R om an R oad

Sk ye Bur ials

S ardinian Tomb

Videography

Welsh R ock-ar t

Pa st Hor izons
Adventures in Archaeology

O nline Journal of volunteer archaeology and training
May 2010

Fa b r ik a H ill

Pa p h o s Th e at re Excavations

Issue 12 May 2010 Editors: Felicity Donohoe Maggie Struckmeier Layout: Maggie Struckmeier Graphics David Connolly Past Horizons Traprain House Luggate Burn Haddington East Lothian EH41 4QA Tel: +44 (0)1620 861643 Email: editor@pasthorizons.com Web: www.pasthorizons.com Contributors: David Cockman George Nash Craig Barker Mary Peterana Anies Hassan Annie Evans Diego Meozzi Images Adam Stanford David Martin Bob Miller Steven House Front cover: Excavating in the early morning light at Fabrika Hill theatre, Paphos, in Cyprus.
Note Past Horizons can give no endorsement of any listed project or guarantee the accuracy of the information supplied. The editors accept no responsibility for any loss, injury, or inconvenience sustained by anyone using the resources contained within this magazine and/or the websites mentioned herein. When considering a project, be sure to contact the director with any questions you might have about conditions, travel, health issues, etc. Check for references from previous participants, seek advice where possible and select a project that will be of the greatest benefit to you, the project and the team.

28 Fabrika Hill
Fabrika Hill is a natural outcrop representing the n o r t h - e a s t e r n corner of the ancient city of Nea Paphos, Cyprus. Th e A u s t r a l i a n excavations on the south of Fabrika have reveale d a t h e a t r e construct ed around 300 BC and used as a venue for p e r f o r m a n c e and entertainment until the late fourth century AD.

14 Tomba della Scacchiera
Diego Meozzi of Stonepages describes how a visit to a S a r d i n i a n farmhous e led to an astonishing revelation by the o w n e r. A l a t e Neolithic painted tomb had recently been discovere d n e a r b y b u t instead of telling the world, the archaeologists who fo u n d i t c h o s e instead to quietly seal it up.

All content is copyright and no reproduction of text or images is allowed without prior permission from the author. Past Horizons 2010

past horizons

2

Contents

52 Videography in Archaeology
Anies Hassan discusses the merits of using videography to promote the public face of archaeology.

8 Quest for the Truth

The story of how an English local archaeological society challenged convention and set out to discover the true route of a Roman road.

20 Welsh Prehistoric

Rock-art Tradition

40 Hungate
The York Archaeological Trust is half way through a five-year project that has already provided training for many students and volunteers. We take a look at their progress.

Welsh rock-art until recently has been poorly understood due to a lack of systematic research. Now, however a growing number of people having joined the recently formed Welsh Rock-art Organisation and are making exciting new discoveries.

R e g u l a rs
5 Editorial 6 News
Know Your Neighbourhood. News stories from around the world.

36 Discover

The V é z è r e valley.

47 Viewpoint

25 Profile

David Connolly on making archaeological connections.

George Nash.

48 Dig In 50 Dig Cook 3
Culinary escapades from Annie Evans.
past horizons

26 A Digger’s Life

Si Clegget shares his stories

www.aerial-cam.co.uk

adam@aerial-cam.co.uk
past horizons

4

K now Yo u r N e i g h b o u r h o o d ...
Recently I had the opportunity to accompany a group of visual artists and writers on a journey around our local area. The idea behind the trip, entitled ‘Taking a Line’, was to provide inspiration about the archaeology, history, geology and wildlife that surrounds us. In response to this multi-faceted journey the artists and writers will create a piece of work that reflects their experiences of the day.

T h e o p p o r t u n i t y to show others some of the local archaeological sites and explain w h a t t h e y r e p r e sent was a wonderful way to spend the day. The journey started w i t h s o m e e x c i tement for the visitors when we first called on an impressive 16th c e n t u r y s t a r f o r t deep in the woods yet with spectacular views from the ramparts. A f i r s t - t i m e v i sit for those on the trip, the ‘discovery’ of this hidden gem led t o m u c h d i s c u s sion about the significance of the fort as everyone climbed back i n t o t h e m i n i b u s filled with a real sense of enthusiasm before moving on to our n e x t d e s t i n a t i o n.

M y o w n j o u r n e y of local discovery started only a few months ago when I began t o e x p l o r e t h e surrounding hills usin g Google Earth. Interested to see how the f a r m i n g l a n d s c ape worked I started to notice a pattern emerging. Halfway up a l m o s t e v e r y s i de valley there was a circular sheep enclosure alongside rig and f u r r o w. O f c o u rse, only so much can be done using Google Earth but taking the c o - o r d i n a t e s a n d loading them on to my GPS I set out to find these sites on the ground. O n c e t h e r e i t b ecame apparent there were many other sites that only showed up w h e n w a l k i n g across the landscape itself. The more the eye became accustomed t o t h i s m o o r t e rrain, the more vestiges of old turf enclosures and walls became v i s i b l e . H e r e I was only 20 minutes from where I lived and I was finding new a n d u n r e c o r d e d sites. I n d e e d , i t i s a mazing what awaits discovery in our localities, especially when g o a l s h a v e b e e n set. For example, the investigations of the Hendon and District A r c ha e o l o g i c a l Society uncovered the true route of a Roman road in their area, a n d t h e i r f i n d i ngs provide a great example of what can be achieved with some d o g g e d d e t e r m i nation and hard work (page 8). F o r a n y o n e t h i nking of setting out on a local voyage of discovery, just start off b y b e i n g c l e a r about what it is you want to look at then take it from there. It d o e s n ’t m a t t e r if you live in a city, a town or a village, there is always something t o l ea r n , a n e w journey to take. Know your neighbourhood and suddenly you w i l l l o o k a t y o ur own world with new eyes and fresh perspectives.

editorial

editor@pasthorizons.com 

5

past horizons

Discover y of a Pre h i s to r i c B u r i a l S i te on S k ye

news
A rc h a e o l o g i s t M a r y Pe te ra n n a s u p er vises the removal of a t wo -tonne capstone which covered cist 3

T

h e d i s c o v e r y o f a P r ehistoric burial site on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, h a s c a u s e d g r e a t e xcitement within the local communit y. Situated n e x t t o t h e A r m a d a l e - Mallaig ferry pier on the Sleat peninsula, the site w a s i d e n t i f i e d i n S e p tember 2009 during an archaeological watching b r i e f c o n d u c t e d o n b e half of Lochalsh and Skye Housing A ssociation.
A team of archaeologists led by Ma r y P e t e r a n n a excavated seven cist burials c o n t a i n i n g cremated and inhumed remains. T h r e e o f t h e cists held decorated ‘food vessel’ p o t s , w h i c h have provided a definitive early B r o n z e A g e date (2000 BC). Other cists con t a i n e d g r a v e goods including a stone wrist gua r d f r a g m e n t and a variety of worked lithics. C i s t 7 , w h i c h was uncovered beyond the limits o f t h e m a i n site, revealed an inhumation buri e d w i t h f i v e finely-made flint arrowheads and t w o k n i v e s . Surprisingly, given the lack of a n y v i s i b l e archaeology on the surface, a m o n u m e n t o f three standing stones within a r i n g - s h a p e d ditch was uncovered at the centre o f t h e s i t e . The standing stones had previo u s l y f o r m e d part of a stone circle and, althoug h t h e r e s u l t s are still being processed, the m o n u m e n t appears to have originated as a ti m b e r c i r c l e .

D e co ra te d ce ra m i c f o o d ve s s e l f ro m cist 4

past horizons

6

T h e r i n g a l s o e ncircled the largest of the seven c i s t s . C o v e r e d by a two-tonne capstone, cist 3 c o n t a i n e d d e graded inhumed remains laid o n a c o b b l e d f l oor. Its alignment, like that of c i s t 7 , w a s d i ff erent to the other five cists and m a y s u g g e s t a n earlier burial date. A g r a v e o f u nusual stone construction as w e l l a s t h e r e mains of a hearth als o points t o e a r l i e r a c t i vity as both were located at c o n s i d e r a b l e depth in comparison to the B r o nz e A g e f e atures. A variety of worked f l i n t , b l o o d s t o n e, pitchstone and quartz flakes w e r e f o u n d s cattered throughout the site, i n d i c a t i n g a p rolonged span of occupancy Memb ers of the lo cal communit y touring the site a s s o c i a t e d w i t h stone tool manufacturing. A l s o i n t r i g u i n g was evidence of pre -historic To achieve this goal a society wa s f o r m e d a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t ivity. named Arc-Eòlas Shlèite/Archaeo l o g y S l e a t . A f t e r t h e d i s covery a meeting with the c o m m u n i t y w a s convened to discuss future d e v e l o p m e n t s . The overwhelming sentiment a t t h i s m e e t i n g was that the stone cists should b e r e c o n s t r u c t e d in part or in total, near to w h e re t h e y w e r e found, and that the artefacts s h o u l d r e t u r n t o Sleat. Arc-Eòlas Shlèite is now seek i n g t o r a i s e funds to carry out a geophysica l s u r v e y o n land adjacent to the stone cist s . T h i s l a n d has been suggested for the recon s t r u c t i o n o f the site and the Museum of the I s l e s a t C l a n Donald Skye has been identified a s a n i d e a l location for exhibiting the artefa c t s .

Flint to ols from cist 7

Remain s o f r i n g m o nu m e n t e n c i rc l i n g c i s t 3

7

past horizons

Q u est for the Tru t h
A R oman R oad Discovered

D ig di re c to r D. B a r r y H o b s o n ( h a n d ra i s e d i n w h i te shir t), a retired general prac titioner, welcomes a group of visitors to the excava t i o n s i te. D r. H o b s o n to o k a d e g re e i n A rc haeolo gy at Bradford Universit y a f ter his retirement.

past horizons

8

S

i n c e i t s f o r m a t i o n i n 1 9 5 6 , the amateur archaeologists of the Huddersfield a n d D i st r i c t A r c h a e o l o g i c al Society (HDAS) in the of north England have d e v o t e d s o m e o f t h e i r e fforts to piecing together evidence of a nearby Rom a n R o a d – e v i d e n c e t h a t c hallenged the accuracy of current understanding of th e l o c a t i o n o f t h e r o u t e . A ch a n c e d i s c o v e r y i n 1 9 7 3 r a i s ed the first serious question mark over claims by Rom a n r o a d e x p e r t I v a n M a rg a ry that the route ran alongside the present A640. This w a s t o s e t t h e m e m b e r s o f the HDAS on a quest to establish the truth which has l a s t e d f o r a l m o s t f o u r d e c a des and still continues today. 

9

past horizons

Outlane
M62 A58

A640

Slack Fort

A6
A64 0

2

Slaithwaite
ey

March Hill

Co

ln

ll Va e

Supposed route of the Roman Road

Castleshaw Fort

Pule Hill

Marsden

Meltham

Worlow Roman military station

Demonstrated route of the Roman Road

I n t h e t h r e e d e c ades after the Roman invasion o f B r i t a i n i n AD 43 the Roman military m a c h i n e m o v e d north and westwards bringing t h e w h o l e o f E ngland and Wales under Roman c o n t r o l . I n t h e 80s AD, under the governorship o f A g r i c o l a , t he army crossed the border i n t o S c o t l a n d and waged an aggressive, but u l t i m a t e l y u n s uccessful, campaign to subdue the tribes there. A s t h e a r m y m oved northwards it constructed a n e t w o r k o f r o ads, not for the benefit of the n a t i v e B r i t i s h but to enable rapid m ovement o f t r o o p s b e t w een military forts. With such a h i g h - q u a l i t y road system relatively small n u m b e r s o f t r o ops were able to control large a r e a s o f t h e c o untry. O n e s i g n i f i c a n t road, thought to have been b u i l t d u r i n g t h e 70s AD, linked the legionary f o r t r e s s a t C h e s ter, home of Legio II Adiutrix, w i t h t h e f o r t r e ss at York, home of Legio IX H i s p a n a . T h i s road crossed north Cheshire, a l o n g t h e l i n e o f the present A56, to Ma nchester ( M a m u c i u m ) . It then climbed up into the P e n n i n e h i l l s t owards Saddleworth, crossed past horizons

the top to the west of Huddersfi e l d a n d t h e n onwards via Leeds to York (Eb o r a c u m ) . A t roughly 10-mile intervals small f o r t s w o u l d have been placed along the roa d t o p r o t e c t traffic. The route of the road between Ch e s t e r a n d t h e Roman fort at Castleshaw in Sa d d l e w o r t h i s not in dispute (near Delph its ag g e r c a n s t i l l be seen). However, the course o f t h e r o a d , where it leaves Castleshaw and c l i m b s 1 2 kilometres over the hostile and b o g g y t e r r a i n of the Pennines towards the Ro m a n f o r t a t Slack, is more controversial, esp e c i a l l y a f t e r 18th century antiquaries began to t a k e a l i v e l y interest in our Roman legacy. The picture was further com p l i c a t e d b y the later construction of pack h o r s e w a y s linking Yorkshire and Lancashi r e o v e r t h e same ground. This difficult lan d s c a p e w i t h its often-unpleasant weather has p r e s e n t e d a challenge to road builders over th e c e n t u r i e s , and even the building of the M6 2 m o t o r w a y faced several problems.

10

A c c o r d i n g t o early 20th century Roman r o a d e x p e r t I v an Margary, the road climbs n o r t h w a r d s f r o m Castleshaw towards March H i l l , w h e r e i t t hen follows the course of the p r e s e n t A 6 4 0 Oldham-Huddersfield road to a p o i n t c l o s e t o t he fort at Slack, near Outlane. T h i s c l a i m w a s supported by the map-makers o f t h e O r d n a nce Survey but lacked hard a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence.

