supports STM-16/-4/-1 linear network topology as depicted in figure below:

hiT7025
TM

hiT7025
ADM

hiT7025
TM

Figure 7 - hiT 7025 linear network configuration

3.1.4

Ring

Rings provide redundant bandwidth and/or equipment to ensure system integrity in the
event of any transmission or timing failure, including a fiber cut or node failure. A ring is a
collection of nodes that form a closed loop, in which each node is connected to adjacent
nodes.
hiT 7025 supports two-fiber MS-SPRing. Figure below shows a hiT 7025 ring example.

hiT7025

hiT7025

2-Fiber STM-4/16 ring

hiT7025

hiT7025
Figure 8 - hiT 7025 2-fiber MS-SPRing application

When using the MS-SPRing protection mechanism, rings ranging from 3 to 16 nodes are
supported (the maximum of 16 nodes in a ring is specified in G.841). They perform
automatic protection switching (revertive) in less than 50 milliseconds.

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3.1.5

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Multiple Ring Closure

A single network element as depicted in Figure 9 can interconnect two hiT 7025 rings
working at different or the same line speeds.

hiT7025

hiT7025

Ring 1

hiT7025

Ring 2

hiT7025

(STM-1/4/16)

(STM-4/16)

hiT7025

hiT7025

hiT7025

Figure 9 - Multiple Ring closure at a single hiT 7025 node

3.1.6

OA extension shelf

In OA Extension Shelf Mode the hiT 7025 can be used as an Optical Amplifier (OA)
extension shelf for the hiT 70xx series products. This configuration has no CC, tributary,
or line cards. Only basic cards (power, fan, Enhanced System Controller (SCE)), and
Optical Amplifier (OA) cards are supported.
Connection is made either directly between the management ports of these two NEs or if
multiple OA Extension Shelves are required, through a hub or switch (see Fig. 3.1).

SURPASS hiT 7025


OA Extension Shelf

SURPASS hiT 7025


OA Extension Shelf

MAIN SHELF

MGT Port 1

SWITCH
/ HUB

MGT Port 2
When more than one OA Extension Shelf is needed,
a hub or switch is necessary

Fig. 3.1

OA Extension Shelf connection to main shelf

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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In OA Extension Shelf configuration, the NE has no cross connect card or tributary cards
and can be equipped with up to 8 OA cards in slots 1 (LC1) to 8 (LC8).

3.2

Ethernet Service Applications

hiT 7025 provides data transport over SDH, and offers various data applications in
addition to traditional TDM applications. This offers service providers a cost-effective,
simple, and reliable multi-service solution for their customers.
hiT 7025 can provide aggregation from any port to any port, and then connect it to a
router. hiT 7025 can support up to 4094 VLANs on the Ethernet port allowing bandwidth
to be shared for different customer applications depending on the priority or security
required for the application.
Normally a user does not require all of the available bandwidth, for instance 600 Mbit/s
which can be provided by a VC-4-4v. By using the VLAN capability, the whole bandwidth
of 600 Mbit/s can be allocated across multiple users, giving each a committed information
input rate. Hence, the bandwidth of the physical link can be more effectively utilized.
In addition, using Virtual Concatenation and LCAS can more accurately adjust the
physical bandwidth to meet customer demands, as opposed to traditional contiguous
concatenation. This further enhances bandwidth efficiency.
Additionally to being able to provide precise customer-required bandwidth levels, four
queues for service priority can be assigned per Port/VLAN. This enables additional
flexibility in pricing and over-subscription service plans.
By using the VLAN function, the operator can provide Transparent VLAN Service (TVS)
for different customers. For example, a GE user or multiple 10/100M Ethernet users can
be aggregated and transported while retaining secure connections.
The use of GFP data mapping techniques within hiT 7025 greatly improves the bandwidth
efficiency of the connections.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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4.

System Description

4.1

Physical Structure and Module Construction

hiT 7025 is designed to fit ETSI (21 inch) and EIA 300 (19 inch) requirements. A hiT 7025
chassis view is shown below:

Figure 10 - hiT 7025 Chassis view

hiT 7025 sub-rack is structured using a horizontal oriented, multi-card chassis.

4.1.1

Chassis Slot Naming

hiT 7025 chassis slot and slot naming is shown below:


LC stands for Line Card, CC stands for Cross Connect Card, SC stands for System
Controller, IO stands for Input/Ouput Card, SI stands for System Interface and PWR
stands for Power filter and converter module.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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LC1

LC5

IO1

LC2

LC6

IO2

LC3

LC7

IO3

LC4

LC8

IO4

F
A
N

CC1 w STM-16/4/1

SI

CC2 w/ STM-16/4/1

PWR1

SCE

PWR2

Figure 11 - hiT 7025 chassis slot naming

4.1.2

hiT 7025 interface options

In the following table all interface options provided by hiT 7025 are listed.
Card Name

Allowable Card Location

Maximum number of
ports
[per system]

Cross Connect Card with 1xSTM-4/-1

CC1, CC2

1 [2]

Cross Connect Card with 1xSTM-16/-4

CC1, CC2

1 [2]

Cross Connect Card with 2xSTM-16 or


1*STM-16+4*STM-4/1

CC1, CC2

1 STM-4 Line Interface Board

2 STM-1 Line Interface Board

4x STM-1 Line Interface Board

2 STM-1E Interface Board

5 [10]

LC1 to LC47.2G/2.5G

1 [4]7.2G/2.5G

LC1 to LC815.2G/5G

1 [8]15.2G/5G

LC1 to LC8 ( 33G/10G)

1 [8]33G/10G

LC1 to LC47.2G/2.5G

2 [8]7.2G/2.5G

LC1 to LC815.2G/5G

2 [16]15.2G/5G

LC1 to LC833G/10G

2 [16]33G/10G

LC1 to LC47.2G/2.5G

4 [16]7.2G/2.5G

LC1 to LC815.2G/5G
LC1 to LC833G/10G

4 [32]15.2G/5G

LC3 or LC4

2 [2]

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Card Name

Allowable Card Location

Maximum number of
ports
[per system]

LC1 to LC8

8 FE/T Card

8 [64]
8 [32] (7.2G/2.5G)

LC1 to LC8

8 FE/L2

8 [32] (15.2G/5G)
8 [32] (33G/10G)

1 GE/T

LC1 to LC8

1 [8]

4 GE/T

LC1, LC2,LC7, LC8

4 [16]

4xGE/L2

LC1, LC2,LC7, LC8

4 [16]

3 E3/DS3

LC3, LC4

3 [6]

21 E1

LC5 to LC8

21 [84]

Figure 12 - hiT 7025 Cards List

Both the optical and electrical interface access is on the front of the sub-rack. Card
faceplates are provided for all cards with information on card type, LED description, and
unique serial number on each label. Faceplate covers are available for empty slots.

4.2

Power Supply

hiT 7025 DC power supply provides two -40V DC to -72V DC power supplies to offer full
equipment redundancy.

4.3

FAN

There is one fan assembly on the left side of the chassis. The fan working status is
indicated at the interface panel. The fan assembly is replaceable when the system is in
service.

4.4

System Controller (SC, SCE and SCE plus)

hiT 7025 has a dedicated system controller. This controller has on its front side several
service interfaces: management, console, MDI/MDO, etc.

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4.5

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

System Interface Panel (SI)

The system interface panel provides the synchronization interfaces (T3 and T4).

4.6

Cross-Connect Switching (CC)

The CC card provides a cross connect function. To fit the customers different application
economically, the hiT 7035 provide three types of CC cards: one with 15.2G/5G with 1
STM-16/-4, one with 7.2G/2.5G with 1 STM-4/-1 and one with 32.8G/10G and 2*STM-16
or 1*STM-16 + 4*STM-4/1.

4.7

SDH Interfaces

hiT 7025 provides following SDH interfaces:


1 STM-4 Interface Board
2 STM-1 Interface Board
4x STM-1 Interface Board
2 STM-1E interface Card

4.7.1

1x STM-4 Interface Board

This board provides 1 optical interface with a signal rate of 622 Mbits/s. The STM-4
interface is fully compliant with ITU-T G.707 and G.957 standards. This module supports
hot swappable SFP optical module. The STM-4 optical interface on this board can be
paired with any STM-4 interface on another board for 2-fiber STM-4 ring closure. The
STM-4 ring supports MS-SPRING, MSP, and SNCP protection function.

4.7.2

2 STM-1 Interface Board

This board provides 2 optical interfaces with a signal rate of 155 Mbits/s. The STM-1
interfaces are fully compliant with ITU-T G.707 and G.957 standards. This board supports
two hot swappable SFP optical modules or SFP electrical modules. On STM-1 level MSP
and SNCP protection is supported.
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4.7.3

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

4 STM-1 Interface Board

This board provides 4 optical interfaces with a signal rate of 155 Mbits/s. The STM-1
interfaces are fully compliant with ITU-T G.707 and G.957 standards. This board supports
four hot swappable SFP optical modules or SFP electrical modules. On STM-1 level MSP
and SNCP protection is supported.

4.7.4

2 STM-1E (W/P) Interface

This card offers 2 STM-1E electrical interface, and supports redundant (1+1) 2 STM-1E
card protection.
Using the redundancy option implement the following devices two 2 STM-1E functional
cards and one 2 STM-1E I/O board.
The 2 STM-1E functional card performs 2 STM-1E signal mapping and framing
function.
The 2 STM-1E EC board provide 2 STM-1E interfaces. This board is connected to both
2 STM-1E (working) and 2 STM-1E (protection) card simultaneously.
Under normal condition, the STM-1E client interface is connected to the 2 STM-1E
(working) card. If the 2 STM-1E (working) card fails, the 2 STM-1E EC board will switch
to the 2 STM-1E (protection) card.
Figure 13 depicts the functional block diagram of 2 STM-1E (W/P) card protection.

2 STM-1E (W)
2 STM-1E EC

2x STM-1E transceiver
& Framing function

Selector
Relay

To CC board
via Backplane

To client
equipment

2 STM-1E (P)
2x STM-1E transceiver
& Framing function

SC

Figure 13 - Functional block diagram of 2 STM-1E (W/P) card protection

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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4.8

PDH and Data Service Interfaces

hiT 7025 supports the following service cards:


Data cards:
8 FE/L2 Service Interface Card
8 FE/T Service Interface Card
1x GE/T Service Interface Board
4x GE/T Service Interface Board
PDH cards:
3 E3/DS3 (W/P) Interface Card
21 E1 (W/P) Interface Card

4.8.1

8x FE/L2 Service Interface Card

This card provides 410/100M Base-T interfaces (RJ-45), One RJ45 can be used for two
LAN ports, There are eight WAN ports on the network side. Up to 8x 10/100M traffic can
be aggregated at WAN port side and forwarded to a SDH line interface for transmission
with up tp 4 VC-4 at the network / WAN side.
Ethernet over SDH functions by this card are:
Supports GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)
Scalable bandwidth through VC-12-nv (n=1,,46) and VC-3-nv (n=1,2)
LCAS support according ITU-T G.7042
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) 1800 bytes
The Layer 2 functions supported by this card are:
10/100Mbit/s Ethernet VLAN trunking
VLAN and double VLAN tagging, providing increased number of VLANs
Access Control List (ACL) based on MAC addresses
Rapid Spanning Tree (802.1w) for the WAN ports, dramatically reducing restoration
time
Layer 2 multicast functions (including static provisioned multicast and IGMP Snooping
multicast functions), saving bandwidth on applications such as multi-media video
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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Layer 2 aggregation function


Providing per port/VLAN rate limiting function: the rate range of each port is from
128kbps~100Mbps, and the rate provisioning granularity is 128kbps
Providing 802.1p QoS/CoS based on Ethernet port and/or VLAN

4x RJ-45
connectors

Ouad
100Bas e-T
PHY

Layer 2

EOS
(GFP)
VC-12 -nv,
VC-3-nv,
VC-4-nv

4xVC-4 to XCT
via backpl ane

Figure 14 - 8 FE/L2 card functional block diagram

Each LAN and WAN interface has a buffer to support bursty data traffic transmission. The
input buffer of the interface can accommodate up to 256 frames. Each interface has 8
output queues, each of which has a buffer that can accommodate up to 96 frames to be
sent out. As each input buffer and output buffers are independently using the dedicated
memory spaces, instead of sharing any common memory space, there will be no mutual
influence between the input buffer and the output buffers.

Interface

Description
4x RJ-45 connectors, each connector supports two
channels of Fast Ethernet service via an external ethernet
splitter
Standard compliance

FE Electrical
Interface

10M BASE-T (IEEE 802.3)


100M BASE-T (IEEE 802.3u)
Data rate supported
10Mbit/s (half-duplex, full-duplex, flow control)
100Mbit/s (half-duplex, full-duplex, flow control)

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Interface

Description
Cables:
Use of 4 ports only:
10/100 BASE-T: 100 Ohms two pairs shielded twisted pair
cable (STP) and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable
(Category 5 UTP). The reaching distance is up to 100m
Use of 8 ports:
10/100 BASE-T: 100 Ohms four pairs shielded twisted pair
cable (Category 5) in combination with 2-in-1 RJ45 splitter.

Figure 15 - 8 FE/L2 interface card external interfaces

Name

(FE port
LED)

Color

Status

Functional Description

A green LED per


interface indicates
the link up and down

On
OFF

The link is down.

A yellow LED per


interface indicates
the activity

ON

Transmitting or receiving
data.

OFF

No data.

The link is up.

