You are on page 1of 56

R om an R oad Sk ye Bur ials S ardinian Tomb Videography Welsh R ock-ar t

Pa st Hor izons
O nline Journal
of volunteer
archaeology
and training

Adventures in Archaeology May 2010

Fa b r ik a H ill
Pa p h o s Th e at re Excavations
Issue 12
May 2010

Editors:
Felicity Donohoe
Maggie Struckmeier

Layout:
Maggie Struckmeier

Graphics
David Connolly

Past Horizons
Traprain House
Luggate Burn
Haddington
East Lothian
EH41 4QA

Tel: +44 (0)1620 861643


Email: editor@pasthorizons.com
Web: www.pasthorizons.com

Contributors:
David Cockman 28 Fabrika Hill
George Nash
Craig Barker Fabrika Hill is a natural outcrop representing the n o r t h - e a s t e r n
Mary Peterana
corner of the ancient city of Nea Paphos, Cyprus. Th e A u s t r a l i a n
Anies Hassan
Annie Evans excavations on the south of Fabrika have reveale d a t h e a t r e
Diego Meozzi construct ed around 300 BC and used as a venue for p e r f o r m a n c e
and entertainment until the late fourth century AD.
Images
Adam Stanford
David Martin
Bob Miller
Steven House

Front cover: Excavating in the


early morning light at Fabrika Hill
theatre, Paphos, in Cyprus.

Note
Past Horizons can give no endorsement
of any listed project or guarantee the
accuracy of the information supplied.
The editors accept no responsibility
for any loss, injury, or inconvenience
sustained by anyone using the resources
contained within this magazine and/or
the websites mentioned herein. When
considering a project, be sure to contact
the director with any questions you might
have about conditions, travel, health
issues, etc. Check for references from
previous participants, seek advice where
possible and select a project that will be
of the greatest benefit to you, the project
and the team.
14 Tomba della Scacchiera
All content is copyright and no Diego Meozzi of Stonepages describes how a visit to a S a r d i n i a n
reproduction of text or images is
allowed without prior permission
farmhous e led to an astonishing revelation by the o w n e r. A l a t e
from the author. Neolithic painted tomb had recently been discovere d n e a r b y b u t
instead of telling the world, the archaeologists who fo u n d i t c h o s e
Past Horizons 2010
instead to quietly seal it up.

past horizons 2
Contents
52 Videography in Archaeology 8 Quest for the Truth
Anies Hassan discusses the merits of using The story of how an English local archaeological society
videography to promote the public face of challenged convention and set out to discover the true route of
archaeology. a Roman road.

20 Welsh Prehistoric Rock-art Tradition 40 Hungate


Welsh rock-art until recently has been poorly understood due to The York Archaeological Trust is half way through
a lack of systematic research. Now, however a growing number a five-year project that has already provided
of people having joined the recently formed Welsh Rock-art training for many students and volunteers. We
Organisation and are making exciting new discoveries. take a look at their progress.

R e g u l a rs
5 Editorial 36 Discover
Know Your Neighbourhood. The V é z è r e valley.

6 News 47 Viewpoint
News stories from around the world. David Connolly on making archaeological
connections.
25 Profile
George Nash. 48 Dig In

26 A Digger’s Life 50 Dig Cook


Si Clegget shares his stories Culinary escapades from Annie Evans.
3 past horizons
www.aerial-cam.co.uk

adam@aerial-cam.co.uk
past horizons 4
K now Yo u r N e i g h b o u r h o o d ...

editorial
Recently I had the opportunity to accompany a group of
visual artists and writers on a journey around our local
area. The idea behind the trip, entitled ‘Taking a Line’,
was to provide inspiration about the archaeology, history,
geology and wildlife that surrounds us. In response to
this multi-faceted journey the artists and writers will
create a piece of work that reflects their experiences of
the day.

T h e o p p o r t u n i t y to show others some of the local archaeological sites and explain


w h a t t h e y r e p r e sent was a wonderful way to spend the day. The journey started
w i t h s o m e e x c i tement for the visitors when we first called on an impressive 16th
c e n t u r y s t a r f o r t deep in the woods yet with spectacular views from the ramparts.
A f i r s t - t i m e v i sit for those on the trip, the ‘discovery’ of this hidden gem led
t o m u c h d i s c u s sion about the significance of the fort as everyone climbed back
i n t o t h e m i n i b u s filled with a real sense of enthusiasm before moving on to our
n e x t d e s t i n a t i o n.

M y o w n j o u r n e y of local discovery started only a few months ago when I began


t o e x p l o r e t h e surrounding hills usin g Google Earth. Interested to see how the
f a r m i n g l a n d s c ape worked I started to notice a pattern emerging. Halfway up
a l m o s t e v e r y s i de valley there was a circular sheep enclosure alongside rig and
f u r r o w. O f c o u rse, only so much can be done using Google Earth but taking the
c o - o r d i n a t e s a n d loading them on to my GPS I set out to find these sites on the
ground.

O n c e t h e r e i t b ecame apparent there were many other sites that only showed up
w h e n w a l k i n g across the landscape itself. The more the eye became accustomed
t o t h i s m o o r t e rrain, the more vestiges of old turf enclosures and walls became
v i s i b l e . H e r e I was only 20 minutes from where I lived and I was finding new
a n d u n r e c o r d e d sites.

I n d e e d , i t i s a mazing what awaits discovery in our localities, especially when


g o a l s h a v e b e e n set. For example, the investigations of the Hendon and District
A r c ha e o l o g i c a l Society uncovered the true route of a Roman road in their area,
a n d t h e i r f i n d i ngs provide a great example of what can be achieved with some
d o g g e d d e t e r m i nation and hard work (page 8).

F o r a n y o n e t h i nking of setting out on a local voyage of discovery, just start off


b y b e i n g c l e a r about what it is you want to look at then take it from there. It
d o e s n ’t m a t t e r if you live in a city, a town or a village, there is always something
t o l ea r n , a n e w journey to take. Know your neighbourhood and suddenly you
w i l l l o o k a t y o ur own world with new eyes and fresh perspectives.

editor@pasthorizons.com 

5 past horizons
Discover y of a Pre h i s to r i c B u r i a l S i te on S k ye
news

A rc h a e o l o g i s t M a r y Pe te ra n n a s u p er vises the removal of a t wo -tonne capstone which covered cist 3

T h e d i s c o v e r y o f a P r ehistoric burial site on the Isle of Skye, Scotland,


h a s c a u s e d g r e a t e xcitement within the local communit y. Situated
n e x t t o t h e A r m a d a l e - Mallaig ferry pier on the Sleat peninsula, the site
w a s i d e n t i f i e d i n S e p tember 2009 during an archaeological watching
b r i e f c o n d u c t e d o n b e half of Lochalsh and Skye Housing A ssociation.

A team of archaeologists led by Ma r y P e t e r a n n a


excavated seven cist burials c o n t a i n i n g
cremated and inhumed remains. T h r e e o f t h e
cists held decorated ‘food vessel’ p o t s , w h i c h
have provided a definitive early B r o n z e A g e
date (2000 BC). Other cists con t a i n e d g r a v e
goods including a stone wrist gua r d f r a g m e n t
and a variety of worked lithics. C i s t 7 , w h i c h
was uncovered beyond the limits o f t h e m a i n
site, revealed an inhumation buri e d w i t h f i v e
finely-made flint arrowheads and t w o k n i v e s .

Surprisingly, given the lack of a n y v i s i b l e


archaeology on the surface, a m o n u m e n t o f
three standing stones within a r i n g - s h a p e d
ditch was uncovered at the centre o f t h e s i t e .
The standing stones had previo u s l y f o r m e d
part of a stone circle and, althoug h t h e r e s u l t s
are still being processed, the m o n u m e n t
appears to have originated as a ti m b e r c i r c l e .
D e co ra te d ce ra m i c f o o d ve s s e l f ro m cist 4

past horizons 6
T h e r i n g a l s o e ncircled the largest of the seven
c i s t s . C o v e r e d by a two-tonne capstone, cist
3 c o n t a i n e d d e graded inhumed remains laid
o n a c o b b l e d f l oor. Its alignment, like that of
c i s t 7 , w a s d i ff erent to the other five cists and
m a y s u g g e s t a n earlier burial date.

A g r a v e o f u nusual stone construction as


w e l l a s t h e r e mains of a hearth als o points
t o e a r l i e r a c t i vity as both were located at
c o n s i d e r a b l e depth in comparison to the
B r o nz e A g e f e atures. A variety of worked
f l i n t , b l o o d s t o n e, pitchstone and quartz flakes
w e r e f o u n d s cattered throughout the site,
i n d i c a t i n g a p rolonged span of occupancy Memb ers of the lo cal communit y touring the site
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h stone tool manufacturing.
A l s o i n t r i g u i n g was evidence of pre -historic To achieve this goal a society wa s f o r m e d a n d
a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t ivity. named Arc-Eòlas Shlèite/Archaeo l o g y S l e a t .

A f t e r t h e d i s covery a meeting with the Arc-Eòlas Shlèite is now seek i n g t o r a i s e


c o m m u n i t y w a s convened to discuss future funds to carry out a geophysica l s u r v e y o n
d e v e l o p m e n t s . The overwhelming sentiment land adjacent to the stone cist s . T h i s l a n d
a t t h i s m e e t i n g was that the stone cists should has been suggested for the recon s t r u c t i o n o f
b e r e c o n s t r u c t e d in part or in total, near to the site and the Museum of the I s l e s a t C l a n
w h e re t h e y w e r e found, and that the artefacts Donald Skye has been identified a s a n i d e a l
s h o u l d r e t u r n t o Sleat. location for exhibiting the artefa c t s .

Flint to ols from cist 7

Remain s o f r i n g m o nu m e n t e n c i rc l i n g c i s t 3

7 past horizons
Q u est for the Tru t h
A R oman R oad Discovered

D ig di re c to r D. B a r r y H o b s o n ( h a n d ra i s e d i n w h i te shir t), a retired general prac titioner, welcomes a group of visitors to the
excava t i o n s i te. D r. H o b s o n to o k a d e g re e i n A rc haeolo gy at Bradford Universit y a f ter his retirement.

past horizons 8
S
i n c e i t s f o r m a t i o n i n 1 9 5 6 , the amateur archaeologists of the Huddersfield
a n d D i st r i c t A r c h a e o l o g i c al Society (HDAS) in the of north England have
d e v o t e d s o m e o f t h e i r e fforts to piecing together evidence of a nearby
Rom a n R o a d – e v i d e n c e t h a t c hallenged the accuracy of current understanding
of th e l o c a t i o n o f t h e r o u t e .

A ch a n c e d i s c o v e r y i n 1 9 7 3 r a i s ed the first serious question mark over claims by


Rom a n r o a d e x p e r t I v a n M a rg a ry that the route ran alongside the present A640.
This w a s t o s e t t h e m e m b e r s o f the HDAS on a quest to establish the truth which
has l a s t e d f o r a l m o s t f o u r d e c a des and still continues today. 