Today Google Earth clearly sho w s t h e r o a d crossing on Mr. Dransfield’s lan d b u t i n t h e 1970s such a valuable tool for b o t h a m a t e u r and professional archaeologists c o u l d o n l y be dreamt of, and finding other p i e c e s o f t h e jigsaw took several painstaking y e a r s . Wo r k concentrated on linking up this s e g m e n t o f Roman road, found in isolation , w i t h o t h e r sections to establish beyond reas o n a b l e d o u b t that the correct Roman route from C a s t l e s h a w H o w e v e r, i n 1 9 73 George Dransfield, a farmer to Slack had indeed been discove r e d . a t M o o r s i d e E dge, Slaithwaite, overlooking t h e C o l n e Va l l ey, drew the attention of the A large piece of the jigsaw is s t i l l m i s s i n g H D A S t o a m y sterious raised featur e in one around the Pennine mill town o f M a r s d e n , o f h i s f i e l d s w hich did not seem to relate to but is very possible that extensiv e i n d u s t r i a l t h e p r e s e n t - d a y road or farm track system. development in the town durin g t h e 1 9 t h E x a m i n a t i o n o f the feature revealed stones century has permanently destroye d t h e R o m a n a t a d e p t h o f a bout 25 centimetres and about levels. s i x m e t r e s a c r o ss, and Mr. Dransfield agreed t o s u s p e n d a n y work in the field to allow a By 2008 the HDAS had enough c o n f i d e n c e t h o r o u g h a r c h aeological exploration by the in their evidence to go public an d c h a l l e n g e HDAS. Margary’s views, and a book wa s p u b l i s h e d bringing together the results of d e c a d e s o f Wo r k w a s c a r r ied out mainly at weekends dedicated and often difficult arch a e o l o g y. T h e a n d a t r e n c h c u t across the feature eventually Romans Came This Way has att r a c t e d m a n y p r o d u c e d i n d i s putable evidence that indeed plaudits for the professional way i n w h i c h t h e t h e R o m a n s h a d passed this way. The first HDAS has conducted its researc h , n o t l e a s t p i e c e o f a c o m plex jigsaw puzzle had fallen from Professor Mick Aston of Tim e Te a m w h o i n t o p l a c e a n d disputed the route offered by praised their efforts in the introd u c t i o n t o t h e M a rg a r y ’s r e s e arch. book, describing them as a “ded i c a t e d g r o u p


M a k e - u p o f a R o m a n ro a d

Broken stones and larger pebbles Larger stones forming a foundation

Gravel surface, mixed with cement and tile for hard waterproof cambered road edge stones

Side drain

Rammed Earth/Sand within the Road Trench

Surveyor using a groma

11

past horizons

a most atmospheric place to vis i t . Ti m e h a s been less kind to Slack and the f o r t i s n o w completely lost under the clubho u s e a n d c a r park of the Outlane Golf Club. E x c a v a t i o n i n the 19th and early 20th century s h o w e d t h a t Slack also had a large annexe wit h a p o s s i b l e / probable vicus settlement. Much o f t h i s w a s also lost under the construction o f t h e M 6 2 , but one small corner of the anne x e s u r v i v e s undamaged and it is here that th e H D A S h a s been busy for several seasons. The fort was known to have been m a n n e d b y a 500-strong cavalry regiment w i t h p e r h a p s at least 100 horses and other an i m a l s , s o a reliable water supply would be ex p e c t e d . T h e apparent lack of a water source pu z z l e d e a r l i e r The fre s h w a t e r s u p pl y f o r S l a c k f o r t s t i l l f l o w i n g in a excavators, but on the very firs t d a y a n d i n stone c o n d u i t d i s c o v e re d b y t h e H D A S i n 2 0 0 7 the first trench opened in August 2 0 0 7 b y t h e o f a m a t e u r a r chaeologists”. The book has HDAS, the water supply was foun d , w i t h f r e s h p r o v e d t o b e a great seller, both loc ally and spring water still flowing in a st o n e c o n d u i t n a t i on a l l y, b u t a few copies are still available towards the fort, almost 2000 y e a r s a f t e r i t had been constructed. t h r o u g h t h e H D AS website. I n t h e 2 0 0 9 s e a son the search continued with Work continues to try to trace th e s o u r c e o f t h e H D A S s u c c essfully confirming t he route this water and the group is conf i d e n t t h a t i f o f t h e r o a d a s i t approached the fort at Slack. anyone can find it, the HDAS can . B u i l t i n t o a t e r r ace on the side of rising ground k n o w a s W h o l e stone Moor, two sections were u n c o v e r e d a n d excavated in some det ail.

G e t I nvo l ve d

O f p a r t i c u l a r i nterest was the discovery of d e e p r u t s i n t h e road caused by wheeled traffic, a n i n d i c a t i o n p erhaps that this piece of road c o n t in u e d t o b e used long after the Romans h a d d e p a r t e d . I t is uncertain how far it will b e p o s s i b l e t o t race the proximity of the road t o t h e f o r t s i n c e so much damage was caused b y t h e b u i l d i n g and landscaping of t he M62. I n d e e d , t h e m o d ern road is built directly on top o f i t s R o m a n a ncestor where the M62 passes c l o s e t o t h e s i t e of the Slack fort. A rescue dig c a r r i e d o u t i n 1 968 by Brian Hartley of Leeds U n i v e r s i t y, j u s t prior to the commencement of t h e m o t o r w a y works, confirmed the existence o f s ub s t a n t i a l r emains similar in construction t o t h e l e n g t h s u ncovered by the HDAS in the C o l n e Va l l e y. T h e t w o f o r t s l inked by this formidable piece o f R o m a n e n g ineering are Castleshaw and S l a c k . A t C a s t l eshaw, near Delph, much of the s i t e s u r v i v e s a n d is now protected. It remains past horizons

The HDAS is a flourishing and active society. Its regular monthly lectures in Huddersfield town hall attract a full house for talks by professional archaeologists covering a wide spectrum of topics and it is not solely focused on Roman Britain. In 2004 the society won the coveted Mick Aston Presentation Award at the British Archaeological Awards for “the best presentation of an archaeological project or theme to the public”. This was for work carried out at Myers Woods, near Huddersfield, where a mediaeval iron working site was discovered and excavated. The society is keen to encourage an interest in archaeology amongst the young. To this end it sponsors and supports the Huddersfield Young Archaeologists Club which accepts members from the age of eight. Youngsters are also welcome at all digs, either to watch or as hands-on participants. Visits from interested members of the general public are also encouraged and someone on the dig will always find time to explain what is going on. The HDAS website : http://www.huddarch.org.u k

12

P r i n t t h e d i s c o unt voucher: http://houses.shakespeare.org.uk/37412568

Click Here

13

past horizons

Dis cove r y o f a l ate Neolithic tomb on S ardinia
by Diego M eozzi of Stonepages I mages: Antonello Porcu
The ma i n c h a m b e r o f t h e t o m b

Tomba della

G eorge N a s h e n te r i n g ca ve 5 6 1 5 a t Sy m o n d s Ya t to investigate the alleged ro ck- ar t photo g ra p h : Ad a m S t a n f o rd

past horizons

14

a S cacchiera
S ard i n i a i s a n I t a l i a n i s l a n d k n o wn mainly among archaeologists for its nuraghes – anc i e n t t o w e r s s o m e w h a t r e m i niscent of Scottish brochs, but far more numerous and q u i t e e l a b o r a t e . O n t h e i s l a nd you will find a great number of ot her ancient won d e r s , f r o m t h e s o - c a l l e d ‘ g i ants’ tombs’ to the rock-cut tombs locally known as ‘d o m u s d e j a n a s ’ ( h o u s e s o f the fairies). 

15

past horizons

Lef t: chequer pattern ceiling in side vault B elow : side chamb er with red o chre spiral s

past horizons

16

F o r e v e r y o n e i n terested in ancient monuments S a r d i n i a i s t r u l y an amazing place, but some o f t he m o s t s t r i king examples may lie hidden f o r ce n t u r i e s a fter being discovered and then e x c a v a t e d b y the archaeologists. During a r e c e n t a r c h a e o logical tour of the island, we s t o p p e d f o r t h e night at Sas Abbilas farm h o u s e , l o c a t e d in a secluded little valley near B o n o r v a ( S a s s a ri), not too far from the wellk n o w n p r e h i s t o ric necropolis of Sant’Andrea P r i u . M r A n t o nello Porcu, the farm house o w n e r, s h o w e d us a series of striking images h e h a d t a k e n w i t h his camera last year, showing 7 0 c e n t i m e t r e - wide red ochre spirals painted o n t he w a l l s o f a side cell of a prehistoric tomb t h a t h a d b e e n e xcavated in 2009. Then he told u s t h e s t o r y o f this ‘tomba della scacchiera’ – t h e c h e q u e r e d tomb. H i s l a n d l i e s next to a place called Tenuta M a r i a n i , w h e r e a prehistoric necrop olis was d i s c o v e r e d i n 2002. By 2007, the Bonorva m u n i c i p a l i t y r eceived funding to make a s u r v e y o f t h e a r chaeological sites in t hat area. T h e l o c a l c o o p erative society commissioned t o p e r f o r m t h a t survey worked on the site t o g e t h e r w i t h a rchaeologist Francesco Sartor, a p p o i n t e d b y t h e Soprintendenza archeologica f o r N u o r o a n d Sassari (the local branch of t h e I t a l i a n M i n istry for Heritage). After the f i r s t p h a s e o f survey, a further survey and e x c a v a t i o n c a mpaign began the following y e a r, w i t h M r Sartor once again in charge. A f ew w e e k s after the start of the search, t h e a r c h a e o l o g ist claimed he had yet to find a n y t h i n g , b u t Mr Porcu had noticed fo r several c o n s e c u t i v e d a ys that the excavators returning f r o m t h e h i l l w ere covered in rock powder. He t h e n a s k e d t h e m in Sardinian (a langu age very d i ff er e n t f r o m I talian): “Did the sow give birth t o t h e p i g l e t s ?” The excavators answered, “ Ye s , a n d y o u should see how many and how b e a u t i f u l t h e y are!” That was the proof that s o m e t h i n g a m a zing had been found up in the h i l l s i n t h e Te n uta Mariani.

long side of the main chamber, a n d w i t h t h e 1.70 metre tall roof carved as tho u g h m a d e o f wood planks, painted in dark blu e a n d w h i t e . But the most striking visual ele m e n t o f t h e tomb is the series of great red sp i r a l s p a i n t e d on a side cell, a total of seven s p i r a l s , m a n y of them interconnected one to eac h o t h e r. T h e quality of that ancient painting is b r e a t h t a k i n g , and on the roof of a side vault t h e r e i s a l s o a geometric pattern very rarely f o u n d i n a Sardinian tomb: a black and whi t e c h e q u e r e d motif – something probably uniq u e o n a s i t e apparently dating back to late N e o l i t h i c a n d related to the so-called Ozieri c u l t u r e ( f r o m 3800 BCE to 2900 BCE). Curious about the archaeologis t s ’ s e c r e c y, Mr Porcu informed the mayor o f B o n o r v a , Mimmino Deriu, of the striking d i s c o v e r y a n d to his suprise, the mayor reveale d h e h a d n o t received any news about the to m b f r o m t h e archaeologist, or from official rep r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Soprintendenza. After about four months of exca v a t i o n s , t h e Soprintendenza placed a massiv e b l o c k o f rock in front of the only entrance o f t h e t o m b , filling everything with concrete a n d c o v e r i n g the whole area with a thick la y e r o f s o i l , sealing the tomb once again, a p p a r e n t l y t o protect the tomb against looters. T h e t o m b a n d its amazing paintings disappeared o n c e a g a i n , sharing the fate of other tombs i n t h e a r e a , such as Sa Pala Larga where an i m p r e s s i v e bull head is carved above a seri e s o f s p i r a l s that form a sort of ‘tree of life’.

In an interview for Stonepages w e b s i t e , M r Deriu said that “In spite of the c h r o n i c l a c k of funding, I strongly believe i n t h e h u g e importance of the archaeologic a l h e r i t a g e of the Tenuta Mariani area. I’m w o r k i n g t o further improve it, thanks to th e r e - o p e n i n g of the local archaeological mus e u m l o c a t e d on a former monastery, and throu g h t h e r e c e n t agreement with the Forestry Se r v i c e s o t o A f e w d a y s l a ter Mr Porcu and his brother preserve and enhance – also w i t h t o u r i s t i c d e c i d e d t o i n v estigate and discovere d, under aims – the Tenuta Mariani, wher e t h e s e a l e d a g r o u n d s h e e t placed there by the excavators, necropolis lies.” a n e n t r a n c e p a ssage with a rock-cut façade l e a d i n g i n t o a h uge tomb with three side cells. Stonepages also called Mrs Lu i s a n n a U s a i , T h e t o m b w a s decorated with bright red ochre archaeologist of the Soprinten d e n z a p e r i d r a wi n g s , w i t h huge bull heads carved on the Beni Archeologici for Sassari a n d N u o r o

17

past horizons

p r ovinces, and in charge of the Bonorva area. We wanted to know if there were any plans t o remove the seal to the tomb and to open i t to the public, along with the other sites o f the necropolis. She said, “I don’t want to s p read any word about it. The main aim of the S oprintendenza is to protect those sites. The p aintings are faint, so the tomb will remain s e aled. We are the ones who decide which are t h e best channels to inform people about this k i nd of discovery.” A lthough it is necessary to preserve the tomb f r om looters, there ar e drawbacks to this a pproach. Local witnesses claim that other s e aled tombs in the same region, such as Sa P ala Larga, are suffering heavy water seepage w hich is destroying the paintings. In this case, t h e cure may be worse than the disease. W hile acknowledging our respect of the S oprintendenza and its archaeologists, i n cluding Luisanna Usai, we disagree strongly w ith the applied methods and the closure of t h e tombs. Our heritage is a national treasure a nd must be shared: protection is one thing, b ut hiding an ancient site indefinitely – even i f motivated by preservation principles – is s o mething else. Opening the tombs to the p ublic may even provide the funding necessary t o protect their fragile state. I t raises questions over the possibility that m any other remarkable monuments may have b een found, studied and sealed once again over t h e years by the archa eologists in Sardinia w ith only a few authorised persons aware of t h eir presence. S t onepages would like to raise awareness o f the tomb at Sa Pala Larga (also known as t o mb no.7) and we urge people to send letters a nd messages directly to the Soprintendente A rcheologico for Sassari and Nuoro expressing s u pport for the reopening of the tombs so that t h eir beauty and significance can be shared b y all.
Letters to: Dott. Bruno Massabò - Sopri ntendenza per i Beni Archeologici per le province di Sassari e Nuoro, Piazza Sant’Agostino, 2 - 07100 Sassari, Italia. Email: bmassabo@arti.benicu lturali.it