Figure 16 - 8 FE/L2 card LEDs

4.8.2

4xGE/L2 Service Interface Card

This card provides four Gigabit Ethernet optical interface. The basic functionality of the
card is to provide L2 switching, GFP, high order virtual concatenation, LCAS and WAN
ports aggregation. The GE ports can be use as optical GE, FX or electrical
10M/100M/1000M ports together with electrical SFPs inserted. The 4xGE/L2 board
supports VC-4-Xv, VC-3-Xv and VC-12-Xv mapping.
Summary of key functions:

VLAN cross-connection and port cross-connection

802.3x Flow Control

802.1q VLAN , VLAN stacking

802.1w RSTP, 802.1s MSTP Ingress

Per port/VLAN rate Limiting

LAG on WAN and LAN ports

Jumbo Frames
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Technical Description hiT 7025


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4.8.3

MAC based ACL

Layer 2 multicast support via IGMP snooping

IEEE 802.1p based CoS, Policing CIR/PIR, WRED

Strict priority and WRR scheduling scheme

8 QoS queues per port

LCAS per VCG

Ethernet OAM base on ITU-T.1731 and IEEE 802.1ag

8x FE/T Service Interface Card

This card has 8 10/100M Base-T IEEE 802.3 compatible Ethernet interface ports, and
can provide transparent transmission for up to 8x 10/100M connections. The total
available bandwidth on the network side is 4 VC-4 equivalent.
Supports GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)
Scalable bandwidth through VC-12-nv (n=1,,46) and VC-3-nv (n=1..3)
LCAS support according ITU-T G.7042
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) 1800 bytes, up to 9600 bytes (jumbo frame
support)
Even with minimal equipment investment, this Ethernet card still provides very attractive
services to the end customers, like:
Scalable bandwidth without having to change interfaces
A transparent LAN service that hides the complexity of the WAN for end users (a
WAN that looks like a LAN)
High availability LAN service because of end-to-end SDH protection switching

Network side:
Total 4xVC4
bandwidth
(to the backplane)
Client side:
Up to 8 FE
signals

4x RJ-45
connectors

Octal
100Base-T
PHY

EOS (GFP,
LAPS, VC12-nv, VC-3)

Figure 17 - 8 FE/T card functional block diagram

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Interface

Description
4x RJ-45 connectors, each connector supports two channels
of Fast Ethernet service via an external ethernet spiltter
Standard compliance
10M BASE-T (IEEE 802.3)
100M BASE-T (IEEE 802.3u)
Data rate supported
10Mbit/s (half-duplex, full-duplex, flow control)

FE Electrical
Interface

100Mbit/s (half-duplex, full-duplex, flow control)


Cables:
Use of 4 ports only:
10/100 BASE-T: 100 Ohms two pairs shielded twisted pair
cable (STP) and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable
(Category 5 UTP). The reaching distance is up to 100m
Use of 8 ports:
10/100 BASE-T: 100 Ohms four pairs shielded twisted pair
cable (Category 5) in combination with 2-in-1 RJ45 splitter.
Figure 18 - 8 FE/T interface card external interfaces

Name

(FE port
LED)

Color

Status

Functional Description

A green LED per


interface indicates
the link up and down

On
OFF

The link is down.

A yellow LED per


interface indicates
the activity

ON

Transmitting or receiving
data.

OFF

No data.

The link is up.

Figure 19 - 8 FE/T card LEDs

4.8.4

1x GE/T Service Interface Board

The board provides one 1000Base-X interface (1 SFP module).


Application:
GE p2p; Mapping into VC-4-Xv (X=1...4) or VC-3-Xv(X=112) payload for
transmission.
Virtual mode enabled: The Ethernet side provides eight 10/100 Mbps virtual ports
VLAN aggregation function is used.
VC4, VC-3-Xv(X=13), VC-12-Xv(X=146) mapping is available.
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The functional block diagram of this board is depicted in the following figure:
GE
PHY

EoS
Mapper

VCG

Switch
Fabric

WAN port

GE LAN port

(a) Transparent Mode

VCG#1

Virtual port #1
GE
PHY
GE LAN port

EoS
Mapper

Virtual port #2
Virtual port #n

VCG#2

Switch
Fabric

VCG#n
WAN port

(b) Virtual Port Mode

Figure 20 - 1 GE/T service board module functional block diagram

For hiT 7025, 1xGE/T can also be inserted on SLOT 5/6/7/8 when 15.2G/5G CC is
configured.
For hiT7025 system with 15.2G/5G CC, 1xGE/T backplane bandwidth is 4xVC-4 when it is
at slot 1/2/3/4 and 1xGE/T backplane bandwidth is 1xVC-4 when it is at slot 5/6/7/8.
Supports GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)
Scalable bandwidth through VC-3-nv (n=1,,3) and VC-4-nv (n=1..4)
LCAS support according ITU-T G.7042
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) 9600 bytes (jumbo frame support)
Even with minimal equipment investment, this Ethernet card still provides very attractive
services to the end customers, like:
Scalable bandwidth without having to change interfaces
A transparent LAN service that hides the complexity of the WAN for end users (a
WAN that looks like a LAN)
High availability LAN service because of end-to-end SDH protection switching.

4.8.5

4x GE/T Service Interface Board

This card provides 4 LAN interfaces on the side and 32 WAN ports like described in the
drawing:

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This card provides 4 client interfaces on the LAN side:


Interface ports 1 and 2 of this board can be configured as 1G Ethernet, 1G Fiber
Channel or 2G Fiber Channel:
1G Ethernet, Port 1 and Port 2 can be 1G Ethernet
1G Fiber channel, Port 1 and Port 2 can be 1G Fiber Channel
2G Fiber Channel, Port 1 can be 2G Fiber Channel
FC(1G) can have a bandwidth through VC-4-X6 and VC-3Xv(x=1 - 21 and 19 is the
best).
FC(2G) can have the bandwidth through VC-4-VX.
GE LAN can have scalable bandwidth through VC-4Xv( x=1 to 7), VC-3Xv(x=1-21)
and VC-12Xv(x=1-46).
Interface ports 3 and 4 can be configured as 1G Ethernet or 10/100/1000Mps triple
speed with E-SFP:
1000Mbps with SFP
10/100/1000Mbps with E-SFP
100Mbps with SFP

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GE LAN can have scalable bandwidth through VC-4Xv( x=1 to 7), VC-3Xv(x=1-21)
and VC-12Xv(x=1-46).
10/100/1000 Base LAN can have scalable bandwidth through VC-4Xv( x=1 to 7), VC3Xv(x=1-21) and VC-12Xv(x=1-46).
100-Base FX can have scalable bandwidth through VC-4Xv( x=1), VC-3Xv(x=1-3) and
VC-12Xv(x=1-46).
On the WAN side this card provides 32 WAN (VCG) ports to share 16xVC-4
bandwidth on the backplane and each VC4 can be mapped into VC3 or VC12. The first
WAN can have bandwidth till 14Xvc-4 so that it can used to aggregate more than two
GE traffic
This card support two Modes:
1. Port cross connection
Port cross connection function can transport the Ethernet traffic through the SDH
network using GFP-F, and transport the fiber channel packet using GFP-T
At the same time, it can support VLAN operate on the input packets includes:
1)

Just forward without any VLAN operation.

2)

Add a PVID based on Port

3)

Stack a VLAN Tag

4)

Strip VLAN tag at the egress

2. Port+VLAN cross connection (VLAN aggregation)


At the same time, it can support VLAN operate on the input packets includes:
1)

Forwarding the packet without any VLAN manipulation

2)

Stacking a VLAN tag (double tag tunneling)

3)

Ttranslating a VLAN ID (VLAN id replace)

4)

Stripping the VLAN tag at the egress (new request)

For more information about Port Cross Connection and Port+VLAN Cross Connection
feature, please refer to Appendix 9.3: Port Cross Connection and Port+VLAN Cross
Connection.
Traffic manager include Policing (CIR/PIR), QOS (VLAN priority) and Schedule
(WRED/SP/WRR) is supported in this 4*GE/T card.

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4.8.6

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

3 E3/DS3 (W/P) Interface Card

This card has 3 E3/DS3 software configurable interfaces; each E3/DS3 signal is mapped
into a Lower Order VC-3 and forwarded to line interface for transmission. The E3/DS3
interface uses CC4 connector.
Figure 21 depicts the functional block diagram of 3 E3/DS3 (W/P) card protection.

3 E3/DS3 (W)
3 E3/DS3 EC

Mapping each E3/DS3


To VC-3

Selector
Relay

To CC board
via Backplane

3 E3/DS3 (P)
Mapping each E3/DS3
To VC-3

SC

Figure 21 - Functional block diagram of 3 E3/DS3 (W/P) card protection

The hiT 7025 chassis supports 1:1 protection for the E3/DS3 card.

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4.8.7

Technical Description hiT 7025


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21 E1 (W/P) Interface Card

The 21 E1 interface card contains the following two types of cards:


(1) 21 E1 Function Card with retiming function
(2) 21 E1 EC (Electrical Connectors) Card with 75Ohm/120Ohm version connector
In the retiming mode, the transmitter eliminates wander and jitter in the incoming clock.
While the rate of the outgoing 2 Mbit/s or 2MHz signal is normally equal to the rate of the 2
Mbit/s or 2MHz signal going into the SDH network, occasionally this relationship
disappears. A retiming function is necessary for suppression of jitter and wander that the
2Mbit/s signal suffers during transmission in SDH and which makes the signal useless for
carrying the synchronous frequency to the PDH domain.
To retime an outgoing 2 Mbit/s or 2MHz signal, means simply to retime this signal with the
internal clock of the multiplexer equipment in which the de-synchronization takes place.
This can be done by reading the recovered 2Mbit/s or 2MHz signal into an elastic store
and timing the output of the elastic store with the system clock.
When the device is set in the retiming mode all jitter and wander due to the multiplexing or
de-multiplexing process in the transmission is eliminated.

4.9

Optical Amplifier

This OA (Optical Amplifier) module provides uni-directional single optical amplifier function
with optical performance monitoring capabilities.
Optical Amplifiers are available with 13, 15 or 18 dBm output power.
Additionally there is also a Pre-amplifier module available (20 dB).
These modules are designed to compensate losses in the entire C band and increasing
therefore the span performance of the system without need for intermediated
regenerators. The module functional building block diagram is shown below.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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OA Card
Optical
Signal IN

Optical
Signal OUT

EDFA Module
Embedded CPU
RS-232

FPGA

To SC (System Controller)

Figure 22 OA module functional building block diagram

The EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) sub-module is the core building block for this
card. It provides optical signal amplification function. With integrated fast digital circuit and
advanced software, the EDFA can be configured to operate at APC, ACC or AGC mode.
APC (automatic power control) mode: In this mode, the optical output power is
maintained constant by adjusting the laser pump current to compensate minor
changes in OA input power, component aging, and temperature variation. This mode
is mainly used in post-amplifier application.
AGC (automatic gain control) mode: In this mode, the OA provides constant gain
power by adjusting the pump laser current to compensate minor changes in
component aging and temperature. This mode is mainly used in pre-amplifier
application.
ACC (automatic current control) mode: In this mode, the pump laser current is
maintained constant.
These modes can be set through software according to customers requirements. In
addition, other significant parameters that need to be pre-set are:
Input optical power low threshold
Output optical power low threshold
Low and high temperature threshold for output power shutdown
This OA provides the following performances monitoring parameters:
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OA Input Power (dBm), precision to 0.01dBm


OA Output Power (dBm), precision to 0.01dBm
OA Module Gain (dB), precision to 0.01dB
OA Pump Power (mW), precision to 0.01mW
OA module internal temperature, precision to 0.1 C degree
OA module pump drive current, precision to 0.1 A
OA power module power supply voltage, precision to 0.01V
This OA module board can be configured to use one of the following 4 EDFA submodules:
Booster 13dBm
Booster 15dBm
Booster 18dBm
Pre-amp 20dB
All EDFA sub-modules above use single-stage or dual-stage un-cooled 980nm pump
lasers.
OA Safety Procedures
The OA module safety procedures supported are described in the table below.
Feature

Description

ALS

After 500ms or more of continuous presence of the LOS defect,


the laser will automatically shutdown; the reduction of the optical
output power at OA input port occurs within 800ms from the
moment loss of optical signal occurs at OA output port.

Automatic
Link restore

Whenever the OAs input signal vanishes, the OAs optical output
signal will be shut down. When the input signal returns, the output
power will be restored.
- The minimum optical signal restore delay is 100s.
- The activation for Transmitter /Receiver is less than 0.85s.
- The maximum deactivation time of booster and preamplifiers is
100 ms.
- The maximum activation time of an booster is 100 ms.
- The maximum activation time of preamplifier is 300ms.

Manual
Restore

"Manual restart" or "Manual restart for test" can only be activated


when the laser is shut down.
Figure 23 OA module safty procedure

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Interface

Description
Connector Type

Optical
Interface

Input power range

LC connector
Pre-amp

-35 to -10 dBm

Booster
amp.

-6 to +3 dBm

Figure 24 OA card external interfaces

Name
Fault

Link 1

Color
Red

Green

Status

Functional Description

ON

There are fault conditions presented in this


card.

OFF

This card is in normal condition.

ON

The OA optical link is normal.

OFF

The optical link is down.

Figure 25 OA card LEDs

4.10

User Channel (F1)

Two 64kbps G.703 interfaces are provided and the following SDH Overhead bytes can be
allocated: E1, E2 and/or F1.

4.11

Engineering Order Wire (EOW)

The hiT 7025 uses VoIP (H.323) technology to provide the EOW function on a DCC
channel or uses an external data network.
The hiT 7025 VoIP based EOW provides unicast and multicast calling, and broadcast
communications.
Traditional XOW over E1/E2/F1 will be implemented via an external XOW box.
For 7025:
There are one RJ45s on the SC card. Users may totally select all the channels of E1/E2
from the system. And will be terminated by the system. There is no limitation on the card
or STM-N port level. Only one F1 channel can be selected at the same time. On external
XOW Box, there is one V.11 access for F1 channel, and the physical interface is DB15.
And there is one RJ11 accessed for phone.