9 past horizons
Outlane A640

Slack Fort
M62

A58

2
A6

0 Slaithwaite
A64

ey
March Vall Supposed route
Hill ln e of the Roman Road
Co

Marsden Meltham
Pule Demonstrated route
Hill of the Roman Road
Castleshaw Worlow Roman
Fort military station

I n t h e t h r e e d e c ades after the Roman invasion the top to the west of Huddersfi e l d a n d t h e n
o f B r i t a i n i n AD 43 the Roman military onwards via Leeds to York (Eb o r a c u m ) . A t
m a c h i n e m o v e d north and westwards bringing roughly 10-mile intervals small f o r t s w o u l d
t h e w h o l e o f E ngland and Wales under Roman have been placed along the roa d t o p r o t e c t
c o n t r o l . I n t h e 80s AD, under the governorship traffic.
o f A g r i c o l a , t he army crossed the border
i n t o S c o t l a n d and waged an aggressive, but The route of the road between Ch e s t e r a n d t h e
u l t i m a t e l y u n s uccessful, campaign to subdue Roman fort at Castleshaw in Sa d d l e w o r t h i s
the tribes there. not in dispute (near Delph its ag g e r c a n s t i l l
be seen). However, the course o f t h e r o a d ,
A s t h e a r m y m oved northwards it constructed where it leaves Castleshaw and c l i m b s 1 2
a n e t w o r k o f r o ads, not for the benefit of the kilometres over the hostile and b o g g y t e r r a i n
n a t i v e B r i t i s h but to enable rapid m ovement of the Pennines towards the Ro m a n f o r t a t
o f t r o o p s b e t w een military forts. With such Slack, is more controversial, esp e c i a l l y a f t e r
a h i g h - q u a l i t y road system relatively small 18th century antiquaries began to t a k e a l i v e l y
n u m b e r s o f t r o ops were able to control large interest in our Roman legacy.
a r e a s o f t h e c o untry.
The picture was further com p l i c a t e d b y
O n e s i g n i f i c a n t road, thought to have been the later construction of pack h o r s e w a y s
b u i l t d u r i n g t h e 70s AD, linked the legionary linking Yorkshire and Lancashi r e o v e r t h e
f o r t r e s s a t C h e s ter, home of Legio II Adiutrix, same ground. This difficult lan d s c a p e w i t h
w i t h t h e f o r t r e ss at York, home of Legio IX its often-unpleasant weather has p r e s e n t e d a
H i s p a n a . T h i s road crossed north Cheshire, challenge to road builders over th e c e n t u r i e s ,
a l o n g t h e l i n e o f the present A56, to Ma nchester and even the building of the M6 2 m o t o r w a y
( M a m u c i u m ) . It then climbed up into the faced several problems.
P e n n i n e h i l l s t owards Saddleworth, crossed

past horizons 10
A c c o r d i n g t o early 20th century Roman Today Google Earth clearly sho w s t h e r o a d
r o a d e x p e r t I v an Margary, the road climbs crossing on Mr. Dransfield’s lan d b u t i n t h e
n o r t h w a r d s f r o m Castleshaw towards March 1970s such a valuable tool for b o t h a m a t e u r
H i l l , w h e r e i t t hen follows the course of the and professional archaeologists c o u l d o n l y
p r e s e n t A 6 4 0 Oldham-Huddersfield road to a be dreamt of, and finding other p i e c e s o f t h e
p o i n t c l o s e t o t he fort at Slack, near Outlane.
jigsaw took several painstaking y e a r s . Wo r k
T h i s c l a i m w a s supported by the map-makers concentrated on linking up this s e g m e n t o f
o f t h e O r d n a nce Survey but lacked hard Roman road, found in isolation , w i t h o t h e r
a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence. sections to establish beyond reas o n a b l e d o u b t
that the correct Roman route from C a s t l e s h a w
H o w e v e r, i n 1 9 73 George Dransfield, a farmer to Slack had indeed been discove r e d .
a t M o o r s i d e E dge, Slaithwaite, overlooking
t h e C o l n e Va l l ey, drew the attention of the A large piece of the jigsaw is s t i l l m i s s i n g
H D A S t o a m y sterious raised featur e in one around the Pennine mill town o f M a r s d e n ,
o f h i s f i e l d s w hich did not seem to relate to but is very possible that extensiv e i n d u s t r i a l
t h e p r e s e n t - d a y road or farm track system. development in the town durin g t h e 1 9 t h
E x a m i n a t i o n o f the feature revealed stones century has permanently destroye d t h e R o m a n
a t a d e p t h o f a bout 25 centimetres and about levels.
s i x m e t r e s a c r o ss, and Mr. Dransfield agreed
t o s u s p e n d a n y work in the field to allow a By 2008 the HDAS had enough c o n f i d e n c e
t h o r o u g h a r c h aeological exploration by the in their evidence to go public an d c h a l l e n g e
HDAS. Margary’s views, and a book wa s p u b l i s h e d
bringing together the results of d e c a d e s o f
Wo r k w a s c a r r ied out mainly at weekends dedicated and often difficult arch a e o l o g y. T h e
a n d a t r e n c h c u t across the feature eventually Romans Came This Way has att r a c t e d m a n y
p r o d u c e d i n d i s putable evidence that indeed plaudits for the professional way i n w h i c h t h e
t h e R o m a n s h a d passed this way. The first HDAS has conducted its researc h , n o t l e a s t
p i e c e o f a c o m plex jigsaw puzzle had fallen from Professor Mick Aston of Tim e Te a m w h o
i n t o p l a c e a n d disputed the route offered by praised their efforts in the introd u c t i o n t o t h e
M a rg a r y ’s r e s e arch. book, describing them as a “ded i c a t e d g r o u p

M a k e - u p o f a R o m a n ro a d

Broken stones and


larger pebbles
Gravel surface, mixed with
Larger stones cement and tile for hard
forming a foundation waterproof cambered road
Side drain

Rammed Earth/Sand edge stones


within the Road Trench

Surveyor using
a groma

11 past horizons
a most atmospheric place to vis i t . Ti m e h a s
been less kind to Slack and the f o r t i s n o w
completely lost under the clubho u s e a n d c a r
park of the Outlane Golf Club. E x c a v a t i o n i n
the 19th and early 20th century s h o w e d t h a t
Slack also had a large annexe wit h a p o s s i b l e /
probable vicus settlement. Much o f t h i s w a s
also lost under the construction o f t h e M 6 2 ,
but one small corner of the anne x e s u r v i v e s
undamaged and it is here that th e H D A S h a s
been busy for several seasons.

The fort was known to have been m a n n e d b y


a 500-strong cavalry regiment w i t h p e r h a p s
at least 100 horses and other an i m a l s , s o a
reliable water supply would be ex p e c t e d . T h e
The fre s h w a t e r s u p pl y f o r S l a c k f o r t s t i l l f l o w i n g in a
apparent lack of a water source pu z z l e d e a r l i e r
stone c o n d u i t d i s c o v e re d b y t h e H D A S i n 2 0 0 7 excavators, but on the very firs t d a y a n d i n
the first trench opened in August 2 0 0 7 b y t h e
o f a m a t e u r a r chaeologists”. The book has HDAS, the water supply was foun d , w i t h f r e s h
p r o v e d t o b e a great seller, both loc ally and spring water still flowing in a st o n e c o n d u i t
n a t i on a l l y, b u t a few copies are still available towards the fort, almost 2000 y e a r s a f t e r i t
t h r o u g h t h e H D AS website. had been constructed.

I n t h e 2 0 0 9 s e a son the search continued with Work continues to try to trace th e s o u r c e o f


t h e H D A S s u c c essfully confirming t he route this water and the group is conf i d e n t t h a t i f
o f t h e r o a d a s i t approached the fort at Slack. anyone can find it, the HDAS can .
B u i l t i n t o a t e r r ace on the side of rising ground
k n o w a s W h o l e stone Moor, two sections were
u n c o v e r e d a n d excavated in some det ail.
G e t I nvo l ve d
O f p a r t i c u l a r i nterest was the discovery of The HDAS is a flourishing and active society. Its
d e e p r u t s i n t h e road caused by wheeled traffic, regular monthly lectures in Huddersfield town
a n i n d i c a t i o n p erhaps that this piece of road hall attract a full house for talks by professional
c o n t in u e d t o b e used long after the Romans archaeologists covering a wide spectrum of topics
and it is not solely focused on Roman Britain. In 2004
h a d d e p a r t e d . I t is uncertain how far it will the society won the coveted Mick Aston Presentation
b e p o s s i b l e t o t race the proximity of the road Award at the British Archaeological Awards for
t o t h e f o r t s i n c e so much damage was caused “the best presentation of an archaeological project
b y t h e b u i l d i n g and landscaping of t he M62. or theme to the public”. This was for work carried
I n d e e d , t h e m o d ern road is built directly on top out at Myers Woods, near Huddersfield, where a
mediaeval iron working site was discovered and
o f i t s R o m a n a ncestor where the M62 passes excavated.
c l o s e t o t h e s i t e of the Slack fort. A rescue dig
c a r r i e d o u t i n 1 968 by Brian Hartley of Leeds The society is keen to encourage an interest in
U n i v e r s i t y, j u s t prior to the commencement of archaeology amongst the young. To this end it
t h e m o t o r w a y works, confirmed the existence sponsors and supports the Huddersfield Young
Archaeologists Club which accepts members from
o f s ub s t a n t i a l r emains similar in construction the age of eight. Youngsters are also welcome at all
t o t h e l e n g t h s u ncovered by the HDAS in the digs, either to watch or as hands-on participants.
C o l n e Va l l e y. Visits from interested members of the general
public are also encouraged and someone on the dig
T h e t w o f o r t s l inked by this formidable piece will always find time to explain what is going on.
o f R o m a n e n g ineering are Castleshaw and The HDAS website : http://www.huddarch.org.u k
S l a c k . A t C a s t l eshaw, near Delph, much of the
s i t e s u r v i v e s a n d is now protected. It remains

past horizons 12
P r i n t t h e d i s c o unt voucher: http://houses.shakespeare.org.uk/37412568

Click Here

13 past horizons
Tomba della
Dis cove r y o f a l ate Neolithic tomb on S ardinia
by Diego M eozzi of Stonepages
I mages: Antonello Porcu

The ma i n c h a m b e r o f t h e t o m b

G eorge N a s h e n te r i n g ca ve 5 6 1 5 a t Sy m o n d s Ya t to investigate the alleged ro ck- ar t


photo g ra p h : Ad a m S t a n f o rd

past horizons 14
a S cacchiera
S ard i n i a i s a n I t a l i a n i s l a n d k n o wn mainly among archaeologists for its nuraghes
– anc i e n t t o w e r s s o m e w h a t r e m i niscent of Scottish brochs, but far more numerous
and q u i t e e l a b o r a t e . O n t h e i s l a nd you will find a great number of ot her ancient
won d e r s , f r o m t h e s o - c a l l e d ‘ g i ants’ tombs’ to the rock-cut tombs locally known
as ‘d o m u s d e j a n a s ’ ( h o u s e s o f the fairies). 

15 past horizons
Lef t: chequer pattern ceiling in side vault
B elow : side chamb er with red o chre spiral s