C lo se -up vi ew o f l

past horizons

18

la rg e red o chre spira l s

19

past horizons

Welsh Prehistor ic

Tex t by G e orge Na sh I m a g es by Ada m Sta nford

W

h e n w e t hi n k o f Wel s h archaeol ogy, o ne t ends t o ai m c a u tio u sly t ow a r d s cas t l es, coal mi nes and canal s, large st ructu re s th a t d o m i n a t e t he l and s cape, b ut over the past 20 y ear s o r so, p re h is tor ic r o ck -a rt ha s s t ak ed i t s cl aim am ong th is grou p an d ente re d i nto m a in st r e a m ar chaeol og y.
It is estimated t h a t o v e r 8 0 0 0 s i t e s e x i s t i n England and S c o t l a n d , o c c u p y i n g m a i n l y the upland a r e a s o f C o u n t y D u r h a m , Cumbria, Der b y s h i r e , N o r t h u m b e r l a n d , Staffordshire a n d Yo r k s h i r e , a n d t h e Central southe r n a n d w e s t e r n c o u n t i e s of Scotland. N e a r l y a l l o f t h e s e s i t e s are statutory- p r o t e c t e d , d e s i g n a t e d a s Scheduled Mon u m e n t s . P i o n e e r i n g w o r k in northern B r i t a i n i n i t i a l l y b y A . W. B . Morris and late r b y S t a n B e c k e n s al l l e d t o English Herita g e ’s R o c k - a r t p i l o t p r o j e c t which was set- u p i n 1 9 9 8 . As a result of th i s a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g r e p o r t , an online, inte r a c t i v e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w a s set up by the U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w c a s t l e i n 2004 which f i e l d - w a l k e d , r e c o r d e d a n d detailed 1200 s i t e s i n N o r t h u m b e r l a n d . The results fr o m t h i s p r o j e c t w e r e l a t e r u p l o a d e d o n t o t h e i n t e r n e t . Based on t h e t h o u s a n d s o f h i t s o n t h i s site, it was c l e a r t h a t e x p e r t s a s w e l l a s the general p u b l i c w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e se enigmatic prehistoric carved symbols. The pilot p r o j e c t w a s l a t e r e x t e n d e d to County Durham. T h e r e a r e m a n y s t y l i s t i c similarities b e t w e e n t h e r o c k - a r t a s s e mblages of Wa l e s a n d N o r t h e r n B r i t a i n, much of i t d a t i n g t o t h e N e o l i t h i c and Bronze A g e a n d c o m p r i s i n g m a i n ly multiple c a r v e d a b s t r a c t m o t i f s s u c h a s concentric c i r c l e s , c u p m a r k s , c u p - a n d - r i ngs, spirals a n d z i g z a g l i n e s . I n b o t h a r e as there are e x a m p l e s o f r o c k - a r t , m a i n l y cupmarks, t h a t o c c u r o n r o c k - o u t c r o p p i ngs close to m o n u m e n t s . T h e m a i n d i ff e r e nces between t h e t w o l i e i n p r o v e n a n c e a n d context.

A bove: t ra cin g th e p e c k e d d e s i g n of t h e E s g ob s to n e o n to clea r film . R i ght : t he com pl ex de c o r at i o n of s t o ne 2 2 w it h i n th e c h am b er o f Ba rclo d iad y G awres, Ang lese y.

past horizons

20

R o c k-ar t Tradition

21

past horizons

A l t h o u g h t h e r e are limited number of rock-art s i t e s i n Wa l e s , many are listed on the regional H i s t o r i c E n v i r o nment Records (HERs ) and the C A R N ( C o r e Archaeological Record iNdex ) d a t a b a s e m a n a ged by the Royal Commission o n t h e A n c i e n t and Historical Monuments of Wa l es , a s w e l l as a site index held by CADW, t h e n a t i o n a l h e ritage organisation for Wales. H o w e v e r, t h e r e has been no move to replicate t h e s u c c e s s o f the English Heritage rock-art p i l o t p r o j e c t h e re. Despite the present lack of r e g i o n a l g o v e r nment enthusiasm, there have b e e n a n u m b e r of important studies which have i d e n t i f i e d a n d dated a regional style. John S h a r k e y, a u t h o r and researcher into Celtic a n c i e n t h i s t o r y, has produced an informative g a z e t t e e r s u p p orted by cartograph ic gridr e f e re n c i n g a n d extensive discussion on the m o r e o b v i o u s s ites.* P r i o r t o 2 0 0 5 , the number of sites recorded n u m b e r e d a r o u nd 45. At this time, a team d i r e c t e d b y myself and Adam Stanford ( A r c h a e o l o g y Safaris) conducted a series of f i e l d s u r v e y s around a number of Neolithic b u r i a l - r i t u a l m onuments in Anglesey, the Llyn P e n i n s u l a a n d the coastal landscape around H a r l e c h , N o r t h Wales. Based on this and

earlier fieldwork, the majority of t h e r o c k - a r t sites appear to be located within a 1 5 - 2 0 m i l e corridor of the coast. This distrib u t i o n p a t t e r n was also recorded in South Wal e s , a g a i n o n or close to Neolithic burial-ritua l m o n u m e n t s that lie close to the sea. The initial reconnaissance tea m i n N o r t h Wales yielded a number of s i g n i f i c a n t discoveries and as a result the te a m f o u n d e d the Anglesey Rock-art Project ( A R A P ) i n 2005. The recording techniques e m p l o y e d a t each site included tried-and-tes t e d m e t h o d s such as high-resolution digital p h o t o g r a p h y working alongside controlled ligh t i n g , u s u a l l y photographed during darkness. I n a d d i t i o n , conventional tracing with mark e r- p e n o n t o acetate sheets was also used. T h i s m u l t i method approach ensured the high e s t p o s s i b l e recording standards and allow e d d e t a i l e d cross-referencing for the final pl a n / i m a g e . ARAP, funded by a number of s o u r c e s , h a s over the past five years made some s p e c t a c u l a r discoveries, two of which are lo c a t e d i n a n d around the Late Neolithic passag e g r a v e s o f Barclodiad y Gawres and Bryn C e l l i D d u . At Barclodiad y Gawres megali t h i c a r t w a s found within the chamber area t h a t i n c l u d e d additional cupmarks, geometric m o t i f s a n d spirals on several upright stones. T h e s e m o t i f s being so finely pecked, escape d d i s c o v e r y when the site was excavated dur i n g t h e e a r l y 1950s by Glyn Daniel and Terre n c e P o w e l l . Originally recorded by Forde-Jo h n s o n f r o m Liverpool Museum who accom p a n i e d t h e Daniel and Powell excavation i n 1 9 5 2 , t h e art from these and four other s t o n e s f a c e d inwards into the central gallery a r e a o f t h e chamber. The excavation reveale d t h a t w i t h i n the central part of the chamber w a s a h e a r t h . The light from this and torches w o u l d h a v e been the only sources of illumin a t i o n d u r i n g this period when the remains of th e d e a d w e r e being interred. Rock-art here an d e l s e w h e r e within the Neolithic world would h a v e p l a y e d a significant role between the a r t i s t , t h e funeral entourage and the dead. At Bryn Celli Ddu a possible ri t u a l p i t w a s discovered along with the Pa t t e r n S t o n e , its decoration comprising a c o n t i n u o u s curvilinear carved line covered a l l t h e s i d e s .

Cupma r k s o n t o p o f t h e ro c k o u t c ro p t o t h e w est of Bryn Celli D d u , A n g l e s e y.

past horizons

22

U p u n t i l 2 0 0 5 i t was considered that this and a heritage. Away from rock-art for t h e m o m e n t , s m a l l s p i r a l c a rving within the chamber were the sizable portable art assem b l a g e t h a t t h e o n l y r o c k - a rt present However, rock-art in includes decorated and pierced s h e l l , i v o r y

T he B ach wen b ur ia l c h am b e r w i t h at l e as t 110 c up m ark s o n to p o f th e ca p sto ne .

t h e f o r m o f u p t o 30 cupmarks was found on a l a rg e r o c k - o u t c rop around 50 metres west of t h e m o n u m e n t b y the ARAP. The team deduced t h a t t h e r o c k - o utcrop, a nearby standing stone a n d B r y n C e l l i Ddu passage grave formed p a r t o f a r i t u a l landscape. These two major d i s c o v e r i e s p r ompted further fieldwork on o t h e r s i t e s i n Anglesey and North Wales i n c l u d i n g t h e d ouble chambered burial-ritual m o n u m e n t D y ffryn Ardudwy, near Harlech, w h e re f a i n t m egalithic art was discovered, l o c a t e d w i t h i n the facade of the western c h a m b e r. T h e art comprised cupmarks and a s e r i e s o f c h e v r ons and/or geometric forms. B a s ed o n prehistoric Britain, it t h a t Wa l e s

and stone that dates to our earlies t i n h a b i t a n t s tells archaeologists that art was a n e s s e n t i a l communicator, a device to express one’s artistic ability and emotions. Wales’s l i m i t e d b u t significant rock-art, usually ass o c i a t e d w i t h burial-ritual sites, merely reflects t h i s a r t i s t i c endeavour and things that were i m p o r t a n t t o our ancestors around 150 generat i o n s a g o .

In early 2009, following further d i s c o v e r i e s in North and South Wales, AR A P d e c i d e d to set up the Welsh Rock-art O rg a n i s a t i o n (WRAO) and in the same year a p p l i e d t o join the International Federation o f R o c k A r t Organisations (IFRAO). This m o v e n o t o n l y o u r knowledge of the regional provided access to further fund i n g , i t a l s o r o c k-art traditions elsewhere in allowed the team to officially re g i s t e r Wa l e s i s becoming increasing ly clear within the global rock-art commu n i t y. h a s a unique prehistoric artistic 

23

past horizons

D u r i n g t h e s u m mer of 2009, ARAP assembled a t e a m a t L l w ydiarth Esgob Farm in eastern A n g l e s e y w h e r e a large boulder stands in the g a r d e n , c o m p l e te with a unique series of mainly c u r v i l i n e a r c a rved designs. Although this s t o n e h a d b e e n moved by a local antiquarian t o i t s p r e s e n t position during the early part o f t h e 2 0 t h c e ntury and drew the attention o f s e v e r a l a r c haeologists during the 1970s, i t h a d n e v e r been systematically r ecorded. T h e t e a m , c o m prising students from Bristol a n d U n i v e r s i t y College Dublin along with s e a s o n e d r o c k -art specialists, recorded the r o c k - a r t u s i n g a variety of methods. F o l l o w i n g a s u ccessful application to IFRAO, A R A P w i l l c o n tinue their fieldwork in South We s t Wa l e s . T his shift in regional research i s p a r t l y t h e result of the discovery of a c u p - a n d - r i n g a nd cupmarks on the top of a m a s s i v e c a p s t o ne belonging to the megalithic c h a m b e r e d m o nument of Garn Turne in north-

west Pembrokeshire in 2005, and o n a m o b i l i a r y rock-art panel (comprising two c u p m a r k s ) , found at Dan-y-Garn (Mynachl o g - D d u ) , o n the Preseli Mountains in August 2 0 0 2 . Located near Newport is a par t i a l l y - b u r i e d capstone, known locally as the Tr e f a e l S t o n e . On the upper face of this stone a r e c a r v e d a t least forty cupmarks, and we hope t o e x c a v a t e in order to reveal the full extent o f t h i s r o c k art panel. The proposed excav a t i o n o f t h e buried section of this enormou s s t o n e w i l l hopefully take place in Septem b e r / O c t o b e r 2010. By early 2010, WRAO had over 1 2 0 m e m b e r s from all corners of Wales an d E n g l a n d , reinforcing the popularity of th i s b r a n c h o f archaeology, and it is hoped that b y m i d 2 0 1 0 we will have a fully-interactive w e b s i t e u p and running. As for fieldwork, t h e h u n t g o e s on!

D r. G e o rg e N a s h is a part-time lecturer and visiting fellow at the Department of A rc h a e o l o g y a n d A n t h ro p o l o gy, University of Bristol, and visiting associate professor at the S p i r u H a re t U n i v e r s i t y, R o mania. George’s present projects include Valcamonica in northern I t a l y, l o o k i n g a t I ro n A g e h o use carvings, a landscape assessment within the eastern sector o f R h o s s i l i D o w n , S o u t h Wales, and representative rock-art in the Channel Islands. W R AO h o l d s field-schools and events throughout the year. For more infor m at i o n o n j o i n i n g t h e i r ac tivities view the website at http://w w w.rock-ar t-in-wales.co. uk
Key Sources Beckensall, S., British Prehistoric Rock-art, The History Press (2nd Edition), (2002). Darvill, T. & Wainwright, G., ‘A cup-marked stone from Dan-y-garn, Mynachlog-Ddu, Pembrokeshire, and the prehistoric rock ar t from Wales’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 69 (2003), pp. 253-64. Lynch, F., Prehistoric Anglesey: the Archaeology of the Island to the Roman Conquest , Anglesey Antiquarian Society (1970). Mazel, A, Nash, G.H. & Waddington, C. (eds.), Art as Metaphor: The Prehistoric Rock-art of Britain, Oxford: Archaeopress (200 7). Nash, G.H., Brook , C., George, A., Hudson, D., McQueen, E., Parker, C., Stanford, A., Smith, A., Swann, J. & Waite, L., ‘Notes on newly discovered rock art on and around Neolithic burial chambers in Wales’, Archaeology in Wales (2005), Vol. 45, pp. 11-16. Nash, G.H. & Stanford, A., ‘New megalithic art within the Neolithic passage grave of Barclodiad y Gawes, Anglesey, North Wales’, Rock Art Research (2007), Vol. 24. No. 2, pp. 257-260. Nash, G.H. & Stanford, A., ‘New megalithic art at the Neolithic chambered monument of Dy ffryn Ardudwy, north Wales’, Rock Art Research (2009), Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 101-5. * Sharkey, J., The Meeting of the Tracks: Rock Art in Ancient Wales. Llanrwst: Gwasg Carreg Gwalch (2004). Shee Twohig. E., The Megalithic Art of Western Europe, Oxford: Clarendon Press (1981).

past horizons

24

Profile
Yo u r earliest archaeological memory? G o i ng on a school trip to Stoneheng e b e f o re t h e site was fenced off – I think I w a s a b o u t e i g h t. I can also remember, following t h e t r i p w r i t ing a story about it but mixing d i n o s a u r s w i t h archaeology. The teacher destro y e d m y m a s terpiece but the seed was sown. D o y ou prefer being up close to the roc k f a c e o r s i t t i ng at the computer analysing the d a t a ? T h a nkfully, my job allows me to do bo t h . B u t I m ust admit that I am inspired bein g a t t h e c o a l face. As an archaeologist (and I th i n k t h i s a p p l ies to us all), we tend to see bey o n d t h e f r a g mentary site and the artefact. Wi t h ro c k a r t I can sometimes see the ancient a r t i s t a n d h i s or her audi ence, something that d o e s n o t c o m e from looking at a computer. Yo u r top three essential items for trav e l ? G o o d health, a camera that wor k s w i t h k n o wledge of how to use it, and a blood y d e c e n t m a p with dots marking the sites. D o y ou have a favourite memory of a c o u n t r y y o u have been to? B y far the most evocative place wa s J e r s e y w h e re I cut my archaeological teeth on a l a r g e N e o l ithic passage grave site of La Hou g u e B i e . T h e memories of digging in absolutely a t ro c i o u s w e a t her conditions, dealing with the ar ro g a n c e o f i s land politics and Friday nights dow n a t t h e B l u e Note Club in St. Helier with a g re a t a n d l o y a l team will last forever. W h a t music do you listen to music w h i l e y o u w o r k? A t t he moment, The Pirates of Penz a n c e b y G i l b ert & Sullivan (farty old music) ; F o c u s , L i v e at the Rainbow (old farty mus i c ) ; T h e M a g ic Numbers (new farty music); Th e A rc t i c M o n keys (farty in-your-face music).