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SURPASS hiT 70 XOW


RJ 45
Cable

Phone Set

EOWC

SURPASS hiT 7025 / 7035

Figure 26 External XOW box

For more details please refer to the hiT 7035 XOW technical description.

4.12

Miscellaneous Discrete Input/Output (MDI/MDO)

The hiT 7025 provides 8 (4)* miscellaneous discrete input points and 8 miscellaneous
discrete output points (4 of MDOs are always used for rack alarm).
MDI is used to read the status of external alarm points. Both the MDI description and
severities are provision able on the management system. Any external equipment to be
monitored must provide the electrical equivalent of a contact closure across the
corresponding pairs. The MDI voltage specifications are as below:
MDI Voltage range: 0~ -75V
Inactive: 0~ -10V
Active: -18~ -75V
MDO is used to drive external devices. MDO actions are activated or deactivated
manually by the management system. Miscellaneous discrete output points are hard
contact, its contact rating as below:
Max DC Voltage: 110VDC @ 0.3A
Max AC Voltage: 125VAC @ 0.3A
Max Current: 1A @ 30VDC

* starting from Release 4.2 hiT 7025 provides 4 miscellaneous input points.
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4.13

Introduction to Software licensing

Up to now SW licenses for Next Generation Metro equipment were un-recognized add-on
items and the sales of these products have been dominated by HW selling. The SW
license structure guarantees an optimized Network performance with minimum TCO (Total
Cost of Ownership) by customized feature set. Within the hiT 70xx portfolio there are
several features are being introduced like capacity based licenses, support of Matrix
protection, support of extension shelves and ASON/GMPLS.
This SW license structure allows following equipment configuration principles:

Offer only what is actually required

Exclude non-mandatory features explicitly

Tailoring of SW bundles allows up-sell potential

Protect the individual SW value drivers by selling them separately

Do not automatically design & price all SW features for the whole network

4.13.1

General Structure of new SW items

The Software item structure implemented within the product line Next Generation Metro
are divided into 3 general categories: mandatory SW license items, optional application
feature SW license items and upgrade SW license items. These are further represented in
the following document by a colour code indicated in the drawing below.
Mandatory SW items
Optional SW items
Upgrade SW items
SW Maintenance items

Figure 27: Software license structure in Next Generation Metro

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Mandatory SW items
The mandatory Software items represent the basic functionality of the system, and one
of these core licenses are mandatory to be equipped for each equipment core.

Optional SW items
The optional Software items are items that represent additional types of functionality.
These can be:
Additional optional feature packages
Additional functionality related with HW configuration
Additional capacity

Upgrade SW items
The upgrade Software items are available for each individual product to provide release
upgrades. Release upgrades are in general upgrades where the succeeding release
contains a higher feature set. This is in general represented by a number in the release
name of the product.

SW Maintenance items
The Software Maintenance items are available for each individual product to provide
maintenance related services, namely to solve technical queries (to provide qualified
answers and assistance for any general technical/operational queries), for trouble
resolution (to handle customer reported suspected defects and o deliver workarounds
and/or final solutions) and to provide software updates (to ensure a regular, proactive,
delivery of software update packages with respective release documentation).

4.13.2

Software license structure of hiT 7025

hiT 7025 is a versatile network element having the equipping option as ADM for STM-1/-4
(equipped with a small switch matrix) or as ADM for STM-4/-16 (equipped with a large
switch matrix).
Therefore there are three different mandatory core licenses, an ADM-1/4 core license, an
ADM-4/16 license and an ADM-1/-4/-16 license.

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The main optional feature that hiT 7025 offer is equipment protection to significantly
increase the reliability of the network elements. Increased reliability is significant value
add, therefore by equipping a switch matrix protection, a matrix protection license is
needed.
Upgrade SW items are available to a release upgrade (from a release x.y to a release
x.(y+1) or increase of x).

Figure 28: Software license structure of hiT 7025

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5.

Protection and Redundancy

5.1

Network Protection

hiT 7025 supports multiple layer network protection functions and multiple layer protection
escalation. The network protection functions supported are:
MS-SPRing, in compliance with ITU-T G.841
MSP 1+1 protection, revertive or non-revertive modes, in compliance with ITU-T
G.841
SNCP at VC-12, VC-3, VC-4, VC-4-4c level in compliance with ITU-T G.841
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) to provide Layer 2 Ethernet data protection by
converging data to another path, in compliance with IEEE 802.1w protocol

5.1.1

MS-SPRing

hiT 7025 supports 2 fibers MS-SPRing at STM-16/-4 level. The protection (detection and
switching) is guaranteed to be finished within 50ms. The wait-to-restore time is user
configurable with a default value of 5 minutes. The system also supports force switching
and manual switching.
For example, In an STM-4 ring with the MS-SPRing function enabled, a total of 4 AU4s
are divided evenly into 2 groups, working AU4s (time slots 1 and 2) and protection AU4s
(time slots 3 and 4).
The hiT 7025 MS-Spring implementation supports also low priority traffic by supporting
NUT feature (Non-preempt-able Unprotected Traffic).

5.1.2

MSP

1+1 MSP (G.841/Clause 7) protects an STM-N link between two adjacent SDH MS
(multiplexing section) elements.
hiT 7025 supports 1+1 multiplex section protection (MSP) on all STM-N optical ports. The
MSP 1+1 can be either uni-direction or bi-direction. The protection time is less than 50ms.
hiT 7025 also supports Manual Switch and Forced Switch of MSP, revertive and nonrevertive MSP.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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SNCP

hiT 7025 supports Sub-Network Connection (SNC) protection (ITU-T G.841). It is


available at VC-12, VC-3, VC-4 and VC-4-4c level. hiT 7025 supports VC-4/-3/-12 SNC
protection between any pair of VC-4/-3/-12s in any STM-N cards and also supports VC-44c SNC protection in STM-4 cards and STM-16 ports.
The protection switch time for SNC protection is less than 50 ms.
The SNC protection scheme supported in hiT 7025 is an inherently monitored SNCP
(SNCP/I) or non-intrusively monitored SNCP (SNCP/N). The SNCP protected VC-4s are
protected against AIS or LOP at the AU-4 level (server layer defects) and against
misconnections (trace identifier mismatch or VC-4 dTIM), disconnections (unequipped
signal or VC-4 dUNEQ), or signal degradations (VC-4 dDEG) in the VC-4 itself. Likewise,
SNCP protected VC-3s and VC-12s are protected against TU3/12-AIS, TU3/12-LOP
(server layer defects), VC-3/12 dTIM, dUNEQ, and dDEG. Also SNCP protected VC-4-4cs
are protected against AU-4-4c-LOP/AIS, MS-AIS, LOF, LOS, VC-4-4c- dTIM, dUNEQ and
dDEG.
The hiT 7025 SNCP implementation supports also non-revertive, single-ended and drop &
continues features.
An advantage of SNCP is the flexibility to select any segment of the path for protection.
The SNC protection can be applied to an end-to-end (from source to sink termination
point) VC-n path, or to one or multiple links within the end-to-end path. It is also simple
and easy to implement, as there is no signaling required between the source and
destination nodes.

5.1.4

DNI

hiT 7035 supports Dual Node Inter-working (DNI) protection (ITU-T G.841). It is a
protection mechanism between two rings with dual node connections. Each ring may be
configured for MS-shared protection or SNCP protection.
The ring interconnection can work at STM-1 electrical or STM-N optical rate level.
The DNI architecture has the capacity of protecting against the failure of one
interconnecting node, two interconnecting nodes, or the connection between the two
interconnecting nodes. It depends on detecting path defects. To avoid propagation of
failures when possible, a hold-off time is allowed.
The service interrupt time by external command and node failure, signal failure, card
failure, SFP failure for DNI/DRI protection is less than hold-off time plus 50ms.

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5.1.5

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

LCAS

hiT 7025 supports the combination of VCAT and LCAS to provide VC-4, VC-3 or VC-12
level protection. LCAS allows hitless adjustment of the size of a virtually concatenated
group of channels.
For example, whenVC-4-nv bandwidth is used to transmit data traffic through the network.
In the case that certain VC-4s in the same VC-4-nv group fail, hiT 7025 will use LCAS to
delete the failed VCs from the group, and the traffic is dynamically, or on the fly adapted to
the rest VC-4s bandwidth for transmission. Without LCAS, partial bandwidth failure will
result in the failure of the end-to-end traffic transmission.
When the failure is repaired, the LCAS will automatically add (recover) the deleted VC-4s
to the VC group.

5.1.6

Ethernet Shared Protection Ring

hiT 7025 supports L2 switching and RSTP (IEEE 802.1w compliant) based L2 protection
in ESR. The convergence time can reach less than two seconds. RSTP based protection
is different from SDH layer protection. SDH protection is considered a physical layer
protection, while RSTP is a Layer 2 protection. When layer 2 Ethernet data fault is
detected, even though the physical connectivity is good, RSTP will make the convergence
of the data to another physical path.

5.1.7

Multiple Layers Protection

hiT 7025 supports network protection functions in multiple layers. These layers are SDH
and Ethernet data. In order to coordinate the protection activities between layers, hiT 7025
provides a protection escalation mechanism. This uses different hold off times at different
layers to make sure that lower layer protection occurs first. For example, in a fiber failure
condition, SDH protection will be performed first. If SDH layer protection is successful, no
Ethernet layer protection occurs (because it is not needed). However, if the SDH
protection fails after a certain period of time (the hold off time for Ethernet layer
protection), Ethernet layer protection will occur. That is, the higher the layer, the longer the
hold off time will be. In this way, the system can fully take the advantage of the fast SDH
protection (<50ms), and have multi-layer protections for higher system reliability.
For Ethernet services, if the layer protection fails (the failure is declared after a pre-defined
hold off time; for example 100ms), the RSTP in the Ethernet layer will react to the failure
and provide the protection by converging the data to an alternative path. In the ESR, the
alternative path is the path on the other side of the ring. The hold off time in the Ethernet
layer is user provision able.

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5.2

Equipment Redundancy and Protection

5.2.1

Redundant Power Supply

hiT 7025 provides optional 1+1 DC power supply protection. The DC power voltage is -40
to -72 V. Both power modules are active and coupled via an OR function to share the
load current.
hiT 7025 permits convenient field replacement of either power module without affecting
traffic.

5.2.2

Redundant Cross-Connect

hiT 7025 provides optional redundant cross-connect and timing card.

5.2.3

Electrical Interface Module Protection

hiT 7025 provides the following electrical interface card protection:


(1) 1:3 21 E1 card protection (revertive)
(2) 1:1 3 E3/DS3 (W/P) card protection (non-revertive)
(3) 1+1 2 STM-1E (W/P) card protection (non-revertive)

5.2.4

Protection under Abnormal Condition

Software download protection: when power fails during software download, hiT 7025
BIOS will be written protected. The BIOS is guaranteed not to start the uncompleted
software program or data file. After the power recovery, hiT 7025 supports continued
software downloading. All application software and data files can be downloaded to the
NE while the NE is still in-service. The software download verification process prevents
data errors from transmission.
Software upgrade protection: hiT 7025 controller contains two copies of the system
software. During the software upgrade, one copy will be replaced by the new version of
the software. After the new version is confirmed, the switch over to the new version does
not affect the service traffic, and the existing system setting and configuration are
maintained. If the system upgrade fails, the system can be switched back to the old
version. Only when the new software version is confirmed working properly, can the old
version be erased.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Software Fault Tolerance

The software design of hiT 7025 NE adopts the principle of software engineering,
involving a top-down and object-oriented software design methods. Advanced software
developing management and designing technology assure the high quality and reliability
of NE software.
hiT 7025 provides multiple protections for software programs and data with self-checking
and self-recovering functions.
Data transmission checking and re-transmitting mechanism are implemented in all control
signal transmission channels between modules to minimize the transmitting errors.
Adopted internal watchdog-circuit in CPU to avoid the impact of software deadlock or shut
down. No service is affected when the software performs warm reset.
Adopted common software platform approach: hiT 7025 supports code-sharing and reusing as many as field proven codes to provide higher software reliability.

5.2.6

Data Security

hiT 7025 adopts database module technology and manages data uniformly, which
enhances the data security:
Database and database files each have a data checking function.
Database files are protected according to importance level of data. Errors of lower level
database files will not affect higher level database files.

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6.

Technical Specification

6.1

Multiplexing Structure

hiT 7025 supports the following multiplexing structure and terminated mapping and
payload mapping structures.