past horizons 16
F o r e v e r y o n e i n terested in ancient monuments long side of the main chamber, a n d w i t h t h e
S a r d i n i a i s t r u l y an amazing place, but some 1.70 metre tall roof carved as tho u g h m a d e o f
o f t he m o s t s t r i king examples may lie hidden wood planks, painted in dark blu e a n d w h i t e .
f o r ce n t u r i e s a fter being discovered and then But the most striking visual ele m e n t o f t h e
e x c a v a t e d b y the archaeologists. During a tomb is the series of great red sp i r a l s p a i n t e d
r e c e n t a r c h a e o logical tour of the island, we on a side cell, a total of seven s p i r a l s , m a n y
s t o p p e d f o r t h e night at Sas Abbilas farm of them interconnected one to eac h o t h e r. T h e
h o u s e , l o c a t e d in a secluded little valley near quality of that ancient painting is b r e a t h t a k i n g ,
B o n o r v a ( S a s s a ri), not too far from the well- and on the roof of a side vault t h e r e i s a l s o
k n o w n p r e h i s t o ric necropolis of Sant’Andrea a geometric pattern very rarely f o u n d i n a
P r i u . M r A n t o nello Porcu, the farm house Sardinian tomb: a black and whi t e c h e q u e r e d
o w n e r, s h o w e d us a series of striking images motif – something probably uniq u e o n a s i t e
h e h a d t a k e n w i t h his camera last year, showing apparently dating back to late N e o l i t h i c a n d
7 0 c e n t i m e t r e - wide red ochre spirals painted related to the so-called Ozieri c u l t u r e ( f r o m
o n t he w a l l s o f a side cell of a prehistoric tomb 3800 BCE to 2900 BCE).
t h a t h a d b e e n e xcavated in 2009. Then he told
u s t h e s t o r y o f this ‘tomba della scacchiera’ Curious about the archaeologis t s ’ s e c r e c y,
– t h e c h e q u e r e d tomb. Mr Porcu informed the mayor o f B o n o r v a ,
Mimmino Deriu, of the striking d i s c o v e r y a n d
H i s l a n d l i e s next to a place called Tenuta to his suprise, the mayor reveale d h e h a d n o t
M a r i a n i , w h e r e a prehistoric necrop olis was received any news about the to m b f r o m t h e
d i s c o v e r e d i n 2002. By 2007, the Bonorva archaeologist, or from official rep r e s e n t a t i v e s
m u n i c i p a l i t y r eceived funding to make a of the Soprintendenza.
s u r v e y o f t h e a r chaeological sites in t hat area.
T h e l o c a l c o o p erative society commissioned After about four months of exca v a t i o n s , t h e
t o p e r f o r m t h a t survey worked on the site Soprintendenza placed a massiv e b l o c k o f
t o g e t h e r w i t h a rchaeologist Francesco Sartor, rock in front of the only entrance o f t h e t o m b ,
a p p o i n t e d b y t h e Soprintendenza archeologica filling everything with concrete a n d c o v e r i n g
f o r N u o r o a n d Sassari (the local branch of the whole area with a thick la y e r o f s o i l ,
t h e I t a l i a n M i n istry for Heritage). After the sealing the tomb once again, a p p a r e n t l y t o
f i r s t p h a s e o f survey, a further survey and protect the tomb against looters. T h e t o m b a n d
e x c a v a t i o n c a mpaign began the following its amazing paintings disappeared o n c e a g a i n ,
y e a r, w i t h M r Sartor once again in charge. sharing the fate of other tombs i n t h e a r e a ,
A f ew w e e k s after the start of the search, such as Sa Pala Larga where an i m p r e s s i v e
t h e a r c h a e o l o g ist claimed he had yet to find bull head is carved above a seri e s o f s p i r a l s
a n y t h i n g , b u t Mr Porcu had noticed fo r several that form a sort of ‘tree of life’.
c o n s e c u t i v e d a ys that the excavators returning
f r o m t h e h i l l w ere covered in rock powder. He In an interview for Stonepages w e b s i t e , M r
t h e n a s k e d t h e m in Sardinian (a langu age very Deriu said that “In spite of the c h r o n i c l a c k
d i ff er e n t f r o m I talian): “Did the sow give birthof funding, I strongly believe i n t h e h u g e
t o t h e p i g l e t s ?” The excavators answered, importance of the archaeologic a l h e r i t a g e
“ Ye s , a n d y o u should see how many and how of the Tenuta Mariani area. I’m w o r k i n g t o
b e a u t i f u l t h e y are!” That was the proof that further improve it, thanks to th e r e - o p e n i n g
s o m e t h i n g a m a zing had been found up in the of the local archaeological mus e u m l o c a t e d
h i l l s i n t h e Te n uta Mariani. on a former monastery, and throu g h t h e r e c e n t
agreement with the Forestry Se r v i c e s o t o
A f e w d a y s l a ter Mr Porcu and his brother preserve and enhance – also w i t h t o u r i s t i c
d e c i d e d t o i n v estigate and discovere d, under aims – the Tenuta Mariani, wher e t h e s e a l e d
a g r o u n d s h e e t placed there by the excavators, necropolis lies.”
a n e n t r a n c e p a ssage with a rock-cut façade
l e a d i n g i n t o a h uge tomb with three side cells. Stonepages also called Mrs Lu i s a n n a U s a i ,
T h e t o m b w a s decorated with bright red ochre archaeologist of the Soprinten d e n z a p e r i
d r a wi n g s , w i t h huge bull heads carved on the Beni Archeologici for Sassari a n d N u o r o

17 past horizons
p r ovinces, and in charge of the Bonorva area.
We wanted to know if there were any plans
t o remove the seal to the tomb and to open
i t to the public, along with the other sites
o f the necropolis. She said, “I don’t want to
s p read any word about it. The main aim of the
S oprintendenza is to protect those sites. The
p aintings are faint, so the tomb will remain
s e aled. We are the ones who decide which are
t h e best channels to inform people about this
k i nd of discovery.”

A lthough it is necessary to preserve the tomb


f r om looters, there ar e drawbacks to this
a pproach. Local witnesses claim that other
s e aled tombs in the same region, such as Sa
P ala Larga, are suffering heavy water seepage
w hich is destroying the paintings. In this case,
t h e cure may be worse than the disease.

W hile acknowledging our respect of the


S oprintendenza and its archaeologists,
i n cluding Luisanna Usai, we disagree strongly
w ith the applied methods and the closure of
t h e tombs. Our heritage is a national treasure
a nd must be shared: protection is one thing,
b ut hiding an ancient site indefinitely – even
i f motivated by preservation principles – is
s o mething else. Opening the tombs to the
p ublic may even provide the funding necessary
t o protect their fragile state.

I t raises questions over the possibility that


m any other remarkable monuments may have
b een found, studied and sealed once again over
t h e years by the archa eologists in Sardinia
w ith only a few authorised persons aware of
t h eir presence.

S t onepages would like to raise awareness C lo se -up vi ew o f l


o f the tomb at Sa Pala Larga (also known as
t o mb no.7) and we urge people to send letters
a nd messages directly to the Soprintendente
A rcheologico for Sassari and Nuoro expressing
s u pport for the reopening of the tombs so that
t h eir beauty and significance can be shared
b y all.

Letters to:
Dott. Bruno Massabò - Sopri ntendenza per i Beni
Archeologici per le province di Sassari e Nuoro,
Piazza Sant’Agostino,
2 - 07100 Sassari,
Italia.
Email: bmassabo@arti.benicu lturali.it

past horizons 18
la rg e red o chre spira l s

19 past horizons
Welsh Prehistor ic

Tex t by G e orge Na sh
I m a g es by Ada m Sta nford

W h e n w e t hi n k o f Wel s h archaeol ogy, o ne t ends t o ai m c a u tio u sly


t ow a r d s cas t l es, coal mi nes and canal s, large st ructu re s th a t
d o m i n a t e t he l and s cape, b ut over the past 20 y ear s o r so, p re h is tor ic
r o ck -a rt ha s s t ak ed i t s cl aim am ong th is grou p an d ente re d i nto
m a in st r e a m ar chaeol og y.

It is estimated t h a t o v e r 8 0 0 0 s i t e s e x i s t i n u p l o a d e d o n t o t h e i n t e r n e t . Based on
England and S c o t l a n d , o c c u p y i n g m a i n l y t h e t h o u s a n d s o f h i t s o n t h i s site, it was
the upland a r e a s o f C o u n t y D u r h a m , c l e a r t h a t e x p e r t s a s w e l l a s the general
Cumbria, Der b y s h i r e , N o r t h u m b e r l a n d , p u b l i c w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e se enigmatic
Staffordshire a n d Yo r k s h i r e , a n d t h e prehistoric carved symbols. The pilot
Central southe r n a n d w e s t e r n c o u n t i e s p r o j e c t w a s l a t e r e x t e n d e d to County
of Scotland. N e a r l y a l l o f t h e s e s i t e s Durham.
are statutory- p r o t e c t e d , d e s i g n a t e d a s
Scheduled Mon u m e n t s . P i o n e e r i n g w o r k T h e r e a r e m a n y s t y l i s t i c similarities
in northern B r i t a i n i n i t i a l l y b y A . W. B . b e t w e e n t h e r o c k - a r t a s s e mblages of
Morris and late r b y S t a n B e c k e n s al l l e d t o Wa l e s a n d N o r t h e r n B r i t a i n, much of
English Herita g e ’s R o c k - a r t p i l o t p r o j e c t i t d a t i n g t o t h e N e o l i t h i c and Bronze
which was set- u p i n 1 9 9 8 . A g e a n d c o m p r i s i n g m a i n ly multiple
c a r v e d a b s t r a c t m o t i f s s u c h a s concentric
As a result of th i s a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g r e p o r t , c i r c l e s , c u p m a r k s , c u p - a n d - r i ngs, spirals
an online, inte r a c t i v e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w a s a n d z i g z a g l i n e s . I n b o t h a r e as there are
set up by the U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w c a s t l e i n e x a m p l e s o f r o c k - a r t , m a i n l y cupmarks,
2004 which f i e l d - w a l k e d , r e c o r d e d a n d t h a t o c c u r o n r o c k - o u t c r o p p i ngs close to
detailed 1200 s i t e s i n N o r t h u m b e r l a n d . m o n u m e n t s . T h e m a i n d i ff e r e nces between
The results fr o m t h i s p r o j e c t w e r e l a t e r t h e t w o l i e i n p r o v e n a n c e a n d context.

A bove: t ra cin g th e p e c k e d d e s i g n of t h e E s g ob s to n e o n to clea r film .
R i ght : t he com pl ex de c o r at i o n of s t o ne 2 2 w it h i n th e c h am b er o f Ba rclo d iad y G awres, Ang lese y.

past horizons 20
R o c k-ar t Tradition

21 past horizons
A l t h o u g h t h e r e are limited number of rock-art earlier fieldwork, the majority of t h e r o c k - a r t
s i t e s i n Wa l e s , many are listed on the regional sites appear to be located within a 1 5 - 2 0 m i l e
H i s t o r i c E n v i r o nment Records (HERs ) and the corridor of the coast. This distrib u t i o n p a t t e r n
C A R N ( C o r e Archaeological Record iNdex ) was also recorded in South Wal e s , a g a i n o n
d a t a b a s e m a n a ged by the Royal Commission or close to Neolithic burial-ritua l m o n u m e n t s
o n t h e A n c i e n t and Historical Monuments of that lie close to the sea.
Wa l es , a s w e l l as a site index held by CADW,
t h e n a t i o n a l h e ritage organisation for Wales. The initial reconnaissance tea m i n N o r t h
H o w e v e r, t h e r e has been no move to replicate Wales yielded a number of s i g n i f i c a n t
t h e s u c c e s s o f the English Heritage rock-art discoveries and as a result the te a m f o u n d e d
p i l o t p r o j e c t h e re. Despite the present lack of the Anglesey Rock-art Project ( A R A P ) i n
r e g i o n a l g o v e r nment enthusiasm, there have 2005. The recording techniques e m p l o y e d a t
b e e n a n u m b e r of important studies which have each site included tried-and-tes t e d m e t h o d s
i d e n t i f i e d a n d dated a regional style. John such as high-resolution digital p h o t o g r a p h y
S h a r k e y, a u t h o r and researcher into Celtic working alongside controlled ligh t i n g , u s u a l l y
a n c i e n t h i s t o r y, has produced an informative photographed during darkness. I n a d d i t i o n ,
g a z e t t e e r s u p p orted by cartograph ic grid- conventional tracing with mark e r- p e n o n t o
r e f e re n c i n g a n d extensive discussion on the acetate sheets was also used. T h i s m u l t i -
m o r e o b v i o u s s ites.* method approach ensured the high e s t p o s s i b l e
recording standards and allow e d d e t a i l e d
P r i o r t o 2 0 0 5 , the number of sites recorded cross-referencing for the final pl a n / i m a g e .
n u m b e r e d a r o u nd 45. At this time, a team
d i r e c t e d b y myself and Adam Stanford ARAP, funded by a number of s o u r c e s , h a s
( A r c h a e o l o g y Safaris) conducted a series of over the past five years made some s p e c t a c u l a r
f i e l d s u r v e y s around a number of Neolithic discoveries, two of which are lo c a t e d i n a n d
b u r i a l - r i t u a l m onuments in Anglesey, the Llyn around the Late Neolithic passag e g r a v e s o f
P e n i n s u l a a n d the coastal landscape around Barclodiad y Gawres and Bryn C e l l i D d u .
H a r l e c h , N o r t h Wales. Based on this and At Barclodiad y Gawres megali t h i c a r t w a s
found within the chamber area t h a t i n c l u d e d
additional cupmarks, geometric m o t i f s a n d
spirals on several upright stones. T h e s e m o t i f s
being so finely pecked, escape d d i s c o v e r y
when the site was excavated dur i n g t h e e a r l y
1950s by Glyn Daniel and Terre n c e P o w e l l .
Originally recorded by Forde-Jo h n s o n f r o m
Liverpool Museum who accom p a n i e d t h e
Daniel and Powell excavation i n 1 9 5 2 , t h e
art from these and four other s t o n e s f a c e d
inwards into the central gallery a r e a o f t h e
chamber. The excavation reveale d t h a t w i t h i n
the central part of the chamber w a s a h e a r t h .
The light from this and torches w o u l d h a v e
been the only sources of illumin a t i o n d u r i n g
this period when the remains of th e d e a d w e r e
being interred. Rock-art here an d e l s e w h e r e
within the Neolithic world would h a v e p l a y e d
a significant role between the a r t i s t , t h e
funeral entourage and the dead.