G eorge Nash

Dr. George N a s h G e o rg e h a s b e e n a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t f o r 2 0 years and ha s u n d e r t a k e n e x t e n s i v e f i e l d w o r k o n p r e h i s t o r i c r o c k - a r t a n d mobiliary ar t i n D e n m a r k , I n d o n e s i a , N o r w a y S p a i n a n d S w e d e n . H e h a s directed exc a v a t i o n s a t t h e L a H o u g u e B i e p a s s a g e g r a v e o n J e r s e y, o n e o f Europe’s larg e s t N e o l i t h i c m o n u m e n t s , a n d a t We s t m i n s t e r H a l l , L o n d o n . He has also w r i t t e n a n d p r e s e n t e d s e v e r a l p r o g r a m m e s o n E u r o p e a n r o c k art and cont e m p o r a r y g r a ff i t i f o r B B C R a d i o 4 . D o y o u h a v e a h e ro / h e ro i n e ? J o h n H e m m i n g w a y w h o i n 1 9 8 2 i n t ro d u c e d m e t o p ro p e r a rc h a e o l o g y. I a n H o d d e r f o r h i s s t e r l i n g w o r k o n s o c i a l i s i n g t h e E u ro p e a n N e o l i t h i c i n T h e D o m e s t i c a t i o n o f E u ro p e . C h r i s t o p h e r Ti l l e y o n h i s w o r k i n s o u t h e r n S c a n d i n a v i a , a n d Wi l l i a m S t u k e l e y, o f c o u r s e . W h a t a rc h a e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r y w o u l d y o u l i k e to make? I w o u l d l i k e t o t r y t o f i n d ro c k - a r t s i m i l a r to that found at Chauvet Cave, in southern F r a n c e . T h e ro c k - a r t w o u l d h a v e t o b e d a t a b l e , o b v i o u s l y m a d e f ro m o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s u c h a s c h a rc o a l . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y, i t w o u l d h a v e t o p re d a t e C h a u v e t a n d c o n t a i n i m a g e s t h a t w o u l d ro c k t h e w o r l d . I n d i a n a J o n e s o r M a rc u s B ro d y ? N e i t h e r. M a r g a re t R u t h e r f o r d a s h i s t o r i a n P ro f e s s o r H a t t o n - J o n e s i n t h e E a l i n g C o m e d y Passport to Pimlico (1949). W h a t w o u l d y o u d o w i t h a n u n l i mi t e d b u d g e t ? I w o u l d t r y t o f u n d a n u m b e r o f p ro j e c t s t h a t have been on the back-burner for many years including expeditions to Brazil and Chile with p e o p l e w h o I re s p e c t a n d c a n w o r k w i t h . W h e re d o y o u f e e l m o s t a t p e a c e ? Drinking a nice cool beer at 2000m above the Va l c a m o n i c a Va l l e y i n N o r t h e r n I t a l y t a l k i n g a b o u t f o o d a n d f o o t b a l l , a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y ro c k art. I f y o u w e re n o t a n a rc h a e o l o g i s t, w h a t w o u l d you be? Wi t h m y l a c k o f t a c t , t e n d e n c y t o g o s s i p , a b i l i t y to spend the public purse on garden gnomes, and staying up all hours, a politician of course!

25

past horizons

A DIG G E R ’S L I F E
Surf i n g f o r b a r r o w d i t c h e s o n waves of w e t c l a y, f i s h i n g f o r R o m e i n urban pudd l e s , c h e w i n g t h e m e t a p h y sical in the m o n u m e n t a l , c r a w l i n g d e e p below grou n d i n s e a r c h o f l i g h t , n e g otiating with t h e d e a d o r j u g g l i n g with afte r l i v e s . . . S i C l e g g e t t ( a . k . a Troll) is a f i e l d a rc h a e o l o g i s t a n d l o ves it.

Tumbling w i t h Al i ce
Quite how I go t h e r e i s a n o t h e r s t o r y. I s p e n t a l m o s t h a l f m y l i f e g r o w i ng up on the rocky island o f C y p r u s w h e r e I i n v e s t e d m o s t o f t h e d a y s a l l o t t e d t o m e c hasing goats in the scorche d w i l d e r n e s s a n d a t t e m p t i n g t o b r e a t h e u n d e r w a t e r. B u r n t to a crisp, salty, carefree , k e b a b - i n f u s e d a n d s m e l l i n g o f g o a t , m y f o r m a t i v e y e a r s w ere a blur of infinite blue sk i e s , a z u r e s e a s a n d j a s m i n e a n d c i t r u s b r e e z e s .
N o w onder then, that I really had no inte r e s t i n a n e d u c ation. School ended at midday when t h e s u n w a s at its fiercest so the homework cam e a p o o r s e c o nd to a teenage utopia of a Lord of t h e F l i e s l i f e s tyle and the lure of powerful motorc y c l e s o n e n d l ess un-policed roads. E p i p hany and irony...together in perfect ha r m o n y. . . b l a h blah blah. My failure to hand in on e s i n g l e p i e c e of history homework for an entire y e a r c a m e b a c k to haunt me. The end-of-term vis i t t o t h e a m a z ing site of Neolithic Khirokitia m a d e t h i s f e r a l beach bum actually wish for the f i r s t t i m e t h a t he had done some school work. T h e 7 0 0 0 B C s ite consisting of successive village s n e s t l e d i n t h e foothills of the mountains had c a p t u r e d m y i magination. That epiphany had b e e n t h e u n l i k ely nursery of an unwitting arch a e o l o g i s t w h o , ironically to this day, maintains m a n y o f h i s childhood activities but with n o t i c e a b l y f e w e r goats and infinitely more inhibi t i v e r i s k a s s e ssments. I n J u l y o f t h i s y e a r I w i l l b e c e l e b r a t i n g 11 y e a r s as a full-time professional field archaeologist, and through the next few editions of Past Horizons I would love to share some of the amazing moments I have been lucky enough to experience during almost 70 field projects across the UK, in Cyprus and the Republic of Ireland. An anthropologist once said that field archaeologists a r e s i m i l a r t o s c e n e - o f - c r i m e o ff i c e r s . T h e d i ff e r e n c e , o f c o u r s e , i s t h a t o u r ‘ c r i m e s c e n e s ’ have been left out in the rain, buried under tons of muck or built upon over thousands of years. For me, archaeology is all about human behavioural d y n a m i c s a n d e x c a v a t i o n o ff e r s a d e l i c i o u s f o u rdimensional conundrum, ripe for the unpicking thereof. The mission of a field archaeologist is, by default, to forensically deconstruct sequences of e v e n t s , c h a n g e s a n d p h a s e s t h r o u g h ti m e a n d s p a c e . This systematic, scientific recovery and recording of raw data becomes the engine that drives critical a n a l y s i s a n d , u l t i m a t e l y, t h e n a r r a t i v e t h r o u g h

The Ne o l i t h i c s e t t l e m e n t o f K h i ro k i t i a i s s i t ua te d on the slop e of a hill in the valley of the Maroni R iver towards the southern coast o f Cy p r u s, a b o u t s i x k i l o m e t re s f ro m t h e s e a.

past horizons

26

w h i c h we characterise our collective past , p r e s e n t a n d f uture. T h e misleading and unfortunate percep t i o n t h a t a r c h a eology is all about the acquisition o f s h i n y t h i n g s, or the “oldest ever”, or the “bi g g e s t o r r i c h e st ever” for me dilutes a beautiful e n d e a v o u r a n d , frankly, mis ses the entire point. For a seemingly advanced and ultra-modern society, w e a re still hostages to the most funda m e n t a l l y p r i m itive of behaviours. Chimps vying to o c c u p y t h e highest branch in the canopy are n o l e s s p r i m itive and no less sophisticated th a n t h o s e o f u s desperate to play the game of oste n t a t i o u s d i s p l ay and conspicuous consumption t h r o u g h f o l l o wing the B org-like conformity of f a s h i o n o r t h e smoke-screens of luxury cars. It i s s a d l y t h r o ugh such conditioned eyes that arc h a e o l o g y i s o f ten viewed. F o r a child, a trip to a museum can be a k i n t o e n t e r ing Narnia where unimaginable t r e a s u r e s p o u n ce from every glass display case. ‘ J u s t s o ’ s t o r i es relating to kings, great warriors a n d t h e i r s h i n y things bombard their senses until in e v i t a b l e b o r e dom takes over and the tantrums only s u b s i d e w h e n hard cash changes hands in the gift s h o p . A n d y e t , behind the scenes in the echoing laby r i n t h i n e c o r r i dors of the museum, there lies sle e p i n g a n i n c r e dible cornu copia of meaning; sto r e h o u s e s b u r s t ing at the seams with fragmentary e c h o e s o f p e ople’s lives. A simple and unassumi n g p i e c e o f p ot or a humble prehistoric flint plac e d i n t h e h a n d s of a child will open the rabbit h o l e a n d a c c o mpanied by narrative, these una s s u m i n g e c h o es will entice the child to follow A l i c e a n d t u m b le into a wonderland of possibilitie s w h e r e s t r a n ge but oddly familiar worlds banish ‘ j u s t s o ’ s t o r i es forever. F i e l d archaeologists evict endless moun t a i n s o f s t u b b orn muck in the searing heat, sidew a y s r a i n , h a i l snow and ice, by hand, just to tum b l e w i t h A l i c e . It is as close to owning your o w n t i m e m a c h ine as you are ever likely to get. I’ v e n e v e r q u i t e grown out of the child-like wond e r t h a t I f e l t when I held echoes of the classical pa s t i n m y g r u b by hands and tried to imagine the liv e s o f t h e p e o p le who last used them. What other pr o f e s s i o n w o u l d allow me to sit on a 6000-year-o l d f l o o r a n d p rod a hearth? Or crawl through subt e r r a n e a n p a s s a ges to glimpse people buried at the t i m e t h e s t o n e s were erect ed at Stonehenge? Or un d e r s t a n d t h e l i ves of people by reading their burden s e t c h e d i n t o their bone? Or share in the meaning o f t h e i r

sacred spaces? Or hold the vessel through which they fed, nurtured and raised their children? Recently I worked in the fading years of the late Stone Age and into the Bronze Age. I spent my d a y s t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r c o n ce p t s o f d e a t h , burial, afterlives and their allocation of meaning within the landscape. In coming weeks I will b e z a p p i n g f o r w a r d s i n t o t h e M e di a e v a l p e r i o d and getting to grips with their concepts of land m a n a g e m e n t a n d s e t t l e m e n t s t r a t e g i e s . S o , t h a t ’s m y l i t t l e u n i v e r s e . N o b a t t l e w i t h t h e Ti m e L o r d s o r s a v i n g E a r t h f r o m t h e B o rg ; j u s t m y o w n t i m e machine and my own rabbit hole. I n m y n e x t o ff e r i n g f o r P a s t H o r i z o n s I w i l l o p e n with the world of afterlives, the visibility of children and young adults in the Bronze Age, and a healthy dose of meaning. S o N e o. . . yo u t a ke t h e re d p i l l a n d yo u g o b a c k to wa tc h i n g Ti m e Te a m a n d n o t h i n g c h a n g e s. Yo u t a ke t h e b l u e p i l l a n d I s h ow yo u j u s t h ow d e e p t h e ra b b i t h o l e g o e s. . .

Excavating a Bronze Age barrow in east Kent. Pic ture: Paul Murray

27

past horizons

Fabr i k a H i l l
Excavating a Hellenistic-Roman Theatre
B y Cra i g B a r ker I n 3 3 1 B C , while Alexander the Great rested his troops at Tyre (present-day L e b a n o n ) b e f o r e t h e y campaigned further east, he organised a drama festival for the s o l d i e r s w h e r e l e a d i n g actors from throughout the Greek world were brought to perfo r m . T h e f e s t i v a l s e r v ed as a means of entertaining his troops, but it was also a reinfor c e m e n t o f t h e i r i d e n t i t y in a foreign world, for theatre was to become one of the majo r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i f i e r s o f the Hellenistic koine – the common culture of Hellenism, th a t w o u l d s pr e a d a c r o s s the eastern Mediterranean in the aftermath of Alexander ’s conq u e s t s . A l e x a n d e r ’s festival was sponsor ed by the kings of Cyprus and within de c a d e s t h e n e w l y - c r e a t ed capital of Cyprus at Nea Paphos would have its own theatre. I t w a s a s ym b o l o f a changing world. Exc avations there are now revealing fascinatin g i n s i g h t i n t o a n c i e n t performance, theatre’s impact in the eastern Mediterranean and the c h a n g i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e of theatres in the Hellenistic and then the Roman worlds.