Bit Rate

Cross-connect multiplexing structure


STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4-16c
STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AU-4-4c
STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4

2.5 Gb/s

STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-3
STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<>TUG-3<->TU-3
STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->
TUG-3<->TUG-2<->TU-12
STM-4<->AUG-4<->AU-4-4c
STM-4<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4

622.08
Mb/s

STM-4<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-3
STM-4<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->TUG-3<->TU-3
STM-4<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->TUG-3<-> TUG2<->TU-12
STM-1<->AUG-1<->AU-4

155.54
Mb/s

STM-1<->AUG-1<->AU-3
STM-1<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->TUG-3<->TU-3
STM-1<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->TUG-3<->TUG-2<->TU-12

Figure 29 - Cross-Connect Multiplexing Structure (ITU-T G.707)

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Bit Rate

Terminated Mapping Structure

Container

2.5 Gb/s

STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<>AU-4<->VC-4

C-4

622.08 Mb/s

STM-4<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4

C-4

155.54 Mb/s

STM-1<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4

C-4

E3 (34Mbit/s, E31)

E31 <-> C-3 <-> VC-3

C-3

DS3 (45Mbit/s, E32) E32 <-> C-3 <-> VC-3

C-3

E1 (2.048Mbit/s)

E1 <-> C-12 <-> VC-12<-> TU-12<-> TUG- C-12


2
10/100Mbit/s (FE) <-> GFP <-> C-12-Xv <-> C-12
VC-12- Xv (X=1..46)

10/100 Mb/s (FE)


10/100Mbit/s (FE) <-> GFP <-> C-3-Xv <-> C-3
VC-4-Xv (X=1..3)
1000Mbit/s (WAN port GE) <-> GFP <->

C-4

C-4-Xv <-> VC-4-Xv (X=1..4)


1000Mbit/s (WAN port GE) <-> GFP <->

1000 Mb/s (GE)

C-3

C-3-Xv <-> VC-3-Xv (X=1..3)


1000Mbit/s (WAN port GE) <-> GFP <->

C-12

C-12-Xv <-> VC-12-Xv (X=1..46)


FC(2G)

FC(1G)

10/100/1000M

FC(2G) <-> GFP <-> C-4-X12 <-> VC-4- X12

C-4

FC(1G) <-> GFP <-> C-4-X6 <-> VC-4- X6

C-4

FC(1G) <-> GFP <-> C-3-Xv <-> VC-3- Xv


(X=19...21, 19 is the best fit)

C-3

10/100/1000Mbit/s LAN <-> WAN <-> GFP <->


C-4-Xv <-> VC-4- Xv (X=1...7)

C-4

10/100/1000Mbit/s LAN <-> WAN <-> GFP <-> C3-Xv <-> VC-3- Xv (X=1...21)

C-3

10/100/1000Mbit/s LAN <-> WAN <-> GFP <-> C12-Xv <-> VC-12- Xv (X=1...46)

C-12

Figure 30 - Terminated Mapping Structure

Virtual
Container
VC-4

Container
C-4

Container Bit Rate


149.76Mb/s

Terminating Signal
at Bit Rate
STM-1, or VC-4-nv

Figure 31 - Payload Mapping

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6.2

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

SDH Overhead

hiT 7025 supports the following SDH overhead process:

Overhead Name

Description

hiT 7025 Support

A1-A2

Framing Bytes

J0

Regenerator Section Trace

B1

Regenerator Section BIP-8

E1

Regenerator Section Order


wire

F1

Regenerator Section User


Channel

D1~D3

Section DCC

B2

BIP-Nx24

K1, K2 (b1~b5)

APS

K2 (b6~b8)

MS-RDI

D4~D12

Multiplex Section DCC

S1

Synchronous Status

M0-M1

MS-REI

E2

Line Order Wire

J1

Path Trace

B3

Path BIP-8

C2

Path Signal Label

G1

Path Status

F2

Path User Channel

H4

Position and Sequence


Indicator

F3

Path User Channel

K3(b1~b4)

APS

K3(b5~b6)

Spare

K3(b7~b8)

Data link

N1

Network Operator Byte

VC-2/VC-1

V5(b1~b2)

BIP-2

POH

V5(b3)

LP-REI

RS-OH

MS-OH

VC-4-Xc/VC-4/VC-3
POH

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Overhead Name

Description

hiT 7025 Support

V5(b4)

LP-RFI

V5(b5~b7)

Signal Label

V5(b8)

LP-RDI

J2

Path Trace

N2

Network Operator Byte

K4(b1~b4)

APS

K4(b5~b7)

Reserved

K4(b8)

Data Link

Figure 32 hiT 7025 supported SDH overhead process

6.3

Interface Types

hiT 7025 supports the following interfaces listed in Table below:


Interface Types

Interface Name and Rates


10/100M/1000 Base-T
E1 (2048kbit/s)

Electrical Interface

E3/DS3
STM-1 el. (155.520Mbit/s)
STM-1 (155.520Mbit/s)
STM-4 (622.080Mbit/s)
STM-16 (2.5 Gbit/s)

Optical Interface

GE
FC
100M FX
2048kbit/s

Timing Interface

2048kHz

Auxiliary Management and Maintenance Interface

RS-232, RJ-45 (802.3 LAN)

TIF (MDO or MDI) , ALM (alarm contact)

RJ-45

Data Channels

64Kbps/s, G703, RJ45


Figure 33 hiT 7025 Interface Types

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6.3.1

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Electrical Interfaces

hiT 7025 Ethernet 10/100M Base-T rate-adaptive electrical interface complies with IEEE
Standard 802.3. The transmission media is 100 Ohmstwo pairs shielded twisted pair
cable (STP) and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable (Category 5 UTP); the interface
connector is using standard RJ-45 (1000ohm) connector.
hiT 7025 STM-1E interface complies with ITU-T G.703 Recommendation and uses CC4
connector (75 ohm) unbalanced.
hiT 7025 E3/DS3 interface complies with ITU-T G.703 Recommendation and uses CC4
connector (75ohm) unbalanced.
hiT 7025 E1 interface complies with ITU-T G.703 Recommendation, and uses 2mm High
Density (75ohm or 120ohm) connector.

6.3.2

Optical Interfaces

hiT 7025 optical interfaces comply with ITU-T Recommendations G.957 and G.691. The
SFP optical modules are field replaceable.
Optical Interfaces:
STM-16 SFP interfaces

S-16.1, L16.1 and L-16.2, V-16.2, U-16.2 also


FC 2G.

STM-4 SFP interfaces

S-4.1, L4.1, L-4.2 and V-4.2

STM-1 SFP interfaces

I-1, S-1.1, L1.1, L1.2 and V-1.2 also 100M FX

GE SFP interfaces

SX, LX, LH, ZX also FC(1G)

STM-1 electrical SFP interfaces


Multi-rate CWDM SFP interfaces

G. 695 C8L1-1D2 and C8L1-0D2

2.5G DWDM SFP interfaces

100G Hz channel grid

GE electrical SFP interfaces


Laser safety for the STM-16, STM-4 and STM-1 optical interfaces: complies with IEC60825 recommendations
Optical connectors are LC type.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Line Rate

STM-1

STM-4

STM-16

Multi-rate

Wavelength and Application Code

Transmission Distance

1310 nm (I-1)

2 km

1310 nm (S-1.1)

15 km

1310nm (L-1.1)

40 km

1550nm (L-1.2)

80 km

1550nm (V-1.2)

120 km

1310/1550nm Bidi

20 km

1310 nm (S-4.1)

15 km

1310 nm (L-4.1)

40 km

1550 nm (L-4.2)

80 km

1550 nm (V-4.2)

120 km

1310/1490nm Bidi

10 km

1310 nm (S-16.1)

15 km

1310 nm (L-16.1)

40 km

1550 nm (L-16.2)

80 km

1550 nm (V-16.2)

120 km

1550 nm (U-16.2)

160 km

1555.75 nm (DWDM U-16.2)

180 km

1471+20m,m=1-7

N.A.

(622Mbps ~
2.67Gbps)

(C8L1-1D2/ C8L1-0D2)

DWDM STM-16

100 GHz channel grid in the C-band:


191.70-196.0 THz, 44 wavelengths

N.A.

1000 Base-SX

850 nm

500 m

1000 Base-LX

1310 nm

5000m

1000 Base-LH

1310 nm

10 km

1000 Base-ZX

1550 nm

70 km

1000 Base-LX

1310/1490nm Bidi

10 km

Figure 34 - hiT 7025 optical service interfaces supported

6.3.3

Optical amplifier card: OA

Function
This Optical Amplifier (OA) card provides unidirectional single optical amplifier functionality
with optical performance monitoring capabilities. This card is designed to compensate
losses in the entire C band as Booster Optical Amplifier (BOA) or Pre-Optical Amplifier
(POA) in the transport networks.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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The OA card can be ordered (with different part numbers) to provide the following
applications:

6.3.4

Post-amplifier, 13 dBm Output Power

Post-amplifier, 15 dBm Output Power

Post-amplifier, 18 dBm Output Power

Pre-amplifier, 20 dB Gain

Optical Amplifier (OA)


Parameters

Min.

Max.

Units

Operating case temperature

65

Storage temperature

-40

85

Environment (ESD/EMC)

700/85%

Tab. 6.1

V/-

OA card EDFA module absolute ratings

Parameters

Description

Note

Wavelength
range

1528 nm ~ 1562 nm

Pump laser

Uncooled pump

Configuration

Single or Dual pump, single


stage

Gain flattening

without GFF

Control modes

APC, AGC, and ACC

Transient
suppress control

Transient Suppress Circuit

Application types

Booster or Preamplifier

Notes:
1.

This wavelength range is specified as the max. wavelength range for


the erbium-doped fiber amplifier using in single channel SDH
application.

2.

This configuration is designed for single channel SDH system up to


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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Parameters

Description

Note

now; dual pump or dual stages may be required for obtaining high gain
or large output power.
3.

For single channel SDH application, the Gain Flatten Filter (GFF) is not
required for obtaining the fine gain flatness.

Tab. 6.2

Erbium-Doped fibre amplifier general specifications

BOA interface
Parameters

Min.

Type

Max.

Unit

1562

nm

5.5

dB

Notes

General specifications (for all types booster)


Wavelength range

1528

Noise figure

5.0

Optical power detection accuracy

0.5

Polarization mode dispersion

0.3
0.2

Polarization dependent gain


Return loss
Transient
Add/Drop)

dB
0.5

ps

0.5

dB

45
overshoot

(5

dB

Transient suppress speed (5 dB


Add/Drop)

dB
0.5

1.0

0.5

dB

ms

Post-amp: 13 dBm output power


Input power range

-10

Small signal gain @ pin = -10


dBm
Saturation power @ pin > -5 dBm

dBm

18

dB

dBm

13

Post-amp: 15 dBm output power


Input power range

-10

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dBm

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Parameters

Min.

Type

Small signal gain @ pin = -10


dBm
Saturation power
dBm

@ pin > -5

Max.

Unit

Notes

20

dB

dBm

15

Post-amp: 18 dBm output power


Input power range

-10

Small signal gain @ pin = -10


dBm
Saturation power
dBm

@ pin > -5

dBm

23

dB

dBm

18

Notes:
The maximum small signal gain:
13 dBm booster: when input power -5 dBm, maximum small signal gain can be up to 18 dB.
15 dBm booster: when input power -5 dBm, maximum small signal gain can be up to 20 dB.
18 dBm booster: when input power -5 dBm, maximum small signal gain can be up to 23 dB.
The saturation power is specified at the maximum gain value when the input power is larger
than -5 dBm;
The typical value of Noise figure is specified at the maximum gain and input power of 0 dBm.
Tab. 6.3

Post-amplifier specifications

POA interface
Items

Parameters

Min.

Center wavelength

Typ

Max.

1555.75

Unit

Notes

nm

Wavelength range (filter pass-band window @ 3dB)

0.25

+0.25 nm

Input power range

-35

-15

dBm

20

dB

-10

dBm

N/A

dB

Small signal gain (include filter attenuation )


Output power range @ pin= -15 dBm

-15

Gain flatness
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Technical Description hiT 7025


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Noise figure

5.0

6.0

dB

Input power: -35 to -20 dBm

0.5

dB

Output power: -20 to 0 dBm

0.5

dB

0.5

ps

0.5

dB

Optical power detection accuracy

Polarization mode dispersion

0.3
0.2

Polarization dependent gain


Return loss

40

Transient overshoot

dB
0.5

1.0

dB

(5 dB input variance @ constant power)


Transient suppress speed

0.5

ms

(5 dB input variance @ constant power)


Auto-shutdown hysteresis

0.5

dB

Notes:
1.

For single channel SDH application, gain flatness is not required.

2.

The same as booster amplifier.

3.

A fixed filter (1555.75 nm 0.25 nm @ 3 dB) which is put after the output of OA to improve OSNR
and sensitivity of PA is integrated in PA. DWDM SFP with fixed wavelength 1555.75 nm (both 100
G and 200 GHz grid) will be used when PA is added before optical receiver.

4.

Error-free long term transmission should be guaranteed under worst case when input power of PA
is -35 dBm ~ -20 dBm and bit rate is 2.5 Gbps.
Tab. 6.4

6.3.5

Pre-amplifier specifications

Management and Maintenance Interface

hiT 7025 provides a RS-232 connector, which supports terminal-based command line
interface.
hiT 7025 also provides a RJ-45 100 Ohms IEEE 802.3 LAN connector, which supports
Internet browser based EMS and telnet-based command line interfaces.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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6.4

Interface Performance Specifications

hiT 7025 performance specifications for the optical and electrical interfaces, timing and
synchronization, and jitter, as well as tests for electromagnetic compatibility, environment,
and vibration comply with the ITU-T Recommendations G.957, G.703, and IEEE Standard
802.3.

6.4.1

Optical Interface Performances

The following table provides hiT 7025 supported optical interfaces and application codes.
Inter-office
Short-haul

Application
Operating
wavelength range 1310
(nm)

1310

Inter-office
Long-haul

Inter-office
Very Long-haul

1550

1550

ITU-T Rec. G.652

ITU-T Rec. G.652

ITU-T Rec. ITU-T Rec.


ITU-T Rec. G.653
G.652
G.652
ITU-T Rec. G.654

ITU-T Rec. G.653

Distance (km)*

15

40

80

120

STM-1

S-1.1

L-1.1

L-1.2

V-1.2

STM-4

S-4.1

L-4.1

L-4.2

V-4.2

STM-16

S-16.1

L-16.1

L-16.2

V-16.2

Type of fiber

ITU-T Rec. G.654

* (1) Target distance is used for classification, not for standardization.


(2) The actual transmission distance can be calculated based on the transmitter power,
receiver sensitivity and fiber loss.

Figure 35 - STM-N Optical Interface Parameters and Application Codes

The following tables show the STM-1/-4 and STM-16 optical interface parameters
specified for the transmitter at point S, the receiver at point R, and the optical path
between points S and R.