At Bryn Celli Ddu a possible ri t u a l p i t w a s


discovered along with the Pa t t e r n S t o n e ,
Cupma r k s o n t o p o f t h e ro c k o u t c ro p t o t h e w est of Bryn
its decoration comprising a c o n t i n u o u s
Celli D d u , A n g l e s e y. curvilinear carved line covered a l l t h e s i d e s .

past horizons 22
U p u n t i l 2 0 0 5 i t was considered that this and a heritage. Away from rock-art for t h e m o m e n t ,
s m a l l s p i r a l c a rving within the chamber were the sizable portable art assem b l a g e t h a t
t h e o n l y r o c k - a rt present However, rock-art in includes decorated and pierced s h e l l , i v o r y

T he B ach wen b ur ia l c h am b e r w i t h at l e as t 110 c up m ark s o n to p o f th e ca p sto ne .

t h e f o r m o f u p t o 30 cupmarks was found on a and stone that dates to our earlies t i n h a b i t a n t s


l a rg e r o c k - o u t c rop around 50 metres west of tells archaeologists that art was a n e s s e n t i a l
t h e m o n u m e n t b y the ARAP. The team deduced communicator, a device to express one’s artistic
t h a t t h e r o c k - o utcrop, a nearby standing stone ability and emotions. Wales’s l i m i t e d b u t
a n d B r y n C e l l i Ddu passage grave formed significant rock-art, usually ass o c i a t e d w i t h
p a r t o f a r i t u a l landscape. These two major burial-ritual sites, merely reflects t h i s a r t i s t i c
d i s c o v e r i e s p r ompted further fieldwork on endeavour and things that were i m p o r t a n t t o
o t h e r s i t e s i n Anglesey and North Wales our ancestors around 150 generat i o n s a g o .
i n c l u d i n g t h e d ouble chambered burial-ritual
m o n u m e n t D y ffryn Ardudwy, near Harlech, In early 2009, following further d i s c o v e r i e s
w h e re f a i n t m egalithic art was discovered, in North and South Wales, AR A P d e c i d e d
l o c a t e d w i t h i n the facade of the western to set up the Welsh Rock-art O rg a n i s a t i o n
c h a m b e r. T h e art comprised cupmarks and a (WRAO) and in the same year a p p l i e d t o
s e r i e s o f c h e v r ons and/or geometric forms. join the International Federation o f R o c k A r t
Organisations (IFRAO). This m o v e n o t o n l y
B a s ed o n o u r knowledge of the regional provided access to further fund i n g , i t a l s o
prehistoric r o c k-art traditions elsewhere in allowed the team to officially re g i s t e r Wa l e s
Britain, it i s becoming increasing ly clear within the global rock-art commu n i t y.
t h a t Wa l e s h a s a unique prehistoric artistic 
23 past horizons
D u r i n g t h e s u m mer of 2009, ARAP assembled west Pembrokeshire in 2005, and o n a m o b i l i a r y
a t e a m a t L l w ydiarth Esgob Farm in eastern rock-art panel (comprising two c u p m a r k s ) ,
A n g l e s e y w h e r e a large boulder stands in the found at Dan-y-Garn (Mynachl o g - D d u ) , o n
g a r d e n , c o m p l e te with a unique series of mainly the Preseli Mountains in August 2 0 0 2 .
c u r v i l i n e a r c a rved designs. Although this
s t o n e h a d b e e n moved by a local antiquarian Located near Newport is a par t i a l l y - b u r i e d
t o i t s p r e s e n t position during the early part capstone, known locally as the Tr e f a e l S t o n e .
o f t h e 2 0 t h c e ntury and drew the attention On the upper face of this stone a r e c a r v e d a t
o f s e v e r a l a r c haeologists during the 1970s, least forty cupmarks, and we hope t o e x c a v a t e
i t h a d n e v e r been systematically r ecorded. in order to reveal the full extent o f t h i s r o c k -
T h e t e a m , c o m prising students from Bristol art panel. The proposed excav a t i o n o f t h e
a n d U n i v e r s i t y College Dublin along with buried section of this enormou s s t o n e w i l l
s e a s o n e d r o c k -art specialists, recorded the hopefully take place in Septem b e r / O c t o b e r
r o c k - a r t u s i n g a variety of methods. 2010.

F o l l o w i n g a s u ccessful application to IFRAO, By early 2010, WRAO had over 1 2 0 m e m b e r s


A R A P w i l l c o n tinue their fieldwork in South from all corners of Wales an d E n g l a n d ,
We s t Wa l e s . T his shift in regional research reinforcing the popularity of th i s b r a n c h o f
i s p a r t l y t h e result of the discovery of a archaeology, and it is hoped that b y m i d 2 0 1 0
c u p - a n d - r i n g a nd cupmarks on the top of a we will have a fully-interactive w e b s i t e u p
m a s s i v e c a p s t o ne belonging to the megalithic and running. As for fieldwork, t h e h u n t g o e s
c h a m b e r e d m o nument of Garn Turne in north- on!
D r. G e o rg e N a s h is a part-time lecturer and visiting fellow at the Department of A rc h a e o l o g y
a n d A n t h ro p o l o gy, University of Bristol, and visiting associate professor at the S p i r u H a re t
U n i v e r s i t y, R o mania. George’s present projects include Valcamonica in northern I t a l y, l o o k i n g
a t I ro n A g e h o use carvings, a landscape assessment within the eastern sector o f R h o s s i l i
D o w n , S o u t h Wales, and representative rock-art in the Channel Islands.

W R AO h o l d s field-schools and events throughout the year. For more infor m at i o n o n


j o i n i n g t h e i r ac tivities view the website at http://w w w.rock-ar t-in-wales.co. uk

Key Sources

Beckensall, S., British Prehistoric Rock-art, The History Press (2nd Edition), (2002).

Darvill, T. & Wainwright, G., ‘A cup-marked stone from Dan-y-garn, Mynachlog-Ddu, Pembrokeshire, and the
prehistoric rock ar t from Wales’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 69 (2003), pp. 253-64.

Lynch, F., Prehistoric Anglesey: the Archaeology of the Island to the Roman Conquest , Anglesey Antiquarian
Society (1970).

Mazel, A, Nash, G.H. & Waddington, C. (eds.), Art as Metaphor: The Prehistoric Rock-art of Britain, Oxford:
Archaeopress (200 7).

Nash, G.H., Brook , C., George, A., Hudson, D., McQueen, E., Parker, C., Stanford, A., Smith, A., Swann, J. &
Waite, L., ‘Notes on newly discovered rock art on and around Neolithic burial chambers in Wales’, Archaeology
in Wales (2005), Vol. 45, pp. 11-16.

Nash, G.H. & Stanford, A., ‘New megalithic art within the Neolithic passage grave of Barclodiad y Gawes,
Anglesey, North Wales’, Rock Art Research (2007), Vol. 24. No. 2, pp. 257-260.

Nash, G.H. & Stanford, A., ‘New megalithic art at the Neolithic chambered monument of Dy ffryn Ardudwy,
north Wales’, Rock Art Research (2009), Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 101-5.

* Sharkey, J., The Meeting of the Tracks: Rock Art in Ancient Wales. Llanrwst: Gwasg Carreg Gwalch (2004).

Shee Twohig. E., The Megalithic Art of Western Europe, Oxford: Clarendon Press (1981).

past horizons 24
Profile G eorge Nash
Dr. George N a s h G e o rg e h a s b e e n a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t f o r 2 0
years and ha s u n d e r t a k e n e x t e n s i v e f i e l d w o r k o n p r e h i s t o r i c r o c k - a r t a n d
mobiliary ar t i n D e n m a r k , I n d o n e s i a , N o r w a y S p a i n a n d S w e d e n . H e h a s
directed exc a v a t i o n s a t t h e L a H o u g u e B i e p a s s a g e g r a v e o n J e r s e y, o n e o f
Europe’s larg e s t N e o l i t h i c m o n u m e n t s , a n d a t We s t m i n s t e r H a l l , L o n d o n .
He has also w r i t t e n a n d p r e s e n t e d s e v e r a l p r o g r a m m e s o n E u r o p e a n r o c k -
art and cont e m p o r a r y g r a ff i t i f o r B B C R a d i o 4 .

Yo u r earliest archaeological memory? D o y o u h a v e a h e ro / h e ro i n e ?

G o i ng on a school trip to Stoneheng e b e f o re J o h n H e m m i n g w a y w h o i n 1 9 8 2 i n t ro d u c e d m e t o


t h e site was fenced off – I think I w a s a b o u t p ro p e r a rc h a e o l o g y. I a n H o d d e r f o r h i s s t e r l i n g
e i g h t. I can also remember, following t h e t r i p w o r k o n s o c i a l i s i n g t h e E u ro p e a n N e o l i t h i c
w r i t ing a story about it but mixing d i n o s a u r s i n T h e D o m e s t i c a t i o n o f E u ro p e . C h r i s t o p h e r
w i t h archaeology. The teacher destro y e d m y Ti l l e y o n h i s w o r k i n s o u t h e r n S c a n d i n a v i a ,
m a s terpiece but the seed was sown. a n d Wi l l i a m S t u k e l e y, o f c o u r s e .

D o y ou prefer being up close to the roc k f a c e o r W h a t a rc h a e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r y w o u l d y o u l i k e


s i t t i ng at the computer analysing the d a t a ? to make?

T h a nkfully, my job allows me to do bo t h . B u t I w o u l d l i k e t o t r y t o f i n d ro c k - a r t s i m i l a r


I m ust admit that I am inspired bein g a t t h e to that found at Chauvet Cave, in southern
c o a l face. As an archaeologist (and I th i n k t h i s F r a n c e . T h e ro c k - a r t w o u l d h a v e t o b e d a t a b l e ,
a p p l ies to us all), we tend to see bey o n d t h e o b v i o u s l y m a d e f ro m o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s u c h a s
f r a g mentary site and the artefact. Wi t h ro c k - c h a rc o a l . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y, i t w o u l d h a v e t o
a r t I can sometimes see the ancient a r t i s t a n d p re d a t e C h a u v e t a n d c o n t a i n i m a g e s t h a t w o u l d
h i s or her audi ence, something that d o e s n o t ro c k t h e w o r l d .
c o m e from looking at a computer.
I n d i a n a J o n e s o r M a rc u s B ro d y ?
Yo u r top three essential items for trav e l ?
N e i t h e r. M a r g a re t R u t h e r f o r d a s h i s t o r i a n
G o o d health, a camera that wor k s w i t h P ro f e s s o r H a t t o n - J o n e s i n t h e E a l i n g C o m e d y
k n o wledge of how to use it, and a blood y d e c e n t Passport to Pimlico (1949).
m a p with dots marking the sites.
W h a t w o u l d y o u d o w i t h a n u n l i mi t e d b u d g e t ?
D o y ou have a favourite memory of a c o u n t r y
y o u have been to? I w o u l d t r y t o f u n d a n u m b e r o f p ro j e c t s t h a t
have been on the back-burner for many years
B y far the most evocative place wa s J e r s e y including expeditions to Brazil and Chile with
w h e re I cut my archaeological teeth on a l a r g e p e o p l e w h o I re s p e c t a n d c a n w o r k w i t h .
N e o l ithic passage grave site of La Hou g u e B i e .
T h e memories of digging in absolutely a t ro c i o u s W h e re d o y o u f e e l m o s t a t p e a c e ?
w e a t her conditions, dealing with the ar ro g a n c e
o f i s land politics and Friday nights dow n a t t h e Drinking a nice cool beer at 2000m above the
B l u e Note Club in St. Helier with a g re a t a n d Va l c a m o n i c a Va l l e y i n N o r t h e r n I t a l y t a l k i n g
l o y a l team will last forever. a b o u t f o o d a n d f o o t b a l l , a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y ro c k -
art.
W h a t music do you listen to music w h i l e y o u
w o r k? I f y o u w e re n o t a n a rc h a e o l o g i s t, w h a t w o u l d
you be?
A t t he moment, The Pirates of Penz a n c e b y
G i l b ert & Sullivan (farty old music) ; F o c u s , Wi t h m y l a c k o f t a c t , t e n d e n c y t o g o s s i p , a b i l i t y
L i v e at the Rainbow (old farty mus i c ) ; T h e to spend the public purse on garden gnomes, and
M a g ic Numbers (new farty music); Th e A rc t i c staying up all hours, a politician of course!
M o n keys (farty in-your-face music).