A n a e r i a l p h o to g ra p h o f t h e ca ve a a n d o rc h e s tra following excavations in 2006. The C h a ro n i a n t u n n e l i s v i s i b l e i n t h e ce n t re o f the orchestra. Photo graph: B ob M iller

past horizons

28

29

past horizons

A rc h ite c t u ral plan of th e Pa ph os th e a tre sh ow i n g par ts of the s ite exp os ed by the Un ivers it y of Sydney team

T h e a n c i e n t t h e atre is located on the southern s l o p e o f F a b r i k a Hill in Nea Paphos. Although i t w a s t h e c a p i t al city of Cyprus under firstly t h e P t o l e m i e s and then under the Romans, P a p h o s w a s a c t ually founded in the late fourth c e n t u r y B C b y a local king, Nikokles, who t o o k a d v a n t a g e of a fine natural harbour and s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i on. Its significant position on m a r i t i m e t r a d e routes to and from Alexandria m a d e N e a P a p h os a wealthy city, a description b o r n e o u t b y t h e rich mosaics of the town and t h e i m p o r t a n t nearby necropolis at the soc a l l ed ‘ To m b s of the Kings’. Today Paphos i s a c i t y o f s u c h historical and archaeological i m p o r t a n c e t h a t the site was inscribed on the Wo r ld H e r i t a g e List in 1980.

walls are identifiable to the nort h o f t h e h i l l and are currently subject to inves t i g a t i o n s b y a team from the University of Av i g n o n . T h e Australian excavations on the sou t h o f F a b r i k a have revealed a theatre that was c o n s t r u c t e d around 300 BC and used as a v e n u e f o r performance and entertainment u n t i l t h e l a t e fourth century AD, when a massiv e e a r t h q u a k e destroyed the structure in 365A D . D e s p i t e the damage caused by the eart h q u a k e a n d later quarrying and stone-robbi n g a c t i v i t y, the team has been able to identify a t l e a s t f i v e distinct architectural phases (see p a g e 2 7 ) .

The theatre itself is semi-circul a r i n d e s i g n with seven radial stairways and a 2 6 . 5 d e g r e e rise in the seating (cavea) built a r o u n d t h e F a b r i k a H i l l i s a natural outcrop repr esenting central orchestra. The architects h a v e c r e a t e d t h e n o r t h - e a s t e rn corner of the ancient city, massive retaining walls on both t h e e a s t a n d a n d in d e e d s o m e traces of the Hellenistic city west sides of the cavea to fill u p e a r t h e n past horizons

30

E xcavating in t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g l i g h t

FIVE MA JOR PHASES OF DE VELOPMENT
Archaeological investigations have revealed the following phases of architectural development, each of which reflected contemporary changes in performance and theatre architecture. Hampering the team’s interpretation is the fact that only fragmentary foundations and limited elements remain from the actual stage buildings of the theatre, so often evidence has had to be pieced together from a number of sources. The five identified architectural phases are: 1. The original Hellenistic construction that took in the late fourth or early third centuries BC. Obviously most of the evidence for this Hellenistic structure has been obliterated by later construction, except for epigraphic evidence in the form of letters carved into some of the rows of seating. It is assumed that only the lower levels of the theatre’s seating were used, and that the stage was a simple wooden structure. 2. A major Alexandrian renovation occurred in the middle of the second century BC, with a new stage building constructed from limestone with Alexandrian-inspired elements, some of which survive. A Charonian tunnel (a tunnel for actors to move undetected from the stage building underneath the orchestra) was constructed and used for a number of centuries before being filled-in. 3. An Augustan remodelling takes place following an earthquake known to have struck Paphos in c. 15 BC. The western analemma (or support) wall appears to have been rebuilt following the quake. 4. The major phase of architectural remodelling is under the Antonines in the middle of the second century AD, when the theatre is expanded. The changes were commemorated in a major inscription on the architrave that stretched to either side of the central door. This marble inscription thanking the emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, and mentioning a number of features of the newly-restored theatre, has survived in two pieces and is now displayed in the Paphos District Archaeological Museum. It would have been over 12 metres in length when intact. The stage building itself was now two storeys high and clad with an imported marble veneer. The building would have been decorated with a series of columns with Corinthian capitals made from Prokonnesian marble imported from Anatolia, and a second series of spirally fluted columns. A line of water-pipes behind the stage foundations would have been used to feed sprinklers or water fountains spraying water onto the marble pavement of the orchestra. The parodoi (ceremonial entrances) were also remodelled and for the first time were covered by vaulting, a contemporary standard Roman practice. The passages were decorated with fresco decoration, Spirally fluted column fragment fragments of which survive. 5. The final alteration occurred in the middle of the third century AD and involved converting the orchestra for combat and water spectacles. The marble pavement was removed and replaced with a pink-coloured waterproof cement, while a barrier wall was constructed around the orchestra to separate the audience from the arena. It was in this phase that the theatre was destroyed by a massive earthquake of 365 AD.

31

past horizons

e m b a n k m e n t s for level seating. So while t h e c e n t r a l s e c tion of the theatre’s seating is c a r v e d d i r e c t l y from bedrock and coated with f i n e p l a s t e r, t h e seats to the east and west w e r e l a i d o v e r embankments of soil. S u c h a c o n s t r uction technique must have p l a c e d i t f i r m ly between traditional Greek a n d R o m a n t h eatre styles, and is probably a l s o i n d i c a t i v e of contemporary Alexandrian a r c h i t e c t u r a l d evelopments. Over time the s t r u c t u r e g r e w in size and importance, and at i t s g r e a t e s t e x t ent under the Antonine Roman E m p e r o r s o f t h e mid-second century AD, the t h e a t r e s t r e t c h ed to over 90 metres in length a n d w o u l d h a v e had a seating capacity for o v e r 8 0 0 0 s p e c tators. T h e a r c h i t e c t u ral changes to the structure i n d i c a t e t h e t h eatre of Nea Paphos underwent c h a n g e s t y p i c al of many ancient theatres i n l o n g u s e . In its lifespan, it went from b e i n g a r e l a t i vely standard Eastern theatre t h a t e m p h a s i z ed its links with Ptolemaic A l e xa n d r i a , t o one that under the A ntonines r e f l e c t e d t h e g l ory of central Rome, to one that w a s i n t u r n m o dified in the mid-third century f o r m o r e l o c a l ised concerns such as water s p e c t a c l e s a n d contests. It is a remarkable r e f l e c t i o n o f c h anges in tastes of performance a n d e n t e r t a i n m ent over the centuries.

Excavating a Corinthian column from the theatre’s A ntonine stage

After its destruction much of the m a r b l e a n d other architectural features of the t h e a t r e w e r e robbed for reuse elsewhere in N e a P a p h o s , particularly at the nearby Chr y s o p o l i t i s s a basilica. Considerable time ha s b e e n t a k e n

The t wo s u r v i v i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h e A n to n i n e p e r i o d marble inscription honouring A ntoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius for the mid-seco thresh o l d b l o c k f ro m t h e we s te r n p a ro d o s o n to ? the orchestra in the final phase of the theatre.

past horizons

32

con tinued up until the seven th ce n t u r y. F i n d s of the f if th c entur y, includi ng pa in t e d Co p t ic wa res , indica te the ac tivities of t h e w o rk e rs mo ving the stone s. Ther e is th e n a p e r i o d of abs ence o f any evidence of a ct iv i t y a t t h e s ite unt il the r evival o f eco nomi c p r o s p e r it y in Paph os at the time of the Cr u sa d e s fr o m the 12t h cen tury onwards . A c o m p le x o f bui ldings and cou rtyar ds was ere c te d o v e r th e ar ea of the fo rmer orche str a and s t a g e b u i ld i n g and ind ustr ial activity in the fo r m o f g l a s swo rking , met al-workin g and the m a n u f a c t u r e of glaze d sg raffit o potter y is ap p a r e n t o n o r nea r the site. Ongoing occupatio n a n d sm a l ls cale in dust ry is evid ent thr ou g h o u t p o s tme diaeval pe riods too. On e asp ect of the s ite tha t had b e e n li t tl e und ers tood u ntil r ecently h owev e r, w a s t h e r elation ship betwe en th e the atre a n d th e u r b a n lay out o f the town. As the theatr e wa s l o c a te d in t he nor th-e aster n qua rter of the a n c i e n t to wn nea r the city gate, iss ues of publi c a c c e s s a n d tr affic f low to s urr ound ing p ublic ro a d s wo u ld hav e been pa ramo unt. Fou r tes t tr e n c h e s i n the 199 0s re vealed par t of the s u r f a c e o f a pav ed Roman road dire ctly to the s o u t h o f t h e the atre runni ng in an e ast- wes t d i re c t i o n , b u t it was o nly in the 2009 s eas on t h a t t h e te a m f inally uncov ered a dir ect link b e tw e e n th e the atre a nd that r oad.

b y t he Aust ral ia n te am to ide ntify sur viving a r c h itectural el emen ts o f th e the at re th at h a v e been r eus ed e lsewh ere. Mo st of th is q u a r r yi ng and stripp ing w ork seem s to ha ve o c c u rred within the fift h ce ntury A D and

on d centur y AD re s to ra t i o n o f t h e t h e a t re. Th e l a rg e p i e ce was found by the Australian team in 2002 lying face - down and reused as a

33

past horizons

Excava t i n g t h e o rc h e s t ra i n 2 0 0 6

S i n c e 2 0 0 7 , e x c avations have been focussed on t h e so u t h - e a s t e rn corner of the theatre where f o u n d a t i o n r e mains were extensive enough t o a ll o w i n t e r p retation in spite of the heavy d a m a g e i n c u r r ed during the destruction and a b a n d o n m e n t p hase. Additional damage was i n f l i c t e d b y a series of post-medieval limel i n e d p i t s , w h ich are tentatively associated w i t h t a n n i n g a c tivities, and finally by modern pipe trenches. M u c h o f t h e e a s tern parodos as well as support f o u n d a t i o n s f o r the expansion of the theatre i n t h e A n t o n i n e period have now been cleared. D i r e c t l y t o t h e south of this part of th e theatre a s u b s t a n t i a l s tructure was uncovered – one t h a t f a c e s o n t o the east-west road but on a d i ff er e n t a l i g nment to the theatre itself. M e a s u r i n g a l m ost 20 metres in length and f i v e m e t r e s i n width and preserved to a height o f b e t w e e n 0 . 3 0 and 1.2 metres, the structure i s s u b s t a n t i a l i n size and design, with thick m a s o n r y w a l l s on all four sides, and no o b v i o u s e n t r y p oint. The interior of the walls i s l i n e d w i t h t h ick plaster which is chamfered a n d r o u n d e d i n the corners, while the floor of t h e e n t i r e s t r u c ture is carpeted with a mosaic o f a g r e y - b r o wnish colour. Excavation of past horizons

both the eastern and western se c t i o n s o f t h e structure’s interior is now com p l e t e , b u t a large baulk in the centre was le f t i n t a c t f o r the time being and will be remo v e d i n 2 0 1 0 . The purpose of the structure is n o t y e t c l e a r nor is its precise chronology and r e l a t i o n s h i p with the theatre. At first it was t h o u g h t t h e building was a stoa, but it is more l i k e l y t h a t i t was a fountain house or a water p o o l o f s o m e description; this interpretation is s u p p o r t e d b y its location so close to the ancie n t c i t y g a t e s and on a major thoroughfare. Th e e ff i c a c y o f the waterproofing of the long s t r u c t u r e w a s apparent when heavy rain in th e f i n a l d a y s of the 2009 season was retaine d w i t h i n t h e walls. Trenches were opened in the 20 0 9 s e a s o n t o the east, west and south of the lo n g s t r u c t u r e . These trenches were positione d t o b e t t e r understand the exterior areas of t h e s t r u c t u r e and particularly its relationship w i t h t h e r o a d to its south. Excavation proved t h a t t h e r o a d reaches the southern edge. Par t o f a s e m i circular plaster-lined water trough was revealed on the south-facing wall of t h e b u i l d i n g , enabling people using the roa d t o a c c e s s water, and again suggesting the s t r u c t u r e w a s

34

Whatever its precise purpose in a n t i q u i t y, t h e long structure was eventually use d a s a d u m p for architectural features from t h e t h e a t r e as it was robbed of its stone-w o r k a f t e r i t s destruction. Capitals, column f r a g m e n t s , niches, cornices and other a r c h i t e c t u r a l elements were recovered by the e x c a v a t o r s , giving a much clearer indica t i o n o f t h e physical appearance of the stage b u i l d i n g t h a n the remains found at the theatre i t s e l f . The Australian team will be r e t u r n i n g t o Paphos in October-November of 2 0 1 0 . I n t h i s season the team of archaeologi s t s , s t u d e n t s and volunteers will aim to c o m p l e t e t h e excavation of the long structure a n d c o n f i r m its function and chronology. Th e t e a m w i l l also uncover more of the ancient r o a d i n o r d e r to gain a greater understanding o f t h e o v e r a l l layout of the north-eastern qu a r t e r o f t h e ancient city of Nea Paphos.
Th e U n i ve r s i t y o f Syd n e y h a ve b e e n wo r k i n g a t Fa b r i ka H i l l u n d e r t h e a u s p i ce s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t i q u i t i e s o f t h e R e p u b l i c o f Cy p r u s, s i n ce 1995. Th e p roj e c t wo r k s u n d e r t h e d i re c t i o n o f E m e r i t u s Pro f e s s o r J . R . G re e n , D r S m a d a r G a b r i e l i a n d D r C ra i g B a r ke r o f t h e U n i ve r s i t y o f Syd n e y, w i t h re ce n t s u p p o r t f ro m t h e Au s t ra l i a n A rc h a e o l o g i ca l I n s t i t u te a t At h e n s. I n t h e f i f te e n ye a r s o f e xca va t i o n s s t u d e n t s f ro m Au s t ra l i a a n d o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e wo r l d, a n d hu n d re d s m o re n o n t ra i n e d vo l u n te e r s h a ve p a r t i c i p a te d i n t h e p roj e c t wo r k i n g a s e xca va to r s, s i te re co rd e r s, a s s i s t a n t s to s p e c i a l i s t s a n d a my r i a d o f o t h e r t a s k s.

a w a t e r f a c i l i t y. The western trench revealed a g e n t l e s l o p i ng pathway leading from the r o a d u p t o a n e ntrance in the eastern parodos, p r o v i d i n g a m a jor southern entrance into the t h e a t r e . A l t h ough badly damaged, enough t r a c es r e m a i n t o suggest that a mosaic floor c o v e r e d m o s t o f the entranceway. Ex cavation t o t h e e a s t o f t he structure was halted due to r a i n i n t h e 2 0 0 9 season but work will continue i n t h e a r e a i n t he future.