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6.4.2
Item

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

STM-1 Optical Interface Performance


Parameters

Classification of STM-155Mbps

Application Code

I-1

S-1.1

L-1.1

L-1.2

V-1.2

Bidi

Supported Distance Range [km]

~2

~15

~40

~80

~120

~20

Laser Types

MLM/LED

MLM

MLM/SLM

SLM

SLM

Central Wavelength [nm]

1300

1261~1360

1261~1360

1480~1580

1480~1580

1260 ~ 1360
1480 ~ 1580
5

RMS

Max. Spectral Width [nm]

=40/80
6

Min. SMSR [dB]

Average Launch Power [dBm]

RMS=7.7

RMS=3/
-20dB=1

-20dB=1

-20dB=1

RMS<7
-20dB<1

NA

NA

NA/30

30

30

NA

-15 ~ -8

-15 ~ -8

-5 ~ 0

-5 ~ 0

0~4

-14 ~ -8

Extinction Ratio [dB]

8.2

8.2

10

10

10

<10

G.957 STM-1 Mask Margin

15%

15%

15%

15%

15%

15%

10

Receiver Types

PIN

PIN

PIN

PIN

PIN

PIN

11

Mini. Overload [dBm]

-10

-8

-10

-10

-10

> -8

12

Receiver Sensitivity @BOL [dBm]

-31

-37

-37

-37

-32

13

Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. [dBm]

-29

-35

-35

-35

-30

14

Receiver Sensitivity @EOL [dBm]

-28

-28

-34

-34

-34

-28

15

Optical Path Penalty [dB]

16

Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB]

NA

NA

NA

-25

-25

>14

17

Digital Diagnostics Function

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Figure 36 - hiT 7025 STM-1Optical Interface Specifications


Notes:
1. The application code is referred to ITU-T G.957.
7. Average launched power is the range of output power. Usually, the actual output power should be close to
the up-side level of Average power; we require that the output power of laser at the beginning of life (BOL)
should be 1dB better than the standard values listed in the ITU-T G.957, according to the application code;
12. (1) Measured at bit error rate (BER) of 10e-10, using 2^23-1 PRBS test data pattern;
(2) To consider of aging factor, we define the receiver sensitivity at the beginning of life (BOL) should be
2~3dB better than the standard values listed in the ITU-T G.957, according to the application code;
13. To consider of high-temperatures effect, we define the receiver sensitivity at the high-temperature (HT),
which refers to the environmental temperature about 55C. Generally, we test all performance at 25C room
TM
temperature when SFP transceivers are installed in MetroWave MSTP system with Fan ON; to the
extreme temperature, we tested all performance at 55C environmental temperature when SFP transceivers
TM
are installed in MetroWave MSTP system with Fan ON for about 3 hours;
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Technical Description hiT 7025


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14. For the receiver sensitivity at the end of life (EOL), we consider of the sensitivity aging degradation when
the transceiver is used in the long-term, which includes the effect of temperature, laser aging and chip aging;
15. The impact factors for path penalty value include the dispersion, non-linear and other effects. But
dispersion is the main effect we should consider. Generally, we use fiber to test the path penalty of the SFP
transceivers.
15 km SFP, 25 km G.652 fiber
40 km SFP, 45~50 km G.652 fiber
80 km SFP, 90~100 km G.652 fiber

6.4.3
Item

STM-4 Optical Interface Performance


Parameters

Application Code

Classification of STM-4/622Mbps
S-4.1

L-4.1

L-4.2

V-4.2

Bidi

Supported Distance[km]

~15

~40

~80

~120

~10

Laser Types

MLM

MLM/SLM

SLM

SLM

MLM

Central Wavelength [nm]

1261~1360

1261~1360

1480~1580

1480~1580

Max. Spectral Width [nm]

RMS=2.5

-20dB=1

-20dB=1

Min. SMSR [dB]

Average Launch Power [dBm]

Extinction Ratio [dB]

RMS=1.7/
-20dB=1

1260 ~ 1360
1480 ~ 1500
RMS<3.5
-20dB<0.88

NA

NA/30

30

30

NA/<30

-15 ~ -8

-3 ~ 2

-3 ~ 2

0~4

-9 ~ -3

8.2

10

10

10

<12

G.957 STM-4 Mask Margin

15%

15%

15%

15%

15%

10

Receiver Types

PIN

PIN

PIN

APD

PIN

11

Mini. Overload [dBm]

-8

-8

-8

-18

> -3

12

Receiver Sensitivity @BOL dBm]

-31

-31

-31

-36

-22

13

Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. dBm]

-29

-29

-29

-35

-21

14

Receiver Sensitivity @EOL dBm]

-28

-28

-28

-34

-20

15

Optical Path Penalty [dB]

<1

16

Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB]

NA

-14

-27

-27

NA

17

Digital Diagnostics Function

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Note: The same as the STM-1 statement.

Figure 37 - hiT 7025 STM-4 Optical Interface Specifications

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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6.4.4

STM-16 Optical Interface Performance

Item

Parameters

Classification of STM-16/2.5Gbps

Application Code

S-16.1

L-16.1

L-16.2

V-16.2

U-16.2

DWDM U16.2

Supported Distance[km]

~15

~40

~80

~120

~160

~180

Laser Types

SLM

SLM

SLM

Un-cooled
SLM

Un-cooled
SLM

Cooled SLM

Central Wavelength [nm]

1261~1360

1261~1360

1480 ~
1580

1530~1560

1530~1560

1555.75

Max. Spectral Width [nm] -20dB=1

-20dB=1

-20dB=1

-20dB=1

-20dB=1

-20dB=1

Min. SMSR [dB]

30

30

30

30

30

30

Average Launch Power


[dBm]

-5 ~ 0

-2 ~ 3

-2 ~ 3

-2 ~ 3

-2 ~ 3

-2 ~ 3

Extinction Ratio [dB]

8.2

8.2

8.2

8.2

8.2

8.2

G.957 STM-16 Mask


Margin

15%

15%

15%

15%

15%

15%

10

Receiver Types

PIN

APD

APD

APD

APD

APD

11

Mini. Overload [dBm]

-9

-9

-9

-9

-9

12

Receiver Sensitivity
@BOL [dBm]

-21

-30

-30

-30

-30

-30

13

Receiver Sensitivity @
HT. [dBm]

-19

-28

-29

-29

-29

-29

14

Receiver Sensitivity
@EOL [dBm]

-18

-27

-28

-28

-28

-28

15

Optical Path Penalty [dB] 1

16

Max. Reflect. of receiver


[dB]

NA

-27

-27

-27

-27

-27

17

Dispersion [ps/nm]

NA

NA

1600

2400

3200

2400

18

Digital Diagnostics
Function

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Note:
1. V-16.2 SFP has the same optical parameter as L-16.2 SFP except its dispersion can be up to 2400ps/nm;
U-16.2 SFP has the same optical parameter as L-16.2 SFP except its dispersion can be up to 3200ps/nm;
DWDM U-16.2 SFP is one of 44 channels DWDM SFP listed in 2.3.8 section; its wavelength is a special one
(1555.75nm).
The wavelength stability of DWDM U-16.2 SFP is 100pm.
120km transmission: V-16.2 SFP plus 13dBm booster amplifier
160km transmission: U-16.2 SFP plus 18dBm booster amplifier
180km transmission: DWDM U-16.2 SFP plus 18dBm booster amplifier and preamp with filter and 680ps/nm
DCM (suppose the fiber dispersion @1555.75nm is 17ps/nm)

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DWDM SFP should be compatible with DWDM SFP MSA (Sept., 2005)
2. The wavelength of V-16.2 and U-16.2 SFP should be within the range of 1530nm ~ 1560nm over life and
temperature.
3. Other items are the same as the above.

Figure 38 - hiT 7025 STM-16 Optical Interface Specifications

6.4.5

Multi-rate CWDM interface Optical Performance

Item

Parameters

Specifications

Application Code

C8L1-1D2/ C8L1-0D2

Data Bit Rate

622Mbps ~ 2.67Gbps

Laser Types

SLM

Central Wavelength [nm]

1471 + 20 m
m = 0 to 7

4.1

Channel Spacing [nm]

20

4.2

Maximum central wavelength deviation


[nm]

6.5

Max. Spectral Width [nm]

-20dB=1

Min. SMSR [dB]

30

Average Launch Power [dBm]

0~5

Extinction Ratio [dB]

8.2

ITU-T G.957 STM-16 Mask Margin

15%

10

Receiver Types

APD

11

Mini. Overload [dBm]

-9

12

Receiver Sensitivity @BOL [dBm]

-30

13

Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. [dBm]

-29

14

Receiver Sensitivity @EOL [dBm]

-28

15

Optical Path Penalty [dB]

16

Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB]

-27

17

Dispersion [ps/nm]

1600

18

Digital Diagnostics Function

Yes

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Note:
1. 8 channels CWDM SFP are supported. Its optical performance is compliant with G.695. C8L1-1D2 is for
STM-16 application and C8L1-0D2 is for GE application. It can support multi-rate application: STM-4/16, STM16 FEC and GE. Their wavelengths are 1471nm, 1491nm, 1511nm, 1531nm, 1551nm, 1571nm, 1591nm,
1611nm.
2. Other items are the same as the above. The RX sensitivity is based on 2.48832bps bit rate.

Figure 39 - hiT 7025 CWDM Optical Interface Specifications

6.4.6

2.5G DWDM interface Optical Performance

Item

Parameters

Specifications

Application Code

Data bit rate

2.48832 to 2.666057 Gbps

Laser Type

Cooled SLM

Wavelength range

100 GHz channel grid in the C-band:


191.70-196.0 THz, wavelength selected

4.1

Wavelength stability (over life &


temperature)

12.5 GHz ( 100 pm)

Spectral width (-20dB) modulated

0.5nm

Side mode suppression ratio

> 30 dB

Average launch power

0 dBm to + 4 dBm

Extinction ratio

> 9 dB (BOL), 8.2 dB (EOL)

ITU-T G.957 STM-16 Mask Margin

15%

10

Receiver Types

APD

11

Minimum overload

-9dBm

12

Rx sensitivity @BOL

-30dBm

13

Rx sensitivity @HT.

-29dBm

14

Rx sensitivity @EOL.

-28dBm

15

Path Penalty

3 dB

16

Receiver reflectance

< -27 dB

17

Dispersion tolerance

-2400 ps/nm + 2400 ps/nm

18

Digital diagnostic function

Yes

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Note:
1. 44 channels DWDM SFP are supported. It can support STM-16 and STM-16 FEC application. Its channel
spacing is 100GHz. Its wavelength table is as follows. DWDM SFP should be compatible with DWDM SFP
MSA (Sept., 2005)
2. Please notice that 192.7THz (1555.75nm) DWDM SFP will be used for 180km ultra-long haul transmission
application.
3. Other items are the same as the above.

Figure 40 - hiT 7025 DWDM Optical Interface Specifications

ITU Channel
Number

Frequency
(THz)

Wavelength
(nm)

ITU Channel
Number

Frequency
(THz)

Wavelength
(nm)

60

196.00

1529.55

38

193.8

1546.92

59

195.9

1530.33

37

193.7

1547.72

58

195.8

1531.12

36

193.6

1548.51

57

195.7

1531.90

35

193.5

1549.32

56

195.6

1532.68

34

193.4

1550.12

55

195.5

1533.47

33

193.3

1550.92

54

195.4

1534.25

32

193.2

1551.72

53

195.3

1535.04

31

193.1

1552.52

52

195.2

1535.82

30

193.0

1553.33

51

195.1

1536.61

29

192.9

1554.13

50

195.0

1537.40

28

192.8

1554.94

49

194.9

1538.19

27

192.7

1555.75

48

194.8

1538.98

26

192.6

1556.55

47

194.7

1539.77

25

192.5

1557.36

46

194.6

1540.56

24

192.4

1558.17

45

194.5

1541.35

23

192.3

1558.98

44

194.4

1542.14

22

192.2

1559.79

43

194.3

1542.94

21

192.1

1560.61

42

194.2

1543.73

20

192.0

1561.42

41

194.1

1544.53

19

191.9

1562.23

40

194.0

1545.32

18

191.8

1563.05

39

193.9

1546.12

17

191.7

1563.86

Figure 41 - hiT 7025 DWDM Wavelenthes

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6.4.7

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

GE Optical Transmitter and Receiver Interfaces


6.4.7.1

1000 Base-SX interface parameters


Parameter

62.5 m MMF

50 m MMF

Unit

Laser Type

Shortwave Laser

Signal Rate

1.25 100 ppm

GBd

Wavelength Range

770 to 860

nm

Trise/Tfall (max; 20%-80%;> 830 nm)

0.26

ns

Trise/Tfall (max; 20%-80%;= 830 nm)

0.21

ns

Maximum RMS Width

0.85

nm

Mean Launch Power (Maximum)

-3

dBm

9.5

dBm

30

dBm

dB

117

dB/Hz

9 < CPR

dB

Mean Launch Power (Minimum)


Mean Launch Power when transmitter is OFF (max)
Minimum Extinction Ratio
RIN (max)
Coupled Power Ratio (CPR) (min)

a. The 1000 Base-SX launch power is the lesser of the class 1 safety limit as defined by IEEE Standard 802.3
Clause 38.7.2 or the average receive power (max) defined in herein.
b. Examples of an OFF transmitter are: no power supplied to the PMD, laser shutdown for safety conditions,
activation of a transmit disable or other optional module laser shut down conditions. During all conditions
when the PMA is powered, the ac signal (data) into the transmit port will be valid encoded 8B/10B patterns
(this is a requirement of the PCS layers) except for short durations during system power-on-reset or
diagnostics when the PMA is placed in a loopback mode.
1.

c. Radial overfilled launches as described in IEEE Standard 802.3 Clause 38A.2, while they may meet CPR ranges,
should be avoided.