25 past horizons
A DIG G E R ’S L I F E
Surf i n g f o r b a r r o w d i t c h e s o n waves
of w e t c l a y, f i s h i n g f o r R o m e i n urban
pudd l e s , c h e w i n g t h e m e t a p h y sical in
the m o n u m e n t a l , c r a w l i n g d e e p below
grou n d i n s e a r c h o f l i g h t , n e g otiating
with t h e d e a d o r j u g g l i n g with
afte r l i v e s . . . S i C l e g g e t t ( a . k . a Troll)
is a f i e l d a rc h a e o l o g i s t a n d l o ves it.

Tumbling w i t h Al i ce
Quite how I go t h e r e i s a n o t h e r s t o r y. I s p e n t a l m o s t h a l f m y l i f e g r o w i ng up on the
rocky island o f C y p r u s w h e r e I i n v e s t e d m o s t o f t h e d a y s a l l o t t e d t o m e c hasing goats
in the scorche d w i l d e r n e s s a n d a t t e m p t i n g t o b r e a t h e u n d e r w a t e r. B u r n t to a crisp,
salty, carefree , k e b a b - i n f u s e d a n d s m e l l i n g o f g o a t , m y f o r m a t i v e y e a r s w ere a blur of
infinite blue sk i e s , a z u r e s e a s a n d j a s m i n e a n d c i t r u s b r e e z e s .
N o w onder then, that I really had no inte r e s t i n a n I n J u l y o f t h i s y e a r I w i l l b e c e l e b r a t i n g 11 y e a r s
e d u c ation. School ended at midday when t h e s u n as a full-time professional field archaeologist, and
w a s at its fiercest so the homework cam e a p o o r through the next few editions of Past Horizons I
s e c o nd to a teenage utopia of a Lord of t h e F l i e s would love to share some of the amazing moments
l i f e s tyle and the lure of powerful motorc y c l e s o n I have been lucky enough to experience during
e n d l ess un-policed roads. almost 70 field projects across the UK, in Cyprus
and the Republic of Ireland.
E p i p hany and irony...together in perfect ha r m o n y. . .
b l a h blah blah. My failure to hand in on e s i n g l e An anthropologist once said that field archaeologists
p i e c e of history homework for an entire y e a r c a m e a r e s i m i l a r t o s c e n e - o f - c r i m e o ff i c e r s . T h e
b a c k to haunt me. The end-of-term vis i t t o t h e d i ff e r e n c e , o f c o u r s e , i s t h a t o u r ‘ c r i m e s c e n e s ’
a m a z ing site of Neolithic Khirokitia m a d e t h i s have been left out in the rain, buried under tons of
f e r a l beach bum actually wish for the f i r s t t i m e muck or built upon over thousands of years. For
t h a t he had done some school work. T h e 7 0 0 0 me, archaeology is all about human behavioural
B C s ite consisting of successive village s n e s t l e d d y n a m i c s a n d e x c a v a t i o n o ff e r s a d e l i c i o u s f o u r-
i n t h e foothills of the mountains had c a p t u r e d dimensional conundrum, ripe for the unpicking
m y i magination. That epiphany had b e e n t h e thereof. The mission of a field archaeologist is, by
u n l i k ely nursery of an unwitting arch a e o l o g i s t default, to forensically deconstruct sequences of
w h o , ironically to this day, maintains m a n y o f e v e n t s , c h a n g e s a n d p h a s e s t h r o u g h ti m e a n d s p a c e .
h i s childhood activities but with n o t i c e a b l y This systematic, scientific recovery and recording
f e w e r goats and infinitely more inhibi t i v e r i s k of raw data becomes the engine that drives critical
a s s e ssments. a n a l y s i s a n d , u l t i m a t e l y, t h e n a r r a t i v e t h r o u g h

The Ne o l i t h i c s e t t l e m e n t o f K h i ro k i t i a i s s i t ua te d on the slop e of a hill in the valley of the Maroni R iver towards the southern
coast o f Cy p r u s, a b o u t s i x k i l o m e t re s f ro m t h e s e a.

past horizons 26
w h i c h we characterise our collective past , p r e s e n t sacred spaces? Or hold the vessel through which
a n d f uture. they fed, nurtured and raised their children?
Recently I worked in the fading years of the late
T h e misleading and unfortunate percep t i o n t h a t Stone Age and into the Bronze Age. I spent my
a r c h a eology is all about the acquisition o f s h i n y d a y s t r y i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r c o n ce p t s o f d e a t h ,
t h i n g s, or the “oldest ever”, or the “bi g g e s t o r burial, afterlives and their allocation of meaning
r i c h e st ever” for me dilutes a beautiful e n d e a v o u r within the landscape. In coming weeks I will
a n d , frankly, mis ses the entire point. b e z a p p i n g f o r w a r d s i n t o t h e M e di a e v a l p e r i o d
and getting to grips with their concepts of land
For a seemingly advanced and ultra-modern society, m a n a g e m e n t a n d s e t t l e m e n t s t r a t e g i e s . S o , t h a t ’s
w e a re still hostages to the most funda m e n t a l l y m y l i t t l e u n i v e r s e . N o b a t t l e w i t h t h e Ti m e L o r d s
p r i m itive of behaviours. Chimps vying to o c c u p y o r s a v i n g E a r t h f r o m t h e B o rg ; j u s t m y o w n t i m e
t h e highest branch in the canopy are n o l e s s machine and my own rabbit hole.
p r i m itive and no less sophisticated th a n t h o s e
o f u s desperate to play the game of oste n t a t i o u s I n m y n e x t o ff e r i n g f o r P a s t H o r i z o n s I w i l l o p e n
d i s p l ay and conspicuous consumption t h r o u g h with the world of afterlives, the visibility of
f o l l o wing the B org-like conformity of f a s h i o n children and young adults in the Bronze Age, and
o r t h e smoke-screens of luxury cars. It i s s a d l y a healthy dose of meaning.
t h r o ugh such conditioned eyes that arc h a e o l o g y
i s o f ten viewed.
S o N e o. . . yo u t a ke t h e
F o r a child, a trip to a museum can be a k i n t o re d p i l l a n d yo u g o b a c k
e n t e r ing Narnia where unimaginable t r e a s u r e s to wa tc h i n g Ti m e Te a m
p o u n ce from every glass display case. ‘ J u s t s o ’ a n d n o t h i n g c h a n g e s.
s t o r i es relating to kings, great warriors a n d t h e i r Yo u t a ke t h e b l u e p i l l
s h i n y things bombard their senses until in e v i t a b l e a n d I s h ow yo u j u s t h ow
b o r e dom takes over and the tantrums only s u b s i d e d e e p t h e ra b b i t h o l e
w h e n hard cash changes hands in the gift s h o p . A n d g o e s. . .
y e t , behind the scenes in the echoing laby r i n t h i n e
c o r r i dors of the museum, there lies sle e p i n g a n
i n c r e dible cornu copia of meaning; sto r e h o u s e s
b u r s t ing at the seams with fragmentary e c h o e s
o f p e ople’s lives. A simple and unassumi n g p i e c e
o f p ot or a humble prehistoric flint plac e d i n t h e
h a n d s of a child will open the rabbit h o l e a n d
a c c o mpanied by narrative, these una s s u m i n g
e c h o es will entice the child to follow A l i c e a n d
t u m b le into a wonderland of possibilitie s w h e r e
s t r a n ge but oddly familiar worlds banish ‘ j u s t s o ’
s t o r i es forever.

F i e l d archaeologists evict endless moun t a i n s o f


s t u b b orn muck in the searing heat, sidew a y s r a i n ,
h a i l snow and ice, by hand, just to tum b l e w i t h
A l i c e . It is as close to owning your o w n t i m e
m a c h ine as you are ever likely to get. I’ v e n e v e r
q u i t e grown out of the child-like wond e r t h a t I
f e l t when I held echoes of the classical pa s t i n m y
g r u b by hands and tried to imagine the liv e s o f t h e
p e o p le who last used them. What other pr o f e s s i o n
w o u l d allow me to sit on a 6000-year-o l d f l o o r
a n d p rod a hearth? Or crawl through subt e r r a n e a n
p a s s a ges to glimpse people buried at the t i m e t h e
s t o n e s were erect ed at Stonehenge? Or un d e r s t a n d
t h e l i ves of people by reading their burden s e t c h e d
i n t o their bone? Or share in the meaning o f t h e i r
Excavating a Bronze Age barrow in east Kent.
Pic ture: Paul Murray

27 past horizons
Fabr i k a H i l l
Excavating a Hellenistic-Roman Theatre
B y Cra i g B a r ker

I n 3 3 1 B C , while Alexander the Great rested his troops at Tyre (present-day L e b a n o n )


b e f o r e t h e y campaigned further east, he organised a drama festival for the s o l d i e r s
w h e r e l e a d i n g actors from throughout the Greek world were brought to perfo r m . T h e
f e s t i v a l s e r v ed as a means of entertaining his troops, but it was also a reinfor c e m e n t o f
t h e i r i d e n t i t y in a foreign world, for theatre was to become one of the majo r c u l t u r a l
i d e n t i f i e r s o f the Hellenistic koine – the common culture of Hellenism, th a t w o u l d
s pr e a d a c r o s s the eastern Mediterranean in the aftermath of Alexander ’s conq u e s t s .

A l e x a n d e r ’s festival was sponsor ed by the kings of Cyprus and within de c a d e s t h e


n e w l y - c r e a t ed capital of Cyprus at Nea Paphos would have its own theatre. I t w a s a
s ym b o l o f a changing world. Exc avations there are now revealing fascinatin g i n s i g h t
i n t o a n c i e n t performance, theatre’s impact in the eastern Mediterranean and the c h a n g i n g
a r c h i t e c t u r e of theatres in the Hellenistic and then the Roman worlds.

A n a e r i a l p h o to g ra p h o f t h e ca ve a a n d o rc h e s tra following excavations in 2006.


The C h a ro n i a n t u n n e l i s v i s i b l e i n t h e ce n t re o f the orchestra. Photo graph: B ob M iller

past horizons 28
29 past horizons
A rc h ite c t u ral plan of th e Pa ph os th e a tre sh ow i n g par ts of the s ite exp os ed by the Un ivers it y of Sydney team

T h e a n c i e n t t h e atre is located on the southern walls are identifiable to the nort h o f t h e h i l l


s l o p e o f F a b r i k a Hill in Nea Paphos. Although and are currently subject to inves t i g a t i o n s b y
i t w a s t h e c a p i t al city of Cyprus under firstly a team from the University of Av i g n o n . T h e
t h e P t o l e m i e s and then under the Romans, Australian excavations on the sou t h o f F a b r i k a
P a p h o s w a s a c t ually founded in the late fourth have revealed a theatre that was c o n s t r u c t e d
c e n t u r y B C b y a local king, Nikokles, who around 300 BC and used as a v e n u e f o r
t o o k a d v a n t a g e of a fine natural harbour and performance and entertainment u n t i l t h e l a t e
s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i on. Its significant position on fourth century AD, when a massiv e e a r t h q u a k e
m a r i t i m e t r a d e routes to and from Alexandria destroyed the structure in 365A D . D e s p i t e
m a d e N e a P a p h os a wealthy city, a description the damage caused by the eart h q u a k e a n d
b o r n e o u t b y t h e rich mosaics of the town and later quarrying and stone-robbi n g a c t i v i t y,
t h e i m p o r t a n t nearby necropolis at the so- the team has been able to identify a t l e a s t f i v e
c a l l ed ‘ To m b s of the Kings’. Today Paphos distinct architectural phases (see p a g e 2 7 ) .
i s a c i t y o f s u c h historical and archaeological
i m p o r t a n c e t h a t the site was inscribed on the The theatre itself is semi-circul a r i n d e s i g n
Wo r ld H e r i t a g e List in 1980. with seven radial stairways and a 2 6 . 5 d e g r e e
rise in the seating (cavea) built a r o u n d t h e
F a b r i k a H i l l i s a natural outcrop repr esenting central orchestra. The architects h a v e c r e a t e d
t h e n o r t h - e a s t e rn corner of the ancient city, massive retaining walls on both t h e e a s t a n d
a n d in d e e d s o m e traces of the Hellenistic city west sides of the cavea to fill u p e a r t h e n

past horizons 30
E xcavating in t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g l i g h t FIVE MA JOR PHASES OF DE VELOPMENT
Archaeological investigations have revealed the following
phases of architectural development, each of which reflected
contemporary changes in performance and theatre architecture.
Hampering the team’s interpretation is the fact that only
fragmentary foundations and limited elements remain from the
actual stage buildings of the theatre, so often evidence has
had to be pieced together from a number of sources. The five
identified architectural phases are:

1. The original Hellenistic construction that took in the late


fourth or early third centuries BC. Obviously most of the
evidence for this Hellenistic structure has been obliterated
by later construction, except for epigraphic evidence in the
form of letters carved into some of the rows of seating. It is
assumed that only the lower levels of the theatre’s seating were
used, and that the stage was a simple wooden structure.