G et I nvolve d
The Universit y of Sydney ’s archaeological mission to Paphos has positions available for the 2010 season for both students (cur rent or ver y recent graduates of archaeology) and for contr ibuting volunteers (interested members of the public), and is tak ing general expressions of interest for its 2011 season. Cur rent wor k will take place on the R oman road to the south of the theatre as well as assisting the specialists with final repor t preparation for the first volume of publication. Costs: Students: $1300AUD plus air fare (dig house accommodation, food on wor k days, training and guided tours of near by sites). Volunteers: $3000AUD plus air fare (hotel accommodation, food on wor k days, training and guided tours). Dates Student team: 2 O c tober-7 November 2010 Volunteer team: 9 O c tober-7 November 2010 Visit website for more details: http://w w w.paphostheatre.com

35

past horizons

By Steve B u r m a n

The Vézère Valley is a dramatic and beautiful area in southwest France containing 147 known prehistoric sites and 25 decorated caves dating from the Palaeolithic. When early modern humans inhabited these caves 35,000 years ago they were following herds of bison, horse and other large game animals, and in an explosion of creativity, they painted and carved their masterpieces inside the caves and rock-shelters that exist within the massive limestone cliffs. 

The Vé zè re r i ve r a s i t p a s s e s t h e M a d e l e i n e c l i f f s

past horizons

36

D i sc ov er
the

Vé zè re Va l l e y

Credit: Steven House - w w w.houselightgaller y.com

37

past horizons

mind-boggling complexity. Only s i x v i s i t o r s at a time are allowed here, but th i s e n a b l e s a more personal interaction with th e a r t . Nine kilometres to the north of L e s E y z i e s is Rouffignac, sometimes referr e d t o a s t h e Cave of 100 Mammoths, though t h e c u r r e n t count is 158. The site also contai n s i m a g e s o f wild horses, ibex, bison and wo o l l y r h i n o s . Although the cave was described i n 1 5 7 5 b y French writer François de Bellef o r e s t h e d i d not mention any cave-art, and it w a s o n l y i n 1956 that any images were disc o v e r e d . T h e 10 kilometres of tunnels makes R o u ff i g n a c Mono c h ro m a t i c l i n e d ra w i n g s a t R o u f f i g n a c one of the largest cave network s i n E u r o p e and visitors travel inside by elec t r i c t r a i n . A L a s c a u x , n e a r Montignac, is the most famous variety of artistic techniques a r e e m p l o y e d o f t h e s e c a v e - art sites. It was disco vered in here including monochromatic li n e d r a w i n g s , 1 9 4 0 b y f o u r teenagers and their dog who tectiform (thought to represent P a l a e o l i t h i c l i t e r a l l y f e l l i n to the Hall of the B ulls and i n t h e l i g h t o f a makeshift lamp they saw h u g e w i l d a u r ochs up to five metr es long, b i s o n , c o w s , h orses, deer, chamois and what t h e y t h o u g h t w as a ‘unicorn’ (albeit with two h o r n s ) . O v e r a million people visited Lascaux a f t e r i t s d i s c o very but the authorities were f o r c e d t o c l o s e it in 1963 due to the carbon d i o x i d e d a m a g e to the paintings. In 1983, a f a c s i m i l e , L a s caux II, opened, containing i n c r e d i b l y a c c u rate copies of 90 per cent of t h e o r i g i n a l a r t work. Tw e n t y k i l o m etres to the southwest of M o n t i g n a c i s t h e village of Les Eyzies, which i s s u r r o u n d e d b y several famous painted caves. F o n t - d e - G a u m e , is a 10 minute walk u p a steep c l i ff p a t h a n d i s the only polychromatic IceA g e c a v e s t i l l open to the public. For obvious c o n s e r v a t i o n r e asons visits are limited by time a n d b y n u m b e r but the experience is worth the t r e k . H u g e i m a ges of bison cover o ne wall, t h e i r m u s c l e s rippling over the contours of t h e r o c k a n d o n another wall, one reindeer a p p e a r s t o b e l i cking another. At the furthest r e a c h e s o f t h i s cave another six bison were e x p o s e d d u r i n g excavations in the 1960s, their c o l o u r s a s f r e s h as when originally painted 1 5 , 0 0 0 y e a r s a go. O n t h e o t h e r s i d e of the hill is Les Combarelles, a s m a l l e r, m o r e intimate cave where the lure i s t h e e n g r a v i ngs of over 600 animals and h u m a n f i g u r e s , overlying each other in often past horizons

Bull from Lascaux II

photo graph: D avid Mar tin

38

d w e ll i n g s ) a n d finger fluting in the soft c l a y. A r c h a e o l o g i s t s have been excavating the r e m a i n s o f t h e s e hunter gatherers in the Vézère Va l l e y f o r t h e last 150 years at sites such as L e M o u s t i e r ( t he type-site of the Mousterian N e a n d e r t h a l c u lture) and La Madeleine which g a v e i t s n a m e t o the Magdalenian period. At A b r i d e C r ô - Magnon (Crô-Magnon Cave), a s k e l e t o n w a s recovered in 1868 which p r o v i d e d t h e f irst scientific description of E a r l y M o d e r n Humans and was subsequently d a t e d t o a r o u n d 28,000 BP. T h e N a t i o n a l Museum of Prehistory set into t h e c l i ff a b o v e Les Eyzies is one of the best p l a c e s i n t h e w o rld to experience these various c u l t u r e s a n d p l ace the surrounding sites into t h e i r c o n t e x t . Visit the Vézère Valley if you h a v e t h e c h a n ce, it is a unique experience a n d o n e w h e r e its outstanding natural beauty i s m a t c h e d o n l y by the remarkable legacy of i t s P a l a e o l i t h i c cave-art.

Lick ing reindeer, Font de G aume

Steve Bur man of Caves and Ca st l es i s a histor ian, guide and pro fe ss i o n a l archaeol ogist l iving in France. H i s p e r s o n al guided tours offer the visitor a deep er i n s i g ht into the compl ex sites of the Vézè re Va ll ey. Email: cavesandcastl es@gm ail.com Website: http://w w w.cavesandcas t le s. com

A bou t

Cave Art site
Map created from OpenStreetMap

Montignac

Lascaux II Lascaux Rouffignac

è éz V
Le Moustier

re

e all V

y

Paris

Roque St Christophe
Limoges Bordeaux

FRANCE

La Madeleine

Marseille

Les Combarelles Abri du Co-Magnon Grotte des Eyzies Les Eyzies des Tayac Font de Gaume

39

past horizons

Blo ck H w i t h t h e H u n g a te ro a d to t h e l e f t a l o n g which sto o d a sequence of buildings ranging from Vik ing struc tures to 19th centur y Photo g ra p h s : Yo r k A rc h a e o l o g i ca l Tr u s t

past horizons

40

H ung ate
T

the s tor y so f ar...
he largest excavation ever to take place in the City of York, northeast England, has now passed its half way point. York Archaeological Trust (YAT) has done much more than uncover the buried history of Hungate; it has also brought together local and international volunteers and students to take part in this exciting project through DIG Hungate, which acts as a platform for training, community involvement and, most of all, discovery.

Pinner ’s b one, used in the manufac ture of metal pins.

Early 20th centur y clay tobacco pip e. This mo del was k nown as Erin Cutt y, p opular amongst the many Irish immigrants and smoked by b oth men and women. te n ements.

Mediaeval pilgrim flask .

41

past horizons

A rchae o l o g y L i ve ! 2 0 0 9

H u n g a t e i s p r i marily a commercial excavation and training, and has incorporate d t h i s e t h o s c o m m i s s i o n e d by Hungate York Regeneration into the overall project design wit h a g r e e m e n t L i m it e d ( H Y R L). YAT, however, has always from the developer. h a d a s t r o n g c o mmitment to public engagement As part of a massive regenera t i o n p r o j e c t , Hungate’s decaying 20th century w a r e h o u s e s and industrial units were demolis h e d t o m a k e way for a new phase in the area’s 2 0 0 0 y e a r s of history. Most of the local po p u l a t i o n h a d been moved to new and better ho u s i n g i n t h e 1930s, but evidence of the 19t h a n d e a r l y 20th century cobbled streets an d t e n e m e n t s still existed. Prior to this, the eastern portion o f t h e s i t e from the 1600s onwards showed a m a s s b u i l d up of horticultural soils which m a y p o i n t t o the presence at that time of o r c h a r d s a n d gardens. The western portion, a c c o r d i n g t o records, contained large and o p u l e n t 1 7 t h

Re -use d co r b e l f ro m t h e co rd wa i n e r s g u i l d h a l l.

past horizons

42

Roman Fortress
Mediaeval City Wall

York Minster

York
Riv er Ous e

HUNGATE
St. John’s in the Marsh

+

YORK

River

Foss

site of the King’s Fishpool

Coppergate

Castle & Moat

John Speed’s map of the area, c. 1610

c e n t u r y m e r c hants’ houses. Interestingly, n o ar c h a e o l o g i cal traces of them have been f o u n d . T h i s w as possibly due to a previous u r b a n r e g e n e r a tion scheme in the 18th century d u e t o i n c r e a s i ng industrialisation. T h e re i s d o c u mentary and map evidence to s h o w t h a t m e d i aeval Carmelites established a f r i a r y h e r e , b u t although situated in Hungate it w a s o u t s i d e o f the excavation area. However, s o m e t a n g i b l e evidence for this friary may e x i s t a m o n g t he foundation stones of the l a t e , c o r d w a i ners (shoemakers) guildhall. D u r i n g t h e p a r t excavation of the guildhall a l i m e s t o n e c o r b el with a gothic carved face was d i s c o v e r e d a n d later dated to the late 13th/ e a r l y 1 4 t h c e nturies. It was placed upside d o w n w i t h t h e face hidden, and once cleaned o f a l l t h e m o r t a r, traces of original paint work c o u l d s t i l l b e s een. The cordwainers guildhall

was built around the 1580s w i t h r e - u s e d masonry from buildings such as t h e C a r m e l i t e friary and the church of St. John i n t h e M a r s h . These religious establishments w o u l d h a v e fallen out of use after the Disso l u t i o n o f t h e Monasteries in the 1530s. The surviving mediaeval layers sh o w e v i d e n c e of clay extraction and ovens, as w e l l a s o t h e r light rural industries. The river F o s s t o t h e west had been dammed to form a m o a t f o r t h e Norman castle. This action cau s e d a m a j o r change in water levels upstrea m , f o r m i n g what became known as the King’s F i s h P o n d . Clearly, this area had mixed for t u n e s d u r i n g the mediaeval period and parts o f i t w o u l d have looked decidedly down-at-h e e l . I n d e e d , even the name of the local churc h o f S t . J o h n in the Marsh provides an obviou s c l u e a s t o the nature of the Hungate landsc a p e .

43

past horizons

2010, and with the cemetery lyin g w i t h i n t h e Hungate eastern section it is cert a i n t o b e a n exciting season. Prior evaluation i n t h i s a r e a has also shown traces of roads a n d p o s s i b l y even field systems, so the potenti a l o f f i n d i n g pre-Roman occupation will help t o b u i l d a clearer picture of the area arou n d t h e r i v e r Foss. Part of the allure of archaeology c o m e s f r o m the forensic piecing together of a s t o r y t e a s e d out from the artefacts, postholes, f o u n d a t i o n s and soil. From the start, the Hun g a t e p r o j e c t opened itself up to public i n v o l v e m e n t , combining both professional train i n g w i t h t h e opportunity for the amateur to g e t i n v o l v e d and share in this journey of disco v e r y.
Sta ff a n d vo l u n te e r s wa s h i n g f i n d s.

E v e n b e f o r e t h e damming of the Foss took p l a c e , H u n g a t e would have been co nsidered a p e r i p h e r a l z one, and certainly the most r e c e n t p h a s e o f excavation of Viking activity s e e m s t o s u p port this. A line of sunken w o o d e n b u i l d i n gs spaced at regular intervals o f a r o u n d f i v e or 10 metres follow the line o f t he s t r e e t k nown as Hungate. By contrast, e x c a v a t i o n i n t he late 1970s revealed evidence o f a w e l l - o r d e red and affluent population in t h e C o p p e rg a t e area of York; Hungate was d e f i n i t e l y m o r e on the suburbs of Jorvik. A l arg e n u m b er of pits were excavated to t h e r e a r o f t he sunken wooden buildings, s u g g e s t i n g s o me sort of industrial activity. H o w e v e r, t h e r e is little evidence to reveal their o r i g in a l u s e e x cept for traces of animal hair, b o n e s a n d a g r een jelly-like substance. There i s a l s o n o e v i d ence to indicate any domestic u s e fo r t h e a c t ual buildings themselves which w o u l d h a v e r e s e mbled allotment huts sunk into t h e gr o u n d a n d made from recycled timber and o t h e r p i e c e s o f scrap wood. This see ms to be a r e f l e c t i o n o f a make-do-and-mend society a n d o n e w h i c h archaeologically has proved t o b e r a t h e r e x citing as one of the buildings w a s p a r t i a l l y b uilt with timber salvaged from a S a x o n s h i p f r om the south east of England a n d d a t e d t o c . 955 AD.

The Hungate Community Trust, f o r e x a m p l e , forms one of the main local v o l u n t e e r i n g groups and consists of people w i t h l i n k s t o the former Hungate community o r t h o s e w h o have an interest in building a new c o m m u n i t y. Supervised by Dr. Jon Kenny, t h e G r e a t e r York community archaeologist , t h e y a r e

Retrieving S axon ship’s timb ers from a Vik ing building.

trained on exactly the same arc h a e o l o g y a s the professionals work on, taking p a r t i n p o s t excavation finds and environme n t a l s a m p l e processing as well as historical r e s e a r c h .