Figure 42 - 1000 Base-SX transmitter interface parameters

Parameter

62.5 m MMF

50 m MMF

Unit

Signal rate

1.25 100 ppm

GBd

Wavelength Range

770 to 860

nm

Mean Receiving Power (Max.)

dBm

Receiving Sensitivity

17

dBm

12

dB

Minimum Return Loss


Stressed receive sensitivity

a, b

12.5

13.5

dBm

Vertical eye-closure penalty

2.60

2.20

dB

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Receive electrical 3 dB upper cutoff frequency (max)

1500

MHz

a. Measured with conformance test signal at TP3 (see IEEE Standard 802.3 Clause 38.6.11) for BER = 1012
at the eye center.
b. Measured with a transmit signal having a 9 dB extinction ratio. If another extinction ratio is used, the
stressed receive sensitivity should be corrected for the extinction ratio penalty.
c. Vertical eye-closure penalty is a test condition for measuring stressed receive sensitivity. It is not a required
characteristic of the receiver.

Figure 43 - 1000 Base-SX receiving interface parameters

6.4.7.2

1000 Base-LX Interface Parameters

Parameter

62.5 m MMF

50 m MMF

10 m MMF

Unit

Laser Type

Longwave Laser

Signal Rate

1.25 100 ppm

GBd

Wavelength Range

1270 to 1355

nm

Trise/Tfall (max; 20%-80% response


time)

0.26

ns

Maximum RMS Width

nm

Mean launch power (Max.)

-3

dBm

Mean launch power (Min.)

-11.5

Average launch power of OFF


transmitter (max)

-30

dBm

Minimum Extinction Ratio

dB

-120

dB/Hz

RIN (max)
Coupled Power Ratio (CPR) (min)

28 < CPR < 40

-11.5

-11.0

12 < CPR< 20 NA

dBm

dB

* Due to the dual media (single-mode and multimode) support of the LX transmitter, fulfillment of this
specification requires a single-mode fibre offset-launch mode-conditioning patch cord described in IEEE
Standard 802.3 Clause 38.11.4 for MMF operation. This patch cord is not used for single-mode operation.

Figure 44 - 1000 Base-LX Transmitter interface parameters

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Parameter

62.5 m MMF

50 m MMF

10 m MMF

Unit

Signal rate

1.25 100 ppm

GBd

Wavelength Range ()

1270 to 1355

nm

Maximum Mean Receiving


Power

-3

dBm

Receiving Sensitivity

-19

dBm

Minimum Return Loss

12

dB

Stressed receive sensitivity

a, b

-14.4

dBm

Vertical eye-closure penalty

2.60

dB

1500

MHz

Receive electrical 3 dB upper


cutoff frequency (max)
2.

a) Measured with conformance test signal at TP3 (see IEEE Standard 802.3 Clause 38.6.11) for BER = 1012 at the
eye center.

3.

b) Measured with a transmit signal having a 9 dB extinction ratio. If another extinction ratio is used, the stressed
receive sensitivity should be corrected for the extinction ratio penalty.

4.

c) Vertical eye-closure penalty is a test condition for measuring stressed receives sensitivity. It is not a required
characteristic of the receiver.

Figure 45 - 1000 Base-LX receiver interface parameters

6.4.8

Electrical Interface Performances

This section provides the E1 and T1 electrical interface specifications:


1) 2,048 Kbit/s digital interface
2) Allowable bit rate deviation of 2,048 Kbit/s, and 10/100M Base-T Output Signals
3) Allowable attenuation at the 2,048 Kbit/s input port
4) Allowable frequency deviation at the 2,048 Kbit/s, and 10/100M BaseT interface
5) Anti-interference capability of the 2,048 Kbit/s input port

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

6.4.8.1

Electrical Interface Parameters Specification

The following table shows the parameters for the 2048 Kbit/s digital interface:

Pulse Shape
(Nominally Rectangular)

All marks of a valid signal must conform to the mask


irrespective of the sign. The value V corresponds to
the nominal peak value.

Pair(s) in each direction

One coaxial pair

Test load impedance

75 Ohms resistive

Nominal peak voltage of a mark


(pulse)

2.37 V

Peak voltage of a space (no pulse) 0 0.237 V


Nominal pulse width

244 ns

Ratio of the amplitudes of positive


and negative pulses at the center of 0.95 to 1.05
the pulse interval
Ratio of the widths of positive and
negative pulses at the nominal half 0.95 to 1.05
amplitude
Interface Threshold Measurement
Filter Bandwidth

Rate

Maximum peak-to-peak
jitter at an output port

2048 kbit/s

20 Hz
100 kHz

18 kHz
100 kHz

1.5 UI

0.2 UI

Figure 46 - 2048 kbit/s Electrical Interface Parameters

6.4.8.2

Allowable Bit Rate Deviation of Output Signals

Allowable Bit Rate Deviation of Output Signals is the difference between the actual signal
bit rate and the nominal bit rate measured under AIS output condition. hiT 7025 meets the
standard requirements of output signal allowable bit rate deviation as shown in table
below:
Electrical Interface Types

Standard Requirements (ppm)

2048 kbit/s

50

10/100M Base-T

100

Figure 47 - Electrical Interface Output Signals Bit Rate Allowable Deviation

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

6.4.8.3

Allowable Attenuation at the Input Port

hiT 7025 meets the standard requirements for the allowable attenuation at the input port:
Electrical Interface Types
2048 kbit/s

Standard Requirements (dB)


0~6
860 to 1720 kHz

34 368 kbit/s

1720 to 34 368 kHz


34 368 to 51 550 kHz

155 520 kbit/s

0 ~ 12.8

Figure 48 - Electrical Interface Allowable Input Attenuation

6.4.8.4

Allowable Frequency Deviation at the Input Port

Allowable input signals frequency deviation is the signal bit rate variation range that the
system can tolerate. The following table shows the standard requirements for the
allowable frequency deviation at the input port:
Electrical Interface Types

Standard Requirements (ppm)

2048 kbit/s

50

10/100M Base-T

100

Figure 49 - Electrical Interface Allowable Input Port Frequency Deviation

6.4.8.5

Anti-interference Capability of the Input Port

hiT 7025 meets the standard requirements for the anti-interference capability of the input
port:
Electrical Interface Types

Standard Requirements (dB)

2048 kbit/s

18

155 520 kbit/s

15

Figure 50 - Electrical Interface Input Port Anti-interference Capability

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

6.4.9

Timing and Synchronization Performance


6.4.9.1

Output Jitter

The following table shows the maximum acceptable level of network output jitter for the
timing (synchronization) interface:
Output Interface

Measuring band
(-3dB frequencies)

Peak-to-peak Amplitude (UIpp)

PRC

20 ~ 100 K

0.05 UI

SSU

20 ~ 100 K

0.05 UI

20 ~ 100 K

0.5 UI

49 ~ 100 K

0.2 UI

20 ~ 100 K

1.5 UI

18 ~ 100 K

0.2 UI

SEC
SECPDH Synchronization
(2048 kbit/s)

Figure 51 - Timing Output Jitter

6.4.9.2

Internal Timing Source Output Frequency

The following table shows the output accuracy of the timing interface in its free-run mode:
Timing Interface
System Clock

Standard requirement (ppm)


0.5

Figure 52 - Internal Timing Source Output Frequency

6.4.10

Jitter Performance

Jitter and wander tolerance, transfer, and production specifications comply with the ITU- T
Recommendations G.783, G.813 Option 1, G.823, G.824, G.825, and G.958, the China
MII standard YD/T 1146-2001 and ETSI standards.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

6.4.11

STM-N Interface Output Jitter

The following table shows the maximum acceptable level of output jitter at any STM-N
output within a digital network (measured of a 60 second interval):

Interface
STM-1 (Optical)

STM-1 (Electrical)

STM-4 (Optical)

STM-16 (Optical)

Measuring band
(-3dB frequencies)

Peak-to-peak Amplitude (UIpp)

500 Hz ~ 1.3 MHz

1.50 UI

65 KHz ~ 1.3 MHz

0.15 UI

500 Hz ~ 1.3 MHz

1.50 UI

65 KHz ~ 1.3 MHz

0.075 UI

1000 Hz ~ 5 MHz

1.50 UI

250 KHz ~ 5 MHz

0.15 UI

5000 Hz ~ 20 MHz

1.50 UI

1 MHz ~ 20 MHz

0.15 UI

Figure 53 - STM-1/-4/-16 Interface Output Jitter

6.4.11.1

STM-N and PDH Input Interface Jitter Tolerance

The following tables show the input jitter tolerance for the STM-N interfaces:
Interface

STM-1 (Optical)

STM-1 (Electrical)

Frequency (Hz)

Peak-to-Peak Jitter Amplitude

10 < f <= 19.3

38.9 UI (.25 us)

19.3 < f <= 68.7

750 f

-1

UI

68.7 < f <= 500

750 f

-1

UI

500 < f <= 6.5 k

1.5 UI

6.5 k < f <= 65k

9.8 x 103 f

65 k < f <= 1.3 M

0.15 UI

10 < f <= 19.3

38.9 UI (.25 us)

19.3 < f <= 500

750 f

500 < f <= 3.3 k

1.5 UI

3.3 k < f <= 65 k

4.9 x 103 f

65 k < f <= 1.3 M

0.075 UI

-1

UI

UI

Figure 54 - STM-1 Interface Jitter Tolerance

Copyright 2013 Coriant. All rights reserved.

-1

-1

UI

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Interface

Frequency (Hz)

1500 f

-1

UI

100 < f <= 1000

1500 f

-1

UI

1 k < f <= 25 k

1.5 UI

25 k < f <= 250 k

3.8 x 104 f

250 k < f <= 5 M

0.15 UI

9.65 < f <= 100

STM-4 (Optical)

Peak-to-Peak Jitter Amplitude

-1

UI

Figure 55 - STM-4 Interface Jitter Tolerance

Interface

Frequency (Hz)

STM-16 (Optical)

Peak-to-Peak Jitter Amplitude

10 < f <= 12.1

622 UI

12.1 < f <= 500

7500 f P

-1P

UI

500 < f <= 5 k

7500 f P

-1P

UI

5 k < f <= 100 k

1.5 UI

100 k < f <= 1 M

1.5 x 105 f P

-1PPP

UI

Figure 56 - STM-16 Interface Jitter Tolerance

Maximum Peak-to-Peak Jitter

G.703
(PDH)

Filter Characteristics

Interface

f1
High pass

f3
High pass

f4
Low pass

f1-f4

1 544 Kbit/s

10 Hz
20 dB/dec

8 kHz

40 kHz
20 dB/dec

0.7 (A0)

2 048 Kbit/s

20 Hz
20 dB/dec

18 kHz
(700 Hz)
20 dB/dec

100 kHz
60 dB/dec

0.075 UI

34 368 Kbit/s

100 Hz
20 dB/dec

10 kHz
20 dB/dec

800 kHz
60 dB/dec

0.075 UI

44 736 Kbit/s

10 Hz

30 kHz

400 kHz
20 dB/dec

139 264 Kbit/s

200 Hz
20 dB/dec

10 kHz
20 dB/dec

3 500 kHz
60 dB/dec

Mapping

0.40 UI (A0)

Figure 57 - PDH mapping jitter generation specification

Copyright 2013 Coriant. All rights reserved.

f3-f4

0.075 UI

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

G.703
(PDH) Interface

Maximum Peak-Peak Jitter

Filter Characteristics
f1
high pass

f3
high pass

Combined
f4
low pass

1 544 Kbit/s

10 Hz
20 dB/dec

8 kHz

40 kHz
20 dB/dec

2 048 Kbit/s

20 Hz
20 dB/dec

18 kHz
(700 Hz)
20 dB/dec

100 kHz
60 dB/dec

34 368 Kbit/s

100 Hz
20 dB/dec

10 kHz
20 dB/dec

800 kHz
60 dB/dec

f1-f4

f3-f4

0.4 UI

0.4 UI
0.75 UI

0.075 UI

0.075 UI

Figure 58 - hiT 7025 PDH interface combined jitter generation spec

6.5

Timing

hiT 7025 provides the following timing clock interfaces:

External clock source (T3): 2 input port, 2048kbit/s (G.703-6) or 2048 kHz (G.703-10)75
Synchronize output (T4): 2 output port, 2048kbit/s (G.703) or 2048 kHz 75
hiT 7025supports the selection of the following 4 timing references:
Line/tributary timing (STM-1/-4/-16 lines, or E1 tributary)
External station clock timing
Internal clock (ITU-T G.813 option 1)
E1 tributary timing (any E1 port can be selected as the timing source)
Additionally, hiT 7025 is able to provide retiming for E1 (2Mbit/s) traffic interfaces to
provide synchronized reference to another equipment.

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Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

6.6

Power Source

6.6.1

Power Supply

hiT 7025 supports -48V/60V (-40.5~-72.0 V) DC power supply, support load balanced
1+1 power supply modular protection.

6.6.2

Power Consumption

Maximum power consumption: 250W (Full Configuration)


Average power consumption: 122W (Typical Configuration)

6.6.3

Cooling

The equipment is assembled with one fan unit. It is field replaceable. Fan failure does not
affect service.

6.7

Mechanical Structure

hiT 7025 chassis mechanical parameters:


Height:

238mm (5U)

Width:

445mm

Depth:

240mm (300 mm back-to-door)

hiT 7025 can be installed in the following types of racks:


EIA 310 19
2200mm(Height) 600mm (Width) 300mm (Depth)
2600mm(Height)600mm(Width)300mm(Depth)
Depending on the electrical cabel load you can install up to six hiT 7025 chassis into a
2200mm high ETSI rack or an EIA 310 19 rack ( typically four systems per rack ).