2. A major Alexandrian renovation occurred in the middle of


the second century BC, with a new stage building constructed
from limestone with Alexandrian-inspired elements, some of
which survive. A Charonian tunnel (a tunnel for actors to move
undetected from the stage building underneath the orchestra)
was constructed and used for a number of centuries before
being filled-in.

3. An Augustan remodelling takes place following an earthquake


known to have struck Paphos in c. 15 BC. The western analemma
(or support) wall appears to have been rebuilt following the
quake.

4. The major phase of architectural remodelling is under the


Antonines in the middle of the second century AD, when the
theatre is expanded. The changes were commemorated in a
major inscription on the architrave that stretched to either
side of the central door. This marble inscription thanking the
emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, and mentioning
a number of features of the newly-restored theatre, has survived
in two pieces and is now displayed in the Paphos District
Archaeological Museum. It would have been over 12 metres
in length when intact. The stage building itself was now two
storeys high and clad with an imported marble veneer. The
building would have been decorated with a series of columns
with Corinthian capitals made from
Prokonnesian marble imported from
Anatolia, and a second series of spirally
fluted columns. A line of water-pipes
behind the stage foundations would
have been used to feed sprinklers or
water fountains spraying water onto the
marble pavement of the orchestra. The
parodoi (ceremonial entrances) were also
remodelled and for the first time were
covered by vaulting, a contemporary
standard Roman practice. The passages
were decorated with fresco decoration, Spirally fluted column
fragments of which survive. fragment

5. The final alteration occurred in the middle of the third


century AD and involved converting the orchestra for combat
and water spectacles. The marble pavement was removed and
replaced with a pink-coloured waterproof cement, while a
barrier wall was constructed around the orchestra to separate
the audience from the arena. It was in this phase that the
theatre was destroyed by a massive earthquake of 365 AD.

31 past horizons
e m b a n k m e n t s for level seating. So while
t h e c e n t r a l s e c tion of the theatre’s seating is
c a r v e d d i r e c t l y from bedrock and coated with
f i n e p l a s t e r, t h e seats to the east and west
w e r e l a i d o v e r embankments of soil.

S u c h a c o n s t r uction technique must have


p l a c e d i t f i r m ly between traditional Greek
a n d R o m a n t h eatre styles, and is probably
a l s o i n d i c a t i v e of contemporary Alexandrian
a r c h i t e c t u r a l d evelopments. Over time the
s t r u c t u r e g r e w in size and importance, and at
i t s g r e a t e s t e x t ent under the Antonine Roman
E m p e r o r s o f t h e mid-second century AD, the
t h e a t r e s t r e t c h ed to over 90 metres in length
a n d w o u l d h a v e had a seating capacity for
o v e r 8 0 0 0 s p e c tators.

T h e a r c h i t e c t u ral changes to the structure


i n d i c a t e t h e t h eatre of Nea Paphos underwent
c h a n g e s t y p i c al of many ancient theatres
i n l o n g u s e . In its lifespan, it went from
b e i n g a r e l a t i vely standard Eastern theatre
t h a t e m p h a s i z ed its links with Ptolemaic
A l e xa n d r i a , t o one that under the A ntonines Excavating a Corinthian column from the theatre’s A ntonine stage
r e f l e c t e d t h e g l ory of central Rome, to one that
w a s i n t u r n m o dified in the mid-third century After its destruction much of the m a r b l e a n d
f o r m o r e l o c a l ised concerns such as water other architectural features of the t h e a t r e w e r e
s p e c t a c l e s a n d contests. It is a remarkable robbed for reuse elsewhere in N e a P a p h o s ,
r e f l e c t i o n o f c h anges in tastes of performance particularly at the nearby Chr y s o p o l i t i s s a
a n d e n t e r t a i n m ent over the centuries. basilica. Considerable time ha s b e e n t a k e n

The t wo s u r v i v i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h e A n to n i n e p e r i o d marble inscription honouring A ntoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius for the mid-seco
thresh o l d b l o c k f ro m t h e we s te r n p a ro d o s o n to ? the orchestra in the final phase of the theatre.

past horizons 32
con tinued up until the seven th ce n t u r y. F i n d s
of the f if th c entur y, includi ng pa in t e d Co p t ic
wa res , indica te the ac tivities of t h e w o rk e rs
mo ving the stone s. Ther e is th e n a p e r i o d
of abs ence o f any evidence of a ct iv i t y a t t h e
s ite unt il the r evival o f eco nomi c p r o s p e r it y
in Paph os at the time of the Cr u sa d e s fr o m
the 12t h cen tury onwards . A c o m p le x o f
bui ldings and cou rtyar ds was ere c te d o v e r th e
ar ea of the fo rmer orche str a and s t a g e b u i ld i n g
and ind ustr ial activity in the fo r m o f g l a s s-
wo rking , met al-workin g and the m a n u f a c t u r e
of glaze d sg raffit o potter y is ap p a r e n t o n o r
nea r the site. Ongoing occupatio n a n d sm a l l-
s cale in dust ry is evid ent thr ou g h o u t p o s t-
me diaeval pe riods too.

On e asp ect of the s ite tha t had b e e n li t tl e


und ers tood u ntil r ecently h owev e r, w a s t h e
r elation ship betwe en th e the atre a n d th e u r b a n
lay out o f the town. As the theatr e wa s l o c a te d
in t he nor th-e aster n qua rter of the a n c i e n t to wn
nea r the city gate, iss ues of publi c a c c e s s a n d
tr affic f low to s urr ound ing p ublic ro a d s wo u ld
hav e been pa ramo unt. Fou r tes t tr e n c h e s i n
the 199 0s re vealed par t of the s u r f a c e o f a
b y t he Aust ral ia n te am to ide ntify sur viving pav ed Roman road dire ctly to the s o u t h o f t h e
a r c h itectural el emen ts o f th e the at re th at the atre runni ng in an e ast- wes t d i re c t i o n , b u t
h a v e been r eus ed e lsewh ere. Mo st of th is it was o nly in the 2009 s eas on t h a t t h e te a m
q u a r r yi ng and stripp ing w ork seem s to ha ve f inally uncov ered a dir ect link b e tw e e n th e
o c c u rred within the fift h ce ntury A D and the atre a nd that r oad.

on d centur y AD re s to ra t i o n o f t h e t h e a t re. Th e l a rg e p i e ce was found by the Australian team in 2002 lying face - down and reused as a

33 past horizons
Excava t i n g t h e o rc h e s t ra i n 2 0 0 6

S i n c e 2 0 0 7 , e x c avations have been focussed on both the eastern and western se c t i o n s o f t h e


t h e so u t h - e a s t e rn corner of the theatre where structure’s interior is now com p l e t e , b u t a
f o u n d a t i o n r e mains were extensive enough large baulk in the centre was le f t i n t a c t f o r
t o a ll o w i n t e r p retation in spite of the heavy the time being and will be remo v e d i n 2 0 1 0 .
d a m a g e i n c u r r ed during the destruction and The purpose of the structure is n o t y e t c l e a r
a b a n d o n m e n t p hase. Additional damage was nor is its precise chronology and r e l a t i o n s h i p
i n f l i c t e d b y a series of post-medieval lime- with the theatre. At first it was t h o u g h t t h e
l i n e d p i t s , w h ich are tentatively associated building was a stoa, but it is more l i k e l y t h a t i t
w i t h t a n n i n g a c tivities, and finally by modern was a fountain house or a water p o o l o f s o m e
pipe trenches. description; this interpretation is s u p p o r t e d b y
its location so close to the ancie n t c i t y g a t e s
M u c h o f t h e e a s tern parodos as well as support and on a major thoroughfare. Th e e ff i c a c y o f
f o u n d a t i o n s f o r the expansion of the theatre the waterproofing of the long s t r u c t u r e w a s
i n t h e A n t o n i n e period have now been cleared. apparent when heavy rain in th e f i n a l d a y s
D i r e c t l y t o t h e south of this part of th e theatre of the 2009 season was retaine d w i t h i n t h e
a s u b s t a n t i a l s tructure was uncovered – one walls.
t h a t f a c e s o n t o the east-west road but on a
d i ff er e n t a l i g nment to the theatre itself. Trenches were opened in the 20 0 9 s e a s o n t o
M e a s u r i n g a l m ost 20 metres in length and the east, west and south of the lo n g s t r u c t u r e .
f i v e m e t r e s i n width and preserved to a height These trenches were positione d t o b e t t e r
o f b e t w e e n 0 . 3 0 and 1.2 metres, the structure understand the exterior areas of t h e s t r u c t u r e
i s s u b s t a n t i a l i n size and design, with thick and particularly its relationship w i t h t h e r o a d
m a s o n r y w a l l s on all four sides, and no to its south. Excavation proved t h a t t h e r o a d
o b v i o u s e n t r y p oint. The interior of the walls reaches the southern edge. Par t o f a s e m i -
i s l i n e d w i t h t h ick plaster which is chamfered circular plaster-lined water trough was revealed
a n d r o u n d e d i n the corners, while the floor of on the south-facing wall of t h e b u i l d i n g ,
t h e e n t i r e s t r u c ture is carpeted with a mosaic enabling people using the roa d t o a c c e s s
o f a g r e y - b r o wnish colour. Excavation of water, and again suggesting the s t r u c t u r e w a s

past horizons 34
Whatever its precise purpose in a n t i q u i t y, t h e
long structure was eventually use d a s a d u m p
for architectural features from t h e t h e a t r e
as it was robbed of its stone-w o r k a f t e r i t s
destruction. Capitals, column f r a g m e n t s ,
niches, cornices and other a r c h i t e c t u r a l
elements were recovered by the e x c a v a t o r s ,
giving a much clearer indica t i o n o f t h e
physical appearance of the stage b u i l d i n g t h a n
the remains found at the theatre i t s e l f .

The Australian team will be r e t u r n i n g t o


Paphos in October-November of 2 0 1 0 . I n t h i s
season the team of archaeologi s t s , s t u d e n t s
and volunteers will aim to c o m p l e t e t h e
excavation of the long structure a n d c o n f i r m
its function and chronology. Th e t e a m w i l l
also uncover more of the ancient r o a d i n o r d e r
to gain a greater understanding o f t h e o v e r a l l
layout of the north-eastern qu a r t e r o f t h e
ancient city of Nea Paphos.

Th e U n i ve r s i t y o f Syd n e y h a ve b e e n wo r k i n g a t
Fa b r i ka H i l l u n d e r t h e a u s p i ce s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t
o f A n t i q u i t i e s o f t h e R e p u b l i c o f Cy p r u s, s i n ce
a w a t e r f a c i l i t y. The western trench revealed 1995. Th e p roj e c t wo r k s u n d e r t h e d i re c t i o n
a g e n t l e s l o p i ng pathway leading from the o f E m e r i t u s Pro f e s s o r J . R . G re e n , D r S m a d a r
r o a d u p t o a n e ntrance in the eastern parodos, G a b r i e l i a n d D r C ra i g B a r ke r o f t h e U n i ve r s i t y o f
p r o v i d i n g a m a jor southern entrance into the Syd n e y, w i t h re ce n t s u p p o r t f ro m t h e Au s t ra l i a n
t h e a t r e . A l t h ough badly damaged, enough A rc h a e o l o g i ca l I n s t i t u te a t At h e n s. I n t h e f i f te e n
t r a c es r e m a i n t o suggest that a mosaic floor ye a r s o f e xca va t i o n s s t u d e n t s f ro m Au s t ra l i a a n d
c o v e r e d m o s t o f the entranceway. Ex cavation o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e wo r l d, a n d hu n d re d s m o re n o n -
t o t h e e a s t o f t he structure was halted due to t ra i n e d vo l u n te e r s h a ve p a r t i c i p a te d i n t h e p roj e c t
wo r k i n g a s e xca va to r s, s i te re co rd e r s, a s s i s t a n t s to
r a i n i n t h e 2 0 0 9 season but work will continue
s p e c i a l i s t s a n d a my r i a d o f o t h e r t a s k s.
i n t h e a r e a i n t he future.