DIG Hungate is extremely p r o u d o f i t s educational legacy and prod u c e s u s e f u l resources for teachers, as wel l a s o n - s i t e training for young people study i n g A - L e v e l archaeology at York College. I t o ff e r s K e e n t o c o n t i nue the investigations of the accredited archaeological traini n g f o r f i r s t Vi k i n g a n d S a xon layers, YAT will also be year undergraduates from various u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the Roman occupation in and also provides the large maj o r i t y o f t h e past horizons

44

p r a c t i c a l f i e l d archaeology elements and end o f c o u r s e a s s e ssment resources for the Open U n i v e r s i t y s h o rt course, Archaeology: The S c i e n c e o f I n v e stigation. A t t h e h e a r t o f Hungate is Archaeology Live!, YAT ’s a n n u a l t raining excavation in Hungate. To d a t e t h i s has encompassed several 12w e e k i n t e n s e t r aining experiences fo r around 7 5 0 p e o p l e f r om all walks of life from all o v e r t h e w o r l d . Alongside timetabled training e v e n t s H u n g a t e also provides placements for u n d e rg r a d u a t e students ranging from a few w e e k s t o a l m o s t a full year depending on the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the individual. Ta k i n g p a r t i n YAT training schemes also p r o v i d e s f u r t h er opportunities for people to v o l u n t e e r w h e n the opportunity ari ses, and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t aff are able to mentor small g r o u p s i n a r a n ge of tasks from the trench to t h e f i n d s t a b l e . Alongside the various on-site e l e m e n t s , v o l u nteers are present during most w o r k i n g d a y s t o give valuable support to the f i n d s d e p a r t m e nt. S o , h a v i n g p a s sed the half way stage of this p r o j e c t i t i s f air to say that DIG Hungate h a s a c h i e v e d an immense amount already. R e m a r k a b l y, a r ound 1000 people have received s o m e f o r m o f archaeological training at H u n g a t e , a n d t he public walkway built by the d e v e l o p e r h a s a llowed a further 16,000 people t o v i s i t t h e s i t e during open days. Inspiring, c r e a t i v e a n d i n clusive, Hungate is an example o f p u b l i c a r c h a eology at its best and with this s e a s o n n o w u n derway, many more people will h a v e t h e c h a n ce to be part of this growing c o m m u n i t y.
D rawing a S axon ship’s timb er.

G et I nvolve d
The 2 0 1 0 Arc h a e o l o g y L i ve ! t ra i n i n g d i g w i l l co n ce nt rate o n inve s t i g at i n g R o m a n , Vi k i n g a n d m e d i a e va l a rc h a e o l o g y at the e a s te r n ex te nt o f t h e s i te. I t i s a h a n d s - o n f i e l d - b a s e d progra m m e w h e re p e o p l e l e a r n by exc avat i n g a n d re co rd i n g aide d by p ro fe s s i o n a l s i te s t a f f. Date s : 2 8 J u n e - 1 7 S e p te m b e r Cost : 1 we e k - £ 1 9 0 ( £ 2 7 5 w i t h a cco m m o d at i o n , 2 we e k s £330 ( £ 5 0 0 w i t h a cco m m o d at i o n ) . Web s i te : ht t p : / / d i g h . d i gi t a l we l l y. co m / co nte nt. a s p ? I D = 43

45

past horizons

U
past horizons

Birmingham provides the ideal footing for anyone wanting to begin a career in archaeology or the heritage environment. Along with diverse skills and opportunities provided, I also got to experience city life in Britain’s second city. Thanks to the course, I have been employed in archaeology since I graduated in 2007. Emma Sautejeau, MA Practical Archaeology

B

The Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity offer a range of postgraduate and professional training courses aimed to provide you with the skills you need to work in the heritage environment today. From project management techniques in archaeology to the visualisation of past environments, we aim to give you practical experience in the diverse range of techniques and approaches available to heritage practitioners. All of the courses we offer can be tailored to your individual interests and needs, and can be delivered full-time or part-time degrees. Campus-based programmes MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual Environments MSc in Environmental Archaeology & Palaeoenvironments MA in Conflict Archaeology M Phil (B) in Archaeological Practice Distance Education programmes MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology (DE) MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual Environments (DE) To find out more, go to http://www.iaa.bham.ac.uk/Postgraduate/ or email us at archpgrad@lists.bham.ac.uk

Emma holding a medieval leather shoe recovered from excavations in Birmingham

46

Viewpoin t
Get C onnected
T h e r e is a well-known adage that says, “ I t i s n o t w h a t you know, but who you know, that c o u n t s ” . O f c ourse, it could be argued that both pa r t s o f t h e s a y i n g are complimentary and of equal im p o r t a n c e : k n o wledge linked with connections c o m p l e t e t h e circle. Knowledge is built up over t i m e a n d t h e r e is no substitute for experience, bu t i f y o u a r e n ot well connected within the archa e o l o g i c a l c o m munity your opportunities may be lim i t e d . C o n nections can be made in many wa y s u s i n g t h e traditional methods such as a t t e n d i n g c o n f erences, writing articles and p r e s e n t i n g p a p e rs. Conferences are an excellent w a y o f m e e t ing fellow archaeologists but not if y o u s i t i n t h e c orner afraid to reach out. If you are a b i t s h y, f i n d someone that you know will introd u c e y o u t o o t hers and before long you will have m e t a n d t a l k e d to a surprising amount of people. A c h a n c e c o n v ersation may set you up for your fir s t j o b o r e v e n secure a coveted place on the exca v a t i o n o f y o u r dreams. G e t t i ng your degree or PhD in archaeol o g y d o e s n o t necessarily mean that you will step s t r a i g h t i n t o a job; you simply won’t have achieve d e n o u g h p r a c t ical experience by this point. H o w e v e r, s e e k i ng out summer placements with com m e r c i a l c o m panies can compensate for this, an d a l l o w s p o t e ntial employ ers to get to know you a n d w h a t y o u may be capable of. These opportun i t i e s a r e h a r d to come by and may not even be a v a i l a b l e i n y o ur area. However, you could join y o u r l o c a l a r c h aeology soci ety, and some field sch o o l s m a y b e h appy to have you on board providing y o u w i t h s o m e much-needed hands-on experience a n d , o f c o u r se, archaeology contacts and friends. I n i t i a l l y y o u might think that none of this will h a v e t h e d e s i r ed effect but it takes time and com m i t m e n t , a n d with any luck, will eventually bear f r u i t . I spent much of the early part of my career w o r k i n g a b r o a d i n p l a c e s s u c h a s Tu r k e y, t h e E m i r a t e s , J o r d a n a n d Tu r k m e n i s t a n . I t w a s h a r d t o get my foot in the door at first, but this is where connections became important. I had to pay to go on the first few digs but as my competence level r o s e a n d I g o t t o k n o w m o r e a r c h a eo l o g i s t s I w a s i n v i t e d t o j o i n t h e t e a m a s a m e m b e r o f s t a ff . F r o m t h e r e I h e a r d a b o u t o t h e r e x c a v a t i o n s n e e d i n g s t a ff a n d w a s a b l e t o m o v e a r o u n d . I t ’s a g r e a t w a y o f seeing the world, gaining experience and building u p a n e t w o r k o f c o n t a c t s a n d , i m p o r t a n t l y, m a n y friends. T h e s e d a y s , s o c i a l n e t w o r k i n g o ff e r s n u m e r o u s new ways of making connections and Facebook, for example is a great way to meet people, look out for projects or view current job announcements. A chance comment, photograph or video on a F a c e b o o k p a g e c o u l d s e t y o u o ff o n a p a t h o f inquiry that can lead to increased opportunities. Set up your own special interest group and if people like what they see you may find yourself with hundreds – even thousands – of fans that you can keep in touch with and exchange ideas, whilst also giving you a profile. Although the way in which we communicate i s u n d e rg o i n g m a n y c h a n g e s t h e n e e d t o m a k e connections never diminishes. Some of us are d e t e r m i n e d t o s i t o n t h e s i d e l i n e s b e c a u s e w e d o n ’t like change, but whether young or old we should try to embrace these new opportunities that technology has given us. BAJR and Past Horizons b o t h h a v e F a c e b o o k p a g e s s o i f y o u h a v e n ’t g o t round to it, join in, sign up and in no time you too could be connected.
D avid Connolly is the direc tor of British A rchaeolo gical J obs and Resources (B AJR) Web: http://w w w.bajr.org

BA JR: ht t p : / / w w w. f a ce b o o k . co m / B A J R p a ge Past H o r i zo ns : ht t p : / / w w w. f a ce b o o k . co m / a rc h s tore

47

past horizons

D ig In
A selectio n of archaeolo g i c a l p r ojects around the worl d
Eng l a n d B u t l e i g h Tra i n i n g E xcavation
Excavations have revealed a Romano-British villa complete with mosaic. It is intended that future archaeological work at Butleigh will expand knowledge of the four rooms excavated in 2009 and reveal the actual extent of the villa. Aimed at those seeking professional tuition, the course will cover arc haeological plan and section drawing, excavation techniques and basic surveying.
Dates: 2 - 6 a n d 9 - 1 3 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0 Costs: £ 1 5 0 p e r w e e k o r £ 2 7 0 f o r t h e f o r t n i g h t ( this is a non-residential course) Contac t : s a m . d r i s c o l l @ a b s o l u t e a rc h a e o l o g y. c o .uk Web: h t t p : / /w w w. a b s o l u t e a rc h a e o l o g y. c o . uk

Swe d e n Vi k i n g D i s cove r y Pro gramme
Designated excavations of farmsteads will lead to a better understanding of the Gotlandic farm in the Viking Age, and will cast light on settlement patterns and house construction as well as daily life. Archaeological investigations clearly show that hoards have been placed inside houses or close to houses, and that every farm on Gotland has at least one. Field courses will be open to students and amateurs from all over the world.
Dates: 2 9 J u n e - 8 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0 Costs: C o s t s : F r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y £ 8 2 5 - £ 1 5 0 5 (2 - 4 weeks) Conta c t : d a n @ a r k e o d o k . c o m Web: h t t p : / /w w w. a r k e o d o k . c o m / i n d e x 1 . h t m l

Uni te d St ate s B l a c k t a i l Cave
This will be the second year at the Blacktail cave where archaeologists Rick and Sandy Martinec will be returning to record known archaeological sites on the 8000-acre Blacktail Ranch, Montana. They wi ll also continue their search for the original entrance to the extensive Blacktail cave, which has produced evidence of human occupation. Students will be given instruction in survey, excavation and finds identification.
Dates: 4 - 1 0 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0 Costs: $ 1 4 0 0 Conta c t : b t r a n c h @ e a r t h l i n k . n e t Web: h t t p : / / w w w. b l a c k t a i l r a n c h . c o m/

Per u Ba l co n d e l D i a b l o
An archaeological study of the Inca population from the River Chacn basin where there are elite administrative centres. These centres (huacas) were part of the system of ‘ceques’ and reached out from the Qoricancha (or centre of the world) on imaginary lines to the whole valley. Systematic excavations will take place within these ceques to try to define the features, and a survey will be carried out in the surrounding area.
Dates: J u l y - A u g u s t 2 0 1 0 Costs: E n q u i r e s t o p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r s K a r e n D u r a nd and Luis Fernando Bejar Conta c t : a rq l g a d u ra n d @ h o t m a i l . c o m o r l b e j a rl@pucp.edu.p e

past horizons

48

I rel a n d Ca h e rco n n e l l Arc h a e ological Field S chool
Caherconnell stone ringfort lies at the heart of the Burren region in County Clare. It has undergone excavation over the past three years, with discoveries dating from the Stone Age up to the modern era. These have included a late Neolithic/early Bronze Age house, 15th century human remains, a 10th century drystone enclosure and assorted artefacts including thousands of lithics and decorated Prehistoric pottery.
Dates: 1 6 - 2 7 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0 Costs: €1 7 0 0 f o r 2 w e e k s Conta c t : i n f o @ c a h e rc o n n e l l . c om Web: h t t p : / / w w w. c a h e rc o n n e l l . c om

Aus t ra l i a I nd i g e n o u s Arc h a e ology in Australia Field S chool
This field school will be run as part of the Ngadjuri Heritage Project, a co-ordinated approach by the Ngadjuri Aboriginal nation to the research, planning and management of key areas and regions in Ngadjuri land. The aims are to identify and record Aboriginal sites on Plumbago Station, develop a database of site locations for the region, and conduct archival research and oral histories.
Dates: 2 0 - 3 0 S e p t e m b e r 2 0 1 0 Cost: S e e w e b s i t e f o r v a r i o u s c o s t o p t i o n s Contac t : c l a i re . s m i t h @ f l i n d e r s . e d u . au Web: h t t p : / / w w w. f l i n d e r s . e d u . a u / e h l t / a rc h a e o l ogy/fieldwork/field-schools/indigenous-field-school/indigenous-fieldschool _ h o m e . c fm

I tal y Vu l t u r Pro j e c t
An archaeological investigation of the Vultur zone of northern Basilicata involving both excavation and survey. The project is funded by the Comune of Rionero and the Comunità Montana del Vulture over five years, and involves a team of archaeologists from Canada, Israel, Australia and Norway. The project will focus upon the Lucanian Frontier as a sphere of pre-Roman cultural interaction and Late Roman stability.
Dates: 1 9 J u l y - 3 0 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0 Costs: € 10 0 0 Conta c t : f l e t c h e r @ v u l t u r p ro j e c t . c om Web: h t t p : / / w w w. v u l t u r p ro j e c t . c o m /

Jord a n G re at Ara b R e vo l t Pro j ec t
As the aim of the project in its first five-year phase is to explore the theme of desert warfare between Ma’an and Mudawwara, work will continue in 2010 on the line of th e Hijaz Railway in this region. It is intended to carry out surveys and sample excavations at one or two new sites, mainly as a comparative exercise in relation to the intensive work already carried out in the Wadi Rutm/Batn Al-Ghoul/Aqabat-Hijaz study area.
Dates: 2 4 O c t o b e r- 7 N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0 Costs: £ 2 4 5 0 ( i n c l u d e s f l i g h t s , a c c o m m o d a t i o n and food) Conta c t : s u s a n @ g w a g . o r g Web: h t t p : / / w w w. j o r d a n 1 9 1 4 - 1 8 a rc h a e o l o g y. o rg/