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6.8

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Environment Requirements

hiT 7025 system is designed to comply with the following ETSI requirements (ETS 300
019) on environmental conditions:
ETSI Class 3.2 on Environment
ETSI Class 1.2 on Storage
ETSI Class 2.3 on Transportation
The environmental conditions required by hiT 7025 are as follows:
Environmental Condition

Temperature

Relative Humidity

Transport and storage

-20 ~ 60C

2% ~ 98%

Operation for long term

-5 ~ 45C

5% ~ 90% (30C)

Operation for short term

-10 ~ 50C

5% ~ 90% (30C)

Figure 59 - hiT 7025 Environment Requirements

6.8.1

Enhanced Temperature Variant

Depending on the used chassis variant of hiT 7025 also an operating temperature up to
55 degree is available.
This enhanced temperature variant has a more powerful fan assembly and is introduced
with system software R4.2. To comply with the operation in a higher temperature range,
the chassis has to be mounted in vertical position.
Performance Guaranteed:
Operation for long term: -5C~55C
Relative Humidity: 10%~100% (30C)

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6.9

Technical Description hiT 7025


July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Electromagnetic Compatibility

hiT 7025 meets the present customer oncoming mandatory requirements


Of ETSI EN 300 386 v1.4.1, which is based on EN 55022 (emission) and EN 61000-4-x series (immunity)
Emission (EN 55022)
Radiated emission

EN 55022, Class A

Conducted emission

EN 55022, Class A

DC power port

EN 55022, Class A

Signal ports

EN 55022, Class A

Immunity (EN 61000-4-x series)

Electrostatic Discharge

EN 61000-4-2, level 2

Radiated immunity

EN 61000-4-3, level 2 & level 3

Electrical fast transients

EN 61000-4-4

DC power port

EN 61000-4-4, level 1

Signal ports

EN 61000-4-4, level 1

Surges

EN 61000-4-5

Indoor signal ports

EN 61000-4-5, level 1

Continuous wave

EN 61000-4-6

All ports (telecom ports, AC, DC)

EN 61000-4-6, level 2

Note
This is a class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference
in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.

hiT 7025 meets the present customer oncoming mandatory requirements


Of FCC 47 CRF Ch.1, Part 15 Subpart B, Class A, radiated emission limit for unintentional radiators
Emission (FCC 47 Ch.1, part 15 Subpart B)
Radiated emission

FCC 47 Ch.1, part 15 Subpart B, Class A

Conducted emission

N/A for DC power port

hiT 7025 meets IEC TS 61000-6-5 (2001), immunity requirements for the power station and substation.
Which is based on the IEC 61000-4-x series (immunity)
Immunity (IEC 61000-4-x series)
Electrostatic Discharge

IEC 61000-4-2

level 3

Radiated immunity

IEC 61000-4-3

level 3

Electrical fast transients

IEC 61000-4-4

DC power port

IEC 61000-4-4
substation

level 3 for power station and MV

level 4 for HV substation


Signal ports

IEC 61000-4-4

Copyright 2013 Coriant. All rights reserved.

level 3 for local connection

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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level 4 for in field connection


Surges

IEC 61000-4-5

DC power port

IEC 61000-4-5

level 2 for line to line

level 3 for line to ground


signal ports

IEC 61000-4-5

level 2 for local connection

level 3 for in field connection


Continuous wave

IEC 61000-4-6

All ports (signal ports, AC, DC)

IEC 61000-4-6

Damped wave

IEC 61000-4-12

DC power port

IEC 61000-4-12
substation

level 3

level 2 for power station and MV

level 3 for HV substation


Indoor signal ports

IEC 61000-4-12 level 2 for in field connection

Mains frequency voltage

IEC 61000-4-16

DC Power port

IEC 61000-4-16
substation

level 3 for power station and MV

level 4 for HV substation


Signal ports

IEC 61000-4-16 level 4 for in field connection

Ripple on DC port

IEC 61000-4-17 level 3

Voltage dips & interruption

IEC 61000-4-29

U 30% for 0.1s

Criteria B

U 60% for 0.1s


U 100% for 0.05s

hiT 7025 meets IEC 61000-6-2 : 2005, immunity requirement for industry environment. Which is based on
the IEC 61000-4-x series (immunity)
Immunity (IEC 61000-4-x series)
Electrostatic Discharge

IEC 61000-4-2

level 2 and level 3

Radiated immunity

IEC 61000-4-3

level 1, level 2 and level 3

Electrical fast transients

IEC 61000-4-4

DC power port

IEC 61000-4-4

level 3

Signal ports

IEC 61000-4-4

level 2

Surges

IEC 61000-4-5

DC power port

IEC 61000-4-5

level 1

signal ports

IEC 61000-4-5

level 2

Continuous wave

IEC 61000-4-6

All ports (signal ports, AC, DC)

IEC 61000-4-6

level 3

Figure 60 - hiT 7025 Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements

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Technical Description hiT 7025


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6.10

Vibration Tests

6.10.1

Shipping Test

hiT 7025 meets the following shipping test standards.


Test

Test Standard

Amplitude (>= 0.6 mm)

ETSI

Acceleration (>= 15 m/sX, Y, Z three directions)

ETSI

Test time (>=3 hours)

ETSI

Figure 61 - Shipping Test Standards

6.10.2

Office Test

hiT 7025 meets the following office test standards.


Test

Test Standard

Amplitude (>= 0.6 mm)

ETSI

Acceleration (>= 15 m/sX, Y, Z three directions)

ETSI

Test time (>= 3 hours)

ETSI

Figure 62 - Office test standards

6.11

Alarms and Events

6.11.1

Alarm Types

There are five types of failure in the system:

Communication Failure: Failures related to communication status (such as LOS,


LOF, AIS, DEG and LAN) or other communication protocol related failures (such
as, STMfLOS).

Quality of Service Failure: Failure related to system performance, such as


responding time too long, threshold crossing, and performance degrading.
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Equipment Failure: Failures related to the hardware equipment, such as power


system defect, timing interface failures, processor defect, transmit/receiver
equipment defect or any other equipment component faults (such as, EQfFLT).

Processing Error Failure: Failures related to the software, memory overflow,


version incompatibility, software errors, program illegal interruption, NE
configuration errors and NE inaccessible.

Environmental Failure: Failures related to environment changes, such as


unacceptable temperature and humidity, ventilation or cooling system faults,
excessive vibration, and door open/close.

6.11.2

Alarm Severity Level

There are five alarm severity levels defined in the system:

CriticalService-interrupting alarms.

MajorService-affecting alarms.

MinorNon-Service-affecting alarms, but can potentially become service-affecting


alarms. You need to perform fault inspection and any necessary fixes to prevent it
from becoming worse.

WarningNon-Service-affecting, information presented to the operator for the


purpose of maintenance.

IndeterminateThe alarm severity level is undefined.

The system has a red LED alarm indicator for Prompt (service-affecting) and a yellow LED
alarm indicator for Deferred/Info (non-service-affecting).

6.11.3

Alarm Reports

The Element Management software logs the 10,000 latest failures in the alarm log and
independently reports the failure status change to the EMS. hiT 7025 allows users to
query alarm logs using a variety of criteria.

6.11.4

Events

There are three types of events defined in the system: Management, Hardware, and
Software. hiT 7025 requires every event to be time-stamped.
An Event (as defined by ITU-T Recommendation M.2410) is an instantaneous occurrence
that changes the global status of an object. This status change may be persistent or
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temporary, allowing for surveillance, monitoring, and performance measurement


functionality, etc. Events may or may not generate reports; they may be spontaneous or
planned; they may trigger other events or may be triggered by one or more other events.
(Recommendation M.60)

6.11.4.1

Management Events

The attributes of the management events include: Event name, Timestamp, User name
and privilege level, and Description.
Name

Description

User login

Identifies the user that has just logged in.

User logout

Identifies the user that has just logged out.

User auto-logout due to timeout

Identifies the user that was just logged out by the system
because of inactivity.

User password change

The password of a user account has been changed.

Unauthorized login attempt

A user has attempted and failed to log in.

Alarm log cleared

A user has cleared out the alarm log file.

Event log cleared

A user has cleared out the event log file.

Figure 63 - Management Events

6.11.4.2

Hardware Events

The object (located as precisely as possible) that generates the event is also reported.

Name

Description

Auto acceptance

A module of a different type from the previous module was installed and
booted. The configuration of the previous module was automatically
deleted.

Card booted

The module has been booted.

Card reset

The module has been reset.

Card disabled

The module has been disabled.

Card removed

The module has been removed from its slot

SFP changed

The SFP module has been changed.

Figure 64 - Hardware Events


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6.11.4.3

Software Events

Some of these types of software events may never happen on a certain products.
Name

Description

Protection switch completed

The protection switch occurred and was completed. (It applies to


all types of protection schemes. The protection group is
identified.)

Protection switch back completed

The protection group switched from the protection state to the


normal state. (It applies to all types of protection schemes. The
protection group is identified.)

Software download started

Software files are being downloaded to the backup storage place


through FTP.

Software download completed

Software files are successfully downloaded to the backup storage


place through FTP.

Software upgrade started

The software files in the backup storage place have started to be


activated.

Software upgrade completed

A software upgrade has completed.

MIB upload started

The MIB files in the backup place are being uploaded to a server
through FTP.

MIB upload completed

The MIB files in the backup place are successfully uploaded


through FTP.

MIB download started

The MIB files are being downloaded from a server to the MIB
backup place through FTP.

MIB download completed

The MIB files are successfully downloaded from a server to the


MIB backup place through FTP.

MIB backup started

The active MIB files are being backed up.

MIB backup completed

The active MIB files are backed up.

MIB restore started

The MIB files in the backup are being restored to active MIB files.

MIB restore completed

The MIB restoration has successfully completed.

System reset

The system is resetting.

System start

The system is starting up.

Timing configuration changed

One or more timing sources/references changed.

Port administratively down

A port has been administratively set to down.

Port administratively up

A port has been administratively set to up.

Figure 65 - Software Events

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Standard Compliance

The design of the hiT 7025 system is based on the following documents:
ITU-T

IEEE

G.691

Optical interfaces for single channel STM-64 and other SDH systems
with optical amplifiers

G.692

Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers

G.703

Physical / electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces

G.7041/Y.1303

Generic Framing Procedure

G.7042/Y.1305

Link Capacity Adjustment Schema (LCAS) for virtual concatenated


signals

G.707

Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) bit rates

G.708

Network node interface for the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)

G.709

Synchronous multiplexing structure

G.773

Protocol suites for Q interfaces for management of transmission


systems

G.781

Structure of recommendations on SDH multiplexing equipment

G.783

Characteristics of synchronous digital hierarchy multiplexing


equipment functional blocks

G.784

SDH management

G.803

Architecture of transport networks based on the synchronous digital


hierarchy

G.811

Timing requirements for the plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH)

G.813

Timing characteristics of slave clocks suitable for operation of SDH


equipment

G.823

The Control of Jitter and Wander within Digital Networks which are
based on the 2048 kbps Hierarchy

G.824

The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are
based on the 1544 kbit/s hierarchy

G.825

The Control of Jitter and Wander within Digital Networks which are
based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

G.841

Types and characteristics of SDH network protection Architectures

G.842

Interworking of SDH network protection architectures

G.957

Optical interfaces for equipment and systems relating to SDH

G.692

Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers

802.1p

Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Supplement to


Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges: Traffic Class Expediting and
Dynamic Multicast Filtering

802.1q

IEEE Standards for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Virtual


Bridged Local Area Networks

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802.1s

IEEE Standards for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks

802.1w

IEEE Standard for Information Technology -Telecommunications and


Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan
Area Networks - Common Specifications - Part 3: Media Access
Control (MAC) Bridges:

802.17

Resilient Packet Ring

802.3

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)


Access Method & Physical Layer Specifications

802.3u

Local and Metropolitan Area Networks-Supplement - Media Access


Control (MAC) Parameters, Physical Layer, Medium Attachment Units
and Repeater for 100Mb/s Operation, Type 100BASE-T (Clauses 2130)

CISPR 22
EN

ETS

Limits and methods of measurement of radio interference


characteristics of information technology equipment
55022

Limits and methods of measurement of radio interference


characteristics of information technology equipment

6100-6-5

Immunity requirements for the power station and substation

6100-6-2

immunity requirement for industry environment

300 019

Climatic conditions

300127

Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM);


Radiated emission testing of physically large telecommunication
systems

300 386

Electromagnetic compatibility

China
MII
Standard
YD/T
11462001

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8.

Appendix 1: Definitions and Abbreviations


Abbreviation

Definition

ADM

Add-Drop Multiplexer

AIS

Alarm Indication Signal

APS

Automatic Protection Switching

ASON

Automatic Switched Optical Network

ASTN

Automatic Switched Transport Network

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

AU

Administrative Unit

AU-n

Administration Unitlevel n

AUG

Administration Unit Group

AU-PTR

Administration Unit Pointer

BA

Booster Amplifier

BBE

Background Block Error

BBER

Background Block Error Ratio

BER

Bit Error Ratio

BITS

Building Integrated Timing Supply

BML

Business Management Layer

BoD

Bandwidth on Demand

B-RAS

Broadband-Remote Access Server


(or Broadband Access Management Switch)

CDV

Cell Delay Variation

CLR

Cell Loss Rate

CMI

Coded Mark Inversion

C-n

Container- n

CORBA

Common Object Request Broker Architecture

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Abbreviation

Definition

CTD

Cell Transfer Delay

CV

Code Violation

DB

Data Base

DBMS

Data Base Management System

DCC

Data Communications Channel

DCE

Data Circuit-terminating Equipment

DCF

Data Communications Function

DCN

Data Communications Network

DDN

Digital Data Network

DNA

Distributed Network Architecture

DNI

Dual Node Interconnection

DNU

Do Not Use for Sync.

DTE

Data Terminal Equipment

DWDM

Dense Wavelength-division Multiplexing

DXC

Digital Cross Connect

ECC

Embedded Control Channel

EM

Element Management

EMC

Electromagnetic Compatibility

EMI

Electromagnetic Interference

EML

Element Management Layer

EMS

Element Management System

EOS

Ethernet Over SDH

ES

Error Second

ESD

Electronic Static Discharge

ESR

Error Second Ratio

ETSI

European Telecommunication Standards Institute

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Abbreviation

Definition

FDM

Frequency Division Multiplexing

FDDI

Fiber Distributed Data Interface

FEBBE

Far End Background Block Error

FEES

Far End Errored Second

FESES

Far End Severely Errored Second

GMPLS

Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching

GUI

Graphical User Interface

HDLC

High Digital Link Control

HPC

Higher order Path Connection

IP

Internet Protocol

ITU-T

International
Telecommunication
Standardization Sector

L2

Layer 2

LAN

Local Area Network

LAPD

Link Access Procedure On D-channel

LCT

Local Craft Terminal

LMS

Local NE Management System

LOF

Loss Of Frame

LOM

Loss of Multi-Frame

LOP

Loss Of Pointer

LOS

Loss Of Signal

LPC

Lower order Path Connection

MAC

Medium Access Control

MAN

Metropolitan Area Network

MCU

Micro Control Unit

MDI

Miscellaneous Discrete Input

MDO

Miscellaneous Discrete Output

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Abbreviation

Definition

MM

Multi Mode

MS

Multiplex Section

MS-AIS

Multiplex Sections - Alarm Indication Signal

MS-PSC

Multiplex Sections - Protection Switching Count

MS-PSD

Multiplex Sections - Protection Switching Duration

MS-SPRing

Multiplexer Section Shared Protection Ring

MSAP

Multiple Service Access Platform

MSOH

Multiplex Section Overhead

MSP

Multiplex Section Protection

MSTP

Multiple Service Transport Platform

MSSP

Multiple Service Switching Platform

MTBF

Mean Time Between Failures

MTIE

Maximum Time Interval Error

NE

Network Element

NEF

Network Element Function

NEL

Network Element Layer

NML

Network Manager Layer

NMS

Network Management System

NUT

Non-preemptible and Unprotected Traffic

OAM

Operation, Administration and Maintenance

OFS

Out of Frame Second

OOF

Out of Frame

OS

Operation System

OSF

Operation System Function

OSI

Open System Interconnect

PCB

Printed Circuit Board

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Abbreviation

Definition

PCM

Pulse Code Modulation

PDH

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

PGND

Protection GND

PJE+

Pointer Justification Event +

PJE-

Pointer Justification Event -

POH

Path Overhead

PPP

Point to Point Protocol

PRC

Primary Reference Clock

QA

Q Adaptor

QoS

Quality of Service

RAM

Random Access Memory

RDI

Remote Defect Indication

REI

Remote Error Indication

REG

Regenerator

RFI

Remote Failure Indication

RIP

Router Information Protocol

RMII

Reduced Medium Independent Interface

RS

Regenerator Section

RSOH

Regenerator Section Overhead

SD

Signal Degrade

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SEC

Station Equipment Clock

SES

Severely Errored Second

SESR

Severely Errored Second Ratio

SETS

Synchronous Equipment Timing Source

SF

Signal Failure

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Abbreviation

Definition

SFF

Small Form Factor

SFP

Small Form Factor Pluggable

SM

Single Mode

SMCC

Sub-network management control center

SML

Service Management Layer

SMN

SDH Management Network

SMS

SDH Management Sub-Network

SMT

Surface Mount Technology

SNCP

Sub-network Connection Protection

SOH

Section Overhead

SPRING

Shared Protection Ring

SSM

Synchronous State Message

STM-N

Synchronous Transport Module Level-N

TCP

Transport Control Protocol

TDEV

Time Deviation

TDM

Time Division Multiplex

TIF

Telemetry Interface

TM

Terminal Multiplexer

TMN

Telecommunications Management Network

TU

Tributary Unit

UAS

Unavailable Second

VC

Virtual Container

VC-n

Virtual Container level n

VDN

Virtual Data Network

VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network

WAN

Wide Area Network

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Abbreviation
WDM

Definition
Wavelength Division Multiplexing

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Appendix 2: Basis Technologies

In this section, the following key basis technologies for hiT 70series are described:
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
Virtual Concatenation (VCat, a standard way of packing lower bandwidth circuits into
SDH/SONET frames)
Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS)
Ethernet Functions
RPR (Resilient Packet Ring)

9.1

Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)

GFP/G.7041 provides a framing procedure for octet-aligned, variable-length payloads for


subsequent mapping into SDH VC-groups.
GFP differs from other packet mappings (e.g., Packet over SONET) because it is Layer 2
independent and maintains the Layer-2 header information, in a manner such that the
destination node may reproduce the entire stream of Layer-2 frames. This in turn, allows
the transport network to transparently connect two Layer-2 devices.
GFP standard includes two modes: transparent and frame-mapped.
Transparent Mode (GFP-T) allows block-coded LAN and SAN signals, such as Gigabit
Ethernet, Fiber Channel, Ficon, and Escon, to be transported and switched across an
optical network, while preserving the full client-signal information
Frame-Mapped Mode (GFP-F), on the other hand, is used to adapt Protocol Data Unit
(PDU)-oriented signals client signals that are already framed or packetized by the client
protocol and may operate at the data-link layer (or higher) of the client signal. GFP-F
maps one frame or packet of the client signal, such as IP/PPP or Ethernet MAC, into one
GFP frame. GFP frames, each associated with different clients, can be multiplexed onto a
single TDM channel before SDH transport. This packet aggregation capability provides
greater bandwidth efficiency.
hiT 7025 supports the GFP-F mode. The FCS of the GFP frame may optionally be used,
additionally to the FCS of the Ethernet frame.

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Ethernet Packet

Preamble

SFD

Core Header

GFP Frame

PLI 2-bytes

control0x11

DA 6-bytes SA 6-bytes T/L 2-bytes

Payload

CRC 4-bytes

Payload Header

HEC 2 byte

type 2-bytes

HEC 2byte

GFP Ex

Payload

FCS 4-bytes

Variable 4-65535 Byte

GFP Frame

SDH Frame

VC
Overhead

VC Payload

Figure 66 - GFP mapping

Benefits of GFP
The key benefits of GFP are the uniform mechanism to support all L2 protocols and high
encapsulation efficiency. This provides convergence of next-generation services with
existing infrastructure investment to provide network consolidation and cost savings. GFP
provides:
Uniform and deterministic mapping of packet and future services to SDH/SONET
transport protocols which is more robust frame delineation than flag-based
mechanisms such as HDLC.
Efficient network resource utilization via GFPs low overhead characteristics, and
compatibility with virtual-concatenation processing
Flexibility of Extension Headers: This allows topology application specific fields to be
defined without affecting frame delineation functions
Payload independent frame expansion, and therefore no byte stuffing.
Greater bandwidth efficiency through GFP-F frame-modes support for packet-level
multiplexing, which allows aggregation of multiple client streams into a single TDM
channel
The ability to identify the encapsulated client protocol separately from the Extension
Header. This could be used to allow frame forwarding based on Extension Header
fields without requiring recognition of the encapsulated client protocol.
GFP provides the interworking condition among different vendors, which is not so
easy to obtain with other alternatives of the Ethernet over SDH, like PPP. The
following table provides with a comparison between the two methods.

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GFP

Multilink PPP, PPP

Support of topologies

Point to point, ring and


linear

Point to point

Frame delineation

No need for specific frame


flags, using the
relationship between the
PLI and cHEC to delineate
frames. More stable.

Specific frame flags


(opening/closing flags) are
needed.

Bit/Byte stuffing

No

Mandatory

Yes, GFP frame contains


data priority bits which
supports for congestion
control

Not supported

Extendibility

Excellent

Not supported

Mapping method

Framed, Transparent
Mapped

Framed

Jumbo frame support

No limitation on the frame


length

Not supported

Class of Service

Figure 67 - Comparison between GFP and PPP

9.2

Virtual Concatenation (VCat)

In order to transport payloads exceeding the payload capacity of the standard set of
Virtual Container Group (VC-Group), Virtual Concatenation was defined. There are two
types of concatenations defined in ITU standards: contiguous and virtual concatenation.
Contiguous concatenation has been part of SDH from its early days. It was conceived to
accommodate high-speed data applications that use protocols such as ATM. The ITU
G.707 defined contiguously concatenated containers only to support certain rates
including: STM-4c, STM-16c and STM-64c.
The basic idea of virtual concatenation (VCat) acc. to ITU-T 707 is to create a finer
granularity of payloads than contiguous concatenation can offer. In addition, some legacy
SDH equipment may not support contiguous concatenation transport switching, and
virtually concatenated traffic is transported as individual VC-groups across the SDH
network and recombined at the destination node. Carriers can map any arbitrary
bandwidth to a corresponding and appropriate number of VC-12 or VC-3 or VC-4
channels. The benefits of VCat are:
Efficiency: little bandwidth is wasted and carriers now have a more efficient scenario for
carrying data over the SDH network.
Compatibility: Virtual concatenation works across legacy networks. Only the end nodes of
the network need to be aware of the virtually concatenated containers.
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Intermediate SDH nodes forward the single Containers transparently throughout the
network. Hence, with virtual concatenation, such channels can be routed over legacy
networks that do not support contiguous channels.
Reliability: Virtual Concatenation, along with LCAS, allows new and efficient shared
protection mechanism.

9.3

Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS)

LCAS (ITU-T Recommendation G.7042/Y.1305, approved by the ITU-T in November


2001) is a protocol to synchronize the re-sizing of a virtual concatenation group in use, so
it can be changed without corrupting packets in the process. LCAS provides automatic
recovery of a link after member failures.
LCAS builds on Virtual Concatenation. While the virtual concatenation is a simple labeling
of individual VC members within a virtual concatenation group, LCAS is a two-way
signaling protocol that runs continuously between the two ends of the pipe and ensures
that commands from the network management system to alter the pipe capacity do not
impair the users traffic. LCAS adds several highly significant features to SDHs
capabilities:
The combination of VCat and LCAS creates fine-tuned and variable capacity SDH
pipes to match the needs of packet data QOS (quality of service) and customer SLAs
(service-level agreements) and to boost carriers traffic-handling scalability and
efficiency. LCAS allows adjustment of the size of a virtually concatenated group of
channels.
The combination of VCat and LCAS can also provide soft protection schemes. Using
VCat, traffic is distributively mapped into several SDH containers (e.g. VC-12s) and
sent by different paths. When certain VC-12s in the same VC group fail, LCAS can
delete the failed VCs from the group. The traffic can then be dynamically adapted to
the rest of the VC12s bandwidth for transmission. Otherwise without LCAS - a
failure in one path of a channel built up of diversely routed paths would lead to loss of
all the traffic.

9.4

Ethernet Functions and Services

Layer 2 Ethernet functions implemented in state-of-the-art transport system may include


the following:
Layer 2 aggregation
Layer 2 switching
802.1p QoS/CoS based on Ethernet port and/or VLAN
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) to provide Layer 2 traffic protection

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Rate limiting function per port and policing per Port or per VLAN basis, the maximum
allowable rate per port or per VLAN is user provisionable
VLAN function
Ethernet Shared Ring (ESR): Layer 2 switch and Aggregator cards: all the traffic goes
through the shared ring.
Ethernet / (virtual) Private Line / Ethernet Private-Line (EpL)
Ethernet (virtual) LAN (EvLAN) / Ethernet-LAN (ELAN)

9.5

Port Cross Connection and Port+VLAN Cross


Connetion

Port Cross Connection means the frame from ingress port (both WAN or LAN) will be
forward to egress port (both WAN or LAN) according to the ingress port. At the ingress
port a forward table is configured by operator to define the egress port base on the ingress
port.

Figure 68 Port Cross Connection

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Under port aggregation mode, four types of VLAN operation on the input packet can be
taken:
(1) One port direct forwards packet to the other port without any VLAN manipulation
(2) One port direct forwards packet to the other port with adding Tag PVID,
i. In coming untagged frame will be added a PVID (TPID default 0x8100)
ii. In coming tagged frame with TPID 0x8100 will be forwarded without VLAN
manipulation
(3) One port direct forwards packet to the other port with stack a VLAN Tag,
i. Untagged frame and tagged frame will always be added an VLAN id and
(4) One port direct forwards packet to the other port with Stripping VLAN tag at the egress
Port+VLAN Cross Connection (VLAN aggregation) means the frame from ingress port
from ingress port (both WAN or LAN) will be forward to egress port (both WAN or LAN)
according to its VLAN tag. At the ingress port a forward table is configured by operator to
define the egress port based on VLAN. Untagged frame will be discarded.

Figure 69 VLAN aggregation


Under port aggregation mode, four types of VLAN operation on the input packet can be
taken:
(1). Forwarding the packet without any VLAN manipulation (new request)
(2) Forwarding the packet with stacking a VLAN tag (double tag tunneling)
(3) Forwarding the packet with translating a VLAN ID (VLAN id replace)
(4) Forwarding the packet with stripping the VLAN tag at the egress (new request)

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Different ingress VLAN id can be forward to the same egress port, but frame with same
VLAN ID cannot be mapped to the different egress port.

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Appendix 3: Related Documents

Technical Description hiT 7020


Technical Description hiT 7030
Technical Description hiT 7035
Technical Description hiT 7050
Technical Description hiT 7060
Technical Description hiT 7060 HC
Technical Description hiT 7065
Technical Description hiT 7070 SC/DC
Technical Description hiT 7080

Copyright 2013 Coriant. All rights reserved.