G et I nvolve d
The Universit y of Sydney ’s archaeological mission to Paphos has positions
available for the 2010 season for both students (cur rent or ver y recent graduates of
archaeology) and for contr ibuting volunteers (interested members of the public),
and is tak ing general expressions of interest for its 2011 season. Cur rent wor k will
take place on the R oman road to the south of the theatre as well as assisting the
specialists with final repor t preparation for the first volume of publication.

Costs:
Students: $1300AUD plus air fare (dig house accommodation, food on wor k days,
training and guided tours of near by sites).
Volunteers: $3000AUD plus air fare (hotel accommodation, food on wor k days,
training and guided tours).

Dates
Student team: 2 O c tober-7 November 2010
Volunteer team: 9 O c tober-7 November 2010

Visit website for more details: http://w w w.paphostheatre.com

35 past horizons
By Steve B u r m a n
The Vézère Valley is a dramatic and beautiful area in southwest France
containing 147 known prehistoric sites and 25 decorated caves dating
from the Palaeolithic. When early modern humans inhabited these caves
35,000 years ago they were following herds of bison, horse and other
large game animals, and in an explosion of creativity, they painted and
carved their masterpieces inside the caves and rock-shelters that exist
within the massive limestone cliffs. 

The Vé zè re r i ve r a s i t p a s s e s t h e M a d e l e i n e c l i f f s

past horizons 36
D i sc ov er
the Vé zè re Va l l e y

Credit: Steven House - w w w.houselightgaller y.com

37 past horizons
mind-boggling complexity. Only s i x v i s i t o r s
at a time are allowed here, but th i s e n a b l e s a
more personal interaction with th e a r t .

Nine kilometres to the north of L e s E y z i e s


is Rouffignac, sometimes referr e d t o a s t h e
Cave of 100 Mammoths, though t h e c u r r e n t
count is 158. The site also contai n s i m a g e s o f
wild horses, ibex, bison and wo o l l y r h i n o s .
Although the cave was described i n 1 5 7 5 b y
French writer François de Bellef o r e s t h e d i d
not mention any cave-art, and it w a s o n l y i n
1956 that any images were disc o v e r e d . T h e
10 kilometres of tunnels makes R o u ff i g n a c
Mono c h ro m a t i c l i n e d ra w i n g s a t R o u f f i g n a c one of the largest cave network s i n E u r o p e
and visitors travel inside by elec t r i c t r a i n . A
L a s c a u x , n e a r Montignac, is the most famous variety of artistic techniques a r e e m p l o y e d
o f t h e s e c a v e - art sites. It was disco vered in here including monochromatic li n e d r a w i n g s ,
1 9 4 0 b y f o u r teenagers and their dog who tectiform (thought to represent P a l a e o l i t h i c
l i t e r a l l y f e l l i n to the Hall of the B ulls and
i n t h e l i g h t o f a makeshift lamp they saw
h u g e w i l d a u r ochs up to five metr es long,
b i s o n , c o w s , h orses, deer, chamois and what
t h e y t h o u g h t w as a ‘unicorn’ (albeit with two
h o r n s ) . O v e r a million people visited Lascaux
a f t e r i t s d i s c o very but the authorities were
f o r c e d t o c l o s e it in 1963 due to the carbon
d i o x i d e d a m a g e to the paintings. In 1983, a
f a c s i m i l e , L a s caux II, opened, containing
i n c r e d i b l y a c c u rate copies of 90 per cent of
t h e o r i g i n a l a r t work.

Tw e n t y k i l o m etres to the southwest of


M o n t i g n a c i s t h e village of Les Eyzies, which
i s s u r r o u n d e d b y several famous painted caves.
F o n t - d e - G a u m e , is a 10 minute walk u p a steep
c l i ff p a t h a n d i s the only polychromatic Ice-
A g e c a v e s t i l l open to the public. For obvious
c o n s e r v a t i o n r e asons visits are limited by time
a n d b y n u m b e r but the experience is worth the
t r e k . H u g e i m a ges of bison cover o ne wall,
t h e i r m u s c l e s rippling over the contours of
t h e r o c k a n d o n another wall, one reindeer
a p p e a r s t o b e l i cking another. At the furthest
r e a c h e s o f t h i s cave another six bison were
e x p o s e d d u r i n g excavations in the 1960s, their
c o l o u r s a s f r e s h as when originally painted
1 5 , 0 0 0 y e a r s a go.

O n t h e o t h e r s i d e of the hill is Les Combarelles,


a s m a l l e r, m o r e intimate cave where the lure
i s t h e e n g r a v i ngs of over 600 animals and
h u m a n f i g u r e s , overlying each other in often
Bull from Lascaux II photo graph: D avid Mar tin

past horizons 38
d w e ll i n g s ) a n d finger fluting in the soft
c l a y.

A r c h a e o l o g i s t s have been excavating the


r e m a i n s o f t h e s e hunter gatherers in the Vézère
Va l l e y f o r t h e last 150 years at sites such as
L e M o u s t i e r ( t he type-site of the Mousterian
N e a n d e r t h a l c u lture) and La Madeleine which
g a v e i t s n a m e t o the Magdalenian period. At
A b r i d e C r ô - Magnon (Crô-Magnon Cave), Lick ing reindeer, Font de G aume
a s k e l e t o n w a s recovered in 1868 which
p r o v i d e d t h e f irst scientific description of
E a r l y M o d e r n Humans and was subsequently
d a t e d t o a r o u n d 28,000 BP.

T h e N a t i o n a l Museum of Prehistory set into


A bou t
Steve Bur man of Caves and Ca st l es i s
t h e c l i ff a b o v e Les Eyzies is one of the best
a histor ian, guide and pro fe ss i o n a l
p l a c e s i n t h e w o rld to experience these various archaeol ogist l iving in France. H i s p e r s o n al
c u l t u r e s a n d p l ace the surrounding sites into guided tours offer the visitor a deep er i n s i g ht
t h e i r c o n t e x t . Visit the Vézère Valley if you into the compl ex sites of the Vézè re Va ll ey.
h a v e t h e c h a n ce, it is a unique experience
a n d o n e w h e r e its outstanding natural beauty
i s m a t c h e d o n l y by the remarkable legacy of Email: cavesandcastl es@gm ail.com
i t s P a l a e o l i t h i c cave-art. Website: http://w w w.cavesandcas t le s. com

Cave Art site


Map created from OpenStreetMap
Montignac
Lascaux II
Lascaux
Rouffignac

y
alle
V
re
é zè
V
Paris
Le Moustier
Roque St Christophe
FRANCE

Limoges
La Madeleine
Bordeaux

Marseille

Abri du Co-Magnon Les Combarelles


Grotte des Eyzies
Les Eyzies des Tayac Font de Gaume

39 past horizons

Blo ck H w i t h t h e H u n g a te ro a d to t h e l e f t a l o n g which sto o d a sequence of buildings ranging from Vik ing struc tures to 19th centur y
Photo g ra p h s : Yo r k A rc h a e o l o g i ca l Tr u s t

past horizons 40
H ung ate
the s tor y so f ar...
T
he largest excavation ever to
take place in the City of York,
northeast England, has now
passed its half way point.

York Archaeological Trust (YAT) has


done much more than uncover the
buried history of Hungate; it has also
brought together local and international
volunteers and students to take part
in this exciting project through DIG
Hungate, which acts as a platform for
training, community involvement and,
most of all, discovery.

Pinner ’s b one, used in


the manufac ture of
metal pins.

Early 20th centur y clay


tobacco pip e. This mo del
was k nown as Erin Cutt y,
p opular amongst the many
Irish immigrants and smoked
by b oth men and women.

te n ements.
Mediaeval pilgrim flask .

41 past horizons
A rchae o l o g y L i ve ! 2 0 0 9

H u n g a t e i s p r i marily a commercial excavation and training, and has incorporate d t h i s e t h o s


c o m m i s s i o n e d by Hungate York Regeneration into the overall project design wit h a g r e e m e n t
L i m it e d ( H Y R L). YAT, however, has always from the developer.
h a d a s t r o n g c o mmitment to public engagement
As part of a massive regenera t i o n p r o j e c t ,
Hungate’s decaying 20th century w a r e h o u s e s
and industrial units were demolis h e d t o m a k e
way for a new phase in the area’s 2 0 0 0 y e a r s
of history. Most of the local po p u l a t i o n h a d
been moved to new and better ho u s i n g i n t h e
1930s, but evidence of the 19t h a n d e a r l y
20th century cobbled streets an d t e n e m e n t s
still existed.

Prior to this, the eastern portion o f t h e s i t e


from the 1600s onwards showed a m a s s b u i l d -
up of horticultural soils which m a y p o i n t t o
the presence at that time of o r c h a r d s a n d
gardens. The western portion, a c c o r d i n g t o
records, contained large and o p u l e n t 1 7 t h
Re -use d co r b e l f ro m t h e co rd wa i n e r s g u i l d h a l l.

past horizons 42
Roman Fortress

Mediaeval City Wall


York Minster

York

Riv
er Ous
e

HUNGATE
+
St. John’s in
site of
the King’s
the Marsh
Fishpool
Foss
YORK River

Coppergate

Castle
& Moat

John Speed’s map of the area, c. 1610

c e n t u r y m e r c hants’ houses. Interestingly, was built around the 1580s w i t h r e - u s e d


n o ar c h a e o l o g i cal traces of them have been masonry from buildings such as t h e C a r m e l i t e
f o u n d . T h i s w as possibly due to a previous friary and the church of St. John i n t h e M a r s h .
u r b a n r e g e n e r a tion scheme in the 18th century These religious establishments w o u l d h a v e
d u e t o i n c r e a s i ng industrialisation. fallen out of use after the Disso l u t i o n o f t h e
Monasteries in the 1530s.
T h e re i s d o c u mentary and map evidence to
s h o w t h a t m e d i aeval Carmelites established a The surviving mediaeval layers sh o w e v i d e n c e
f r i a r y h e r e , b u t although situated in Hungate it of clay extraction and ovens, as w e l l a s o t h e r
w a s o u t s i d e o f the excavation area. However, light rural industries. The river F o s s t o t h e
s o m e t a n g i b l e evidence for this friary may west had been dammed to form a m o a t f o r t h e
e x i s t a m o n g t he foundation stones of the Norman castle. This action cau s e d a m a j o r
l a t e , c o r d w a i ners (shoemakers) guildhall. change in water levels upstrea m , f o r m i n g
D u r i n g t h e p a r t excavation of the guildhall a what became known as the King’s F i s h P o n d .
l i m e s t o n e c o r b el with a gothic carved face was Clearly, this area had mixed for t u n e s d u r i n g
d i s c o v e r e d a n d later dated to the late 13th/ the mediaeval period and parts o f i t w o u l d
e a r l y 1 4 t h c e nturies. It was placed upside have looked decidedly down-at-h e e l . I n d e e d ,
d o w n w i t h t h e face hidden, and once cleaned even the name of the local churc h o f S t . J o h n
o f a l l t h e m o r t a r, traces of original paint work in the Marsh provides an obviou s c l u e a s t o
c o u l d s t i l l b e s een. The cordwainers guildhall the nature of the Hungate landsc a p e .

43 past horizons
2010, and with the cemetery lyin g w i t h i n t h e
Hungate eastern section it is cert a i n t o b e a n
exciting season. Prior evaluation i n t h i s a r e a
has also shown traces of roads a n d p o s s i b l y
even field systems, so the potenti a l o f f i n d i n g
pre-Roman occupation will help t o b u i l d a
clearer picture of the area arou n d t h e r i v e r
Foss.

Part of the allure of archaeology c o m e s f r o m


the forensic piecing together of a s t o r y t e a s e d
out from the artefacts, postholes, f o u n d a t i o n s
and soil. From the start, the Hun g a t e p r o j e c t
opened itself up to public i n v o l v e m e n t ,
combining both professional train i n g w i t h t h e
opportunity for the amateur to g e t i n v o l v e d
and share in this journey of disco v e r y.
Sta ff a n d vo l u n te e r s wa s h i n g f i n d s.
The Hungate Community Trust, f o r e x a m p l e ,
E v e n b e f o r e t h e damming of the Foss took forms one of the main local v o l u n t e e r i n g
p l a c e , H u n g a t e would have been co nsidered groups and consists of people w i t h l i n k s t o
a p e r i p h e r a l z one, and certainly the most the former Hungate community o r t h o s e w h o
r e c e n t p h a s e o f excavation of Viking activity have an interest in building a new c o m m u n i t y.
s e e m s t o s u p port this. A line of sunken Supervised by Dr. Jon Kenny, t h e G r e a t e r
w o o d e n b u i l d i n gs spaced at regular intervals York community archaeologist , t h e y a r e
o f a r o u n d f i v e or 10 metres follow the line
o f t he s t r e e t k nown as Hungate. By contrast,
e x c a v a t i o n i n t he late 1970s revealed evidence
o f a w e l l - o r d e red and affluent population in
t h e C o p p e rg a t e area of York; Hungate was
d e f i n i t e l y m o r e on the suburbs of Jorvik.

A l arg e n u m b er of pits were excavated to


t h e r e a r o f t he sunken wooden buildings,
s u g g e s t i n g s o me sort of industrial activity.
H o w e v e r, t h e r e is little evidence to reveal their
o r i g in a l u s e e x cept for traces of animal hair,
b o n e s a n d a g r een jelly-like substance. There
i s a l s o n o e v i d ence to indicate any domestic Retrieving S axon ship’s timb ers from a Vik ing building.
u s e fo r t h e a c t ual buildings themselves which
w o u l d h a v e r e s e mbled allotment huts sunk into trained on exactly the same arc h a e o l o g y a s
t h e gr o u n d a n d made from recycled timber and the professionals work on, taking p a r t i n p o s t -
o t h e r p i e c e s o f scrap wood. This see ms to be excavation finds and environme n t a l s a m p l e
a r e f l e c t i o n o f a make-do-and-mend society processing as well as historical r e s e a r c h .
a n d o n e w h i c h archaeologically has proved
t o b e r a t h e r e x citing as one of the buildings
DIG Hungate is extremely p r o u d o f i t s
w a s p a r t i a l l y b uilt with timber salvaged from
educational legacy and prod u c e s u s e f u l
a S a x o n s h i p f r om the south east of England resources for teachers, as wel l a s o n - s i t e
a n d d a t e d t o c . 955 AD. training for young people study i n g A - L e v e l
archaeology at York College. I t o ff e r s
K e e n t o c o n t i nue the investigations of the accredited archaeological traini n g f o r f i r s t
Vi k i n g a n d S a xon layers, YAT will also be year undergraduates from various u n i v e r s i t i e s ,
c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the Roman occupation in and also provides the large maj o r i t y o f t h e

past horizons 44
p r a c t i c a l f i e l d archaeology elements and end
o f c o u r s e a s s e ssment resources for the Open
U n i v e r s i t y s h o rt course, Archaeology: The
S c i e n c e o f I n v e stigation.

A t t h e h e a r t o f Hungate is Archaeology Live!,


YAT ’s a n n u a l t raining excavation in Hungate.
To d a t e t h i s has encompassed several 12-
w e e k i n t e n s e t r aining experiences fo r around
7 5 0 p e o p l e f r om all walks of life from all
o v e r t h e w o r l d . Alongside timetabled training
e v e n t s H u n g a t e also provides placements for
u n d e rg r a d u a t e students ranging from a few
w e e k s t o a l m o s t a full year depending on the
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the individual.

Ta k i n g p a r t i n YAT training schemes also


p r o v i d e s f u r t h er opportunities for people to
v o l u n t e e r w h e n the opportunity ari ses, and
p r o f e s s i o n a l s t aff are able to mentor small
g r o u p s i n a r a n ge of tasks from the trench to
t h e f i n d s t a b l e . Alongside the various on-site
e l e m e n t s , v o l u nteers are present during most
w o r k i n g d a y s t o give valuable support to the
f i n d s d e p a r t m e nt.

S o , h a v i n g p a s sed the half way stage of this


p r o j e c t i t i s f air to say that DIG Hungate
h a s a c h i e v e d an immense amount already.
R e m a r k a b l y, a r ound 1000 people have received
s o m e f o r m o f archaeological training at
H u n g a t e , a n d t he public walkway built by the
d e v e l o p e r h a s a llowed a further 16,000 people
t o v i s i t t h e s i t e during open days. Inspiring,
c r e a t i v e a n d i n clusive, Hungate is an example
o f p u b l i c a r c h a eology at its best and with this
s e a s o n n o w u n derway, many more people will
h a v e t h e c h a n ce to be part of this growing
c o m m u n i t y.
D rawing a S axon ship’s timb er.

G et I nvolve d
The 2 0 1 0 Arc h a e o l o g y L i ve ! t ra i n i n g d i g w i l l co n ce nt rate o n
inve s t i g at i n g R o m a n , Vi k i n g a n d m e d i a e va l a rc h a e o l o g y at
the e a s te r n ex te nt o f t h e s i te. I t i s a h a n d s - o n f i e l d - b a s e d
progra m m e w h e re p e o p l e l e a r n by exc avat i n g a n d re co rd i n g
aide d by p ro fe s s i o n a l s i te s t a f f.

Date s : 2 8 J u n e - 1 7 S e p te m b e r
Cost : 1 we e k - £ 1 9 0 ( £ 2 7 5 w i t h a cco m m o d at i o n , 2 we e k s -
£330 ( £ 5 0 0 w i t h a cco m m o d at i o n ) .

Web s i te : ht t p : / / d i g h . d i gi t a l we l l y. co m / co nte nt. a s p ? I D = 43

45 past horizons
U B
Birmingham provides the ideal footing for
anyone wanting to begin a career in
archaeology or the heritage environment.
Along with diverse skills and opportunities
provided, I also got to experience city life
in Britain’s second city. Thanks to the
course, I have been employed in
archaeology since I graduated in 2007.

Emma Sautejeau, MA Practical Archaeology

The Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity offer a range of postgraduate and


professional training courses aimed to provide you with the skills you need to
work in the heritage environment today. From project management techniques
in archaeology to the visualisation of past environments, we aim to give you
practical experience in the diverse range of techniques and approaches
available to heritage practitioners.

All of the courses we offer can be tailored to your individual


interests and needs, and can be delivered full-time or part-time
degrees.

Campus-based programmes
MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology
MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual
Environments
MSc in Environmental Archaeology & Palaeoenvironments
MA in Conflict Archaeology
M Phil (B) in Archaeological Practice

Distance Education programmes


MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology (DE)
MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology,
GIS & Virtual Environments (DE)

To find out more, go to


http://www.iaa.bham.ac.uk/Postgraduate/
or email us at archpgrad@lists.bham.ac.uk Emma holding a medieval leather
shoe recovered from excavations in
Birmingham

past horizons 46
Viewpoin t
Get C onnected
T h e r e is a well-known adage that says, “ I t i s n o t I spent much of the early part of my career
w h a t you know, but who you know, that c o u n t s ” . w o r k i n g a b r o a d i n p l a c e s s u c h a s Tu r k e y, t h e
O f c ourse, it could be argued that both pa r t s o f t h e E m i r a t e s , J o r d a n a n d Tu r k m e n i s t a n . I t w a s h a r d t o
s a y i n g are complimentary and of equal im p o r t a n c e : get my foot in the door at first, but this is where
k n o wledge linked with connections c o m p l e t e connections became important. I had to pay to go
t h e circle. Knowledge is built up over t i m e a n d on the first few digs but as my competence level
t h e r e is no substitute for experience, bu t i f y o u r o s e a n d I g o t t o k n o w m o r e a r c h a eo l o g i s t s I w a s
a r e n ot well connected within the archa e o l o g i c a l i n v i t e d t o j o i n t h e t e a m a s a m e m b e r o f s t a ff . F r o m
c o m munity your opportunities may be lim i t e d . t h e r e I h e a r d a b o u t o t h e r e x c a v a t i o n s n e e d i n g s t a ff
a n d w a s a b l e t o m o v e a r o u n d . I t ’s a g r e a t w a y o f
C o n nections can be made in many wa y s u s i n g seeing the world, gaining experience and building
t h e traditional methods such as a t t e n d i n g u p a n e t w o r k o f c o n t a c t s a n d , i m p o r t a n t l y, m a n y
c o n f erences, writing articles and p r e s e n t i n g friends.
p a p e rs. Conferences are an excellent w a y o f
m e e t ing fellow archaeologists but not if y o u s i t i n T h e s e d a y s , s o c i a l n e t w o r k i n g o ff e r s n u m e r o u s
t h e c orner afraid to reach out. If you are a b i t s h y, new ways of making connections and Facebook,
f i n d someone that you know will introd u c e y o u for example is a great way to meet people, look out
t o o t hers and before long you will have m e t a n d for projects or view current job announcements.
t a l k e d to a surprising amount of people. A c h a n c e A chance comment, photograph or video on a
c o n v ersation may set you up for your fir s t j o b o r F a c e b o o k p a g e c o u l d s e t y o u o ff o n a p a t h o f
e v e n secure a coveted place on the exca v a t i o n o f inquiry that can lead to increased opportunities.
y o u r dreams. Set up your own special interest group and if
people like what they see you may find yourself
G e t t i ng your degree or PhD in archaeol o g y d o e s with hundreds – even thousands – of fans that you
n o t necessarily mean that you will step s t r a i g h t can keep in touch with and exchange ideas, whilst
i n t o a job; you simply won’t have achieve d e n o u g h also giving you a profile.
p r a c t ical experience by this point. H o w e v e r,
s e e k i ng out summer placements with com m e r c i a l Although the way in which we communicate
c o m panies can compensate for this, an d a l l o w s i s u n d e rg o i n g m a n y c h a n g e s t h e n e e d t o m a k e
p o t e ntial employ ers to get to know you a n d w h a t connections never diminishes. Some of us are
y o u may be capable of. These opportun i t i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d t o s i t o n t h e s i d e l i n e s b e c a u s e w e d o n ’t
h a r d to come by and may not even be a v a i l a b l e like change, but whether young or old we should
i n y o ur area. However, you could join y o u r l o c a l try to embrace these new opportunities that
a r c h aeology soci ety, and some field sch o o l s m a y technology has given us. BAJR and Past Horizons
b e h appy to have you on board providing y o u w i t h b o t h h a v e F a c e b o o k p a g e s s o i f y o u h a v e n ’t g o t
s o m e much-needed hands-on experience a n d , o f round to it, join in, sign up and in no time you too
c o u r se, archaeology contacts and friends. I n i t i a l l y could be connected.
y o u might think that none of this will h a v e t h e D avid Connolly is the direc tor of British A rchaeolo gical
d e s i r ed effect but it takes time and com m i t m e n t , J obs and Resources (B AJR)
a n d with any luck, will eventually bear f r u i t . Web: http://w w w.bajr.org

BA JR: ht t p : / / w w w. f a ce b o o k . co m / B A J R p a ge
Past H o r i zo ns : ht t p : / / w w w. f a ce b o o k . co m / a rc h s tore

47 past horizons
D ig In
A selectio n of archaeolo g i c a l
p r ojects around the worl d

Eng l a n d B u t l e i g h Tra i n i n g E xcavation


Excavations have revealed a Romano-British villa complete with mosaic. It is intended that
future archaeological work at Butleigh will expand knowledge of the four rooms excavated in
2009 and reveal the actual extent of the villa. Aimed at those seeking professional tuition,
the course will cover arc haeological plan and section drawing, excavation techniques and
basic