Ala s k a B ro k e n M a m m o t h
The Broken Mammoth site is one of the oldest archaeological sites in Beringia and North America, and contains stone, bone and mammoth ivory tools, and well-preserved faunal remains. Excavation at the site will focus on recovery of stone tools and faunal remains from late Pleistocene/early Holocene levels as well as testing the Younger Dryas sediments for possible evidence of an asteroid impact affecting human settlement.
Dates: 1 4 J u n e - 1 7 J u l y 2 0 1 0 Cost: $ 1 2 9 5 p l u s 4 - c re d i t t u i t i o n f e e Contac t : D r. D a v i d Ye s n e r a f d r y @ u a a . a l a s k a . e d u Web: h t t p : / / a n t h ro . u a a . a l a s k a . e d u

To v iew lots mo re projec ts go to: http : / / w w w. p a s t h o r i zo n s. co m / Wo rl d Pro j e c t s

49

past horizons

Recipes for Archaeologists
A SOUP FOR ALL SEASONS
Soups are a great way of extending the variety of food on a dig. Not only are they good value for money and easy on the budget, they are also very versatile. Iced sou p is wonderfully refreshing on a boiling hot day, while a big steaming hot bowl of soup is warming and nourishing when the temperature plunges. Before my trip to Syria I b o r r o w e d cookbooks from the l i b r a r y a n d discovered many Mid d l e E a s t e r n recipes for some grea t s o u p s . B y doing this type of resea r c h I c a n g e t a picture of what is av a i l a b l e i n a country I haven’t work e d i n b e f o r e and, of course, there’s a l s o a g r e a t feeling of excitement and e x p e c t a t i o n of exploring another cui s i n e . I l o v e A very easy way of extending a being a dig cook! meal if there are unexpected guests is to make some soup, and my stick Here’s a recipe for a g a z p a c h o t h a t blender travels to every dig site with can be made in a few m i n u t e s . P l a c e me, an essential piece of equipment one kilo of ripe, roug h l y - c h o p p e d that makes preparing soup fast and tomatoes (or three cans o f t o m a t o e s ) simple. in a big bowl along wit h a c h o p p e d Lebanese cucumber, on e r e d o n i o n Soup is a great di sh to have when roughly chopped, two c l o v e s o f you are sampling local breads and, if garlic, a handful of fres h h e r b s s u c h time permits, some freshly-baked hot as parsley, chives, bas i l , c o r i a n d e r bread straight from the oven can turn or oregano, a cup of ic e c u b e s , t w o this humble dish into a substantial teaspoons of vegetable s t o c k p o w d e r, meal. For lunch, a bowl of soup, hot a pinch of sea salt and fre s h l y - g r o u n d or cold, interesting bread, various pepper, and a teaspoo n o f s u g a r. dips, cheeses and deli meats, plus a Blend until smooth. Adju s t s e a s o n i n g fruit platter to fini sh, makes a very and serve with either a s w i r l o f s o u r satisfying meal. cream, yoghurt, crumb l e d f e t a o r labneh. Some crusty b r e a d i s t h e Soups are also a good way to use up finishing touch. If you h a v e t i m e , leftover cooked meats, vegetables, chill for one to two hou r s . rice, pasta, beans o r lentils from the previous day but should be handled The following soup recip e i s o n e t h a t carefully. In my kitchen, any we cook in the local s o u p k i t c h e n leftovers that are n ot eaten the very where I work as a volunt e e r, a n d i t i s next day are thrown out. You can also both delicious and extre m e l y e a s y t o vary the pattern of the evening meal prepare. Just put all the i n g r e d i e n t s by having soup and a main course into a large pot and sim m e r s l o w l y without dessert. and gently for a coupl e o f h o u r s , then blend. Most cultures have their traditional delicious soups both hot and cold. © Annie E v a n s 2 0 1 0

Annie Evans The Dig Cook

The Dig Cook’s website
http://www.digcook.com

past horizons

50

LENT I L A N D V E G E TA B L E S O U P
P l a c e a l l t h e f o llowing ingredients i n t o a l a rg e p o t . 12 cups water 7 5 0 g r a m s r e d lentils H a l f a h e a d o f celery and some leaves, o r a b u l b o f f e nnel and some leaves r o u gh l y c h o p p ed 1 k g c h o p p e d c arrots 2 m e d i u m o n i o ns peeled and roughly chopped 4 c l o v e s g a r l i c , peeled 1 h e a p e d t e a s p oon curry powder 1 2 t e a s p o o n s v egetable stock powder C o o k a l l t o g e t her on a low heat for two hours, checking to make sure it’s not cat c h i n g o n t h e b o t t o m . S t a b m ix it with a stick blender leaving chunks of vegetables. Adjust se a s o n i n g , a d d f r e s h l y - g r o u n d pepper and add more water if it’s too thick. Makes about five to s i x l i t r e s .

CHIC K E N S O U P W I T H L E M O N A ND EGG
4 c u p s c h i c k e n stock (powdered chic ken stock and water) or use the stock recipe b e l o w 1 / 3 c u p l o n g g rain rice soaked and rinsed 4 t a b l e s p o o n s l emon juice 3 egg yolks 2 t a b l e s p o o n s finely-chopped fresh parsley and chives S e a s a l t a n d f r eshly-ground black pepper.

Chick e n Sto c k
1.4 kg chicken 8 cups water 2 b l a c k p e p p e r corns 1 c h o p p e d c a r r ot 1 c h o p p e d b r o wn onion 1 s t a l k c e l e r y, chopped ½ cup parsley C o m b i n e a l l i n gredients for stock in a large pot and simmer, covered, for two ho u r s . R e m o v e c h i c k e n a n d s t rain stock. Cover and refrigerate overnight. Skim fat from cold s t o c k .

S oup M e t h o d
B r i n g s t o c k t o the boil, add rice, tur n down heat and simmer until rice is tende r, s t i r r i n g t o p r e v e n t s t i c k i n g. Just before serving, whisk eggs and lemon juice in a bowl un t i l t h i c k a n d f r o t h y. G r a d u a lly whisk in two cups of the hot stock to the egg/lemon mix th e n a d d e g g / l e m o n / h o t s t o c k mix to the stock on the stove. Whisk over heat till warmed thro u g h . D o n o t b o i l . Ta s t e a n d then season with salt and pepper.

51

past horizons

Videography

Filmin g o n t h e Th a m e s Fo re s h o re

past horizons

52

i n Arch a e ol o g y

Prescot Street excavations

T

B y Anies Hassan

he phenomena of moving images began with the Lumiere brothers over one hundred years ago, and since then technology has advanced far beyond those days of faltering black and white ima ges to bring us portable, digital video cameras in the present age. Not only can we make our own movies, the technology is affordable and simple to use, too, thanks to the ubiquitous camera mobile phone with video capabilities. This has seen an explosion of amateur videos on the internet with content ranging from talking cats to insightful political discussion. Shrewd businesses have taken advantage of these developments, utilising internet videography as a cheap and effective means of promotion. We look at how the archaeological world is joining this trend, embracing technology as part of the dissemination of information and public engagement, and focus on three areas where videography can be used to support the public face of archaeology.

53

past horizons

O U TR E A C H T V ’s a r c h a e o l ogical documentaries have p o p u l a r i s e d t h e past for many years, from the d r y, y e t i n f o r m ative, Chronicle of the 1970s, t o t h e Ti m e Te a m’s wonky camera an gles and s e n s e o f u rg e n cy. The value of the television d o c u m e n t a r y r emains strong, but how often a r e a r c h a e o l o g i cal discoveries anything more t h a n a l o c a l n e ws item, if that?

The archaeological project team a t B a m b u rg h Castle has also experimented with videography, providing students with tuitio n i n b a s i c camera and editing techniques. T h e s t u d e n t s have then made short films and v i d e o d i a r i e s about the ongoing excavations.

Videography can also be used to g r e a t e ff e c t i n education programmes at school s a n d w i t h i n higher education. Technical vid e o s c r e a t e d T h e a ff o r d a b i l ity of camera equipment and for students or volunteers, such a s t h o s e m a d e t h e e a s e o f a ccess to the internet allows for the Thames Discovery Prog r a m m e , c a n a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to tell their side of the story explain complex techniques and c o n c e p t s i n a w i t h o u t r e s t r i c tions imposed by television user-friendly manner at very low c o s t . executives or commercial sponsors. F u r t h e r m o r e , t he internet can broadcast these ARCHIVE f i n d s t o a w o r l dwide audience. A number of academic project s h a v e u s e d film for archival purposes for som e t i m e n o w, I b e c a m e i n volved in the videography and could certainly be used mo r e o f t e n t o p r o c e s s w i t h i n archaeology through the enrich the traditional archaeolog i c a l a r c h i v e . a w a rd - w i n n i n g public outreach project at The site of Catalhoyuk in cen t r a l Tu r k e y, a c o m m e r c i a l archaeological site in East for example, has produced arch i v a l v i d e o s L o n d o n c a l l e d Prescot Street. Before working since the mid-nineties, which w e r e a d d e d a s a s u p e r v i s o r at this excavation I had never as supplementary DVDs to th e p u b l i s h e d e v e n h e l d a v i deo camera, so I had to learn monographs. With the birth of m i n i d i g i t a l fast. T h e c o mbination of the incredibly video cameras like the creative v a d o a n d f l i p , i n t e r e s t i n g a r c haeology and the company’s recording certain aspects of the a r c h a e o l o g y c o m m i t m e n t t o public engagement inspired with video could become stand a r d p r a c t i c e m e t o c r e a t e a series of short films about the within commercial archaeology a s w e l l . N o t s i t e . E a c h f i l m had a theme with th e aim of every post hole needs discussion o n v i d e o , o f i n f o r m i n g t h e a udience about various aspects course, but more significant featu r e s c o u l d b e o f t he a r c h a e o l ogical process. These themes reviewed on camera, or a summar y o f t h e s i t e c o v e r e d e x c a v a tion techniques, environmental discussed. This may be especia l l y r e l e v a n t s a m p l i n g , f i n d s recording, GIS and so on. All with large features, like ring ditc h e s , t h a t a r e t h e f i l m s a r e a vailable to view on the Prescot difficult to capture with a stills c a m e r a . S t r e e t s i te . The use of time-lapse photog r a p h y c o u l d T h e s e v i d e o s were produced in tandem with offer up some valuable rewards, t o o . I n o n e a d a i l y o n l i n e journal/blogs written by every experiment I filmed myself an d t h e a r e a m e m b e r o f t h e site staff, and a comprehensive supervisor excavating a mud-b r i c k w a l l a t p h o t o d i a r y o f the site and finds as they were Catalhoyuk using a digital stills c a m e r a w i t h u n c o v e r e d . T h e team produced accompanying a time-lapse function. After editin g i t t o g e t h e r a r t i c l e s c o v e r i ng the historical background the result was rather amateuri s h b u t m o s t o f t h e s i t e a nd made the archaeological people who watched it felt they h a d l e a r n e d d a t a ( c o n t e x t s records, plans, maps and something about the excavation p r o c e s s . p h o t o g r a p h s ) a vailable to any web browser v i a t h e i r i n - h ouse designed database ARK This is an archive resource that c o u l d b e u s e d ( A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Recording Kit). The use of on more complex, sensitive sites, a s a r e c o r d o f v i d e o g r a p h y w as one amongst many forms the excavation process and would b e a v a l u a b l e o f o u t r e a c h u s ed by L – P : Archaeology at tool for future generations to und e r s t a n d h o w P r e s c o t S t r e e t b ut it added that extra dimension sites were excavated using tec h n i q u e s t h a t t o t h e a u d i e n c e ’s experience of a commercial may, by then, be old-fashioned and o u t o f d a t e . excavation. It is also a historical record o f t h e p e o p l e past horizons

54

i n v o l v e d i n t h e project and their individual c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the archaeological process – a n d c a n r e v e a l the real, back-breaking work o f e x c a v a t i o n t o the uninitiated.

PROMOTION F i l m c a n b e a very effective medium for the p r o m o t i o n o f a project or archaeological unit, s e r v i c e s o ff e r e d, expert advice available and s o f o r t h . P o t e ntial clients, particularly those w i t h o u t p r e v i ous interest or involvement i n t h e a r c h a e o logical world, find the video Videography is not the only s o l u t i o n t o f o r m a t a c c e s s i ble and easy to comprehend. encourage wider public eng a g e m e n t i n archaeology, but it can certain l y a c t a s a W h e n e m b e d d e d in a company’s website, sent valuable addition to the widen i n g t o o l b o x a s a Tw e e t , a Facebook update on a group available to the 21st century ar c h a e o l o g i s t . p a g e , o r a s a p ost on a blog, a short video of Whatever the outcome, this is a n e x c i t i n g a r o u n d f i v e m i nutes can be used to attract an opportunity for archaeologists t o e m b r a c e a a u d i e n c e a n d quickly provide them with the new technology and enrich the ar c h a e o l o g i c a l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m ation. process and experience. A n ie s H a s s a n has recently set up a vi deo company called Tollan Films. For more i n f o r m a t i o n v i s i t t h e w e b s ite: http://www.tollanfilms.com
Ship’s timbers and how to record them - Thames Discover y Programme episode 4, by Anies Hassan

The creation of short videos is i n r e a c h o f almost everyone, hence the globa l d o m i n a t i o n of Youtube. Even for those with l i t t l e o r n o experience the technology of v i d e o g r a p h y can be used with relative ease b y i n t e r e s t e d archaeologists, whether they work in the commercial, community o r a c a d e m i c fields, especially if they seek a d v i c e f r o m knowledgeable users before i n v e s t i n g i n equipment.

If you are viewi ng this magazine on SCRIBD, then you will not be able to see the video. You can view it on either the full flip page version of the magazine: www.pasthorizons.com/magazine OR Here: http://vimeo.com/6231355

55

past horizons

WHS
F i n d i t H e re

W O R K H A R D O R S TA RV E

past horizons

56

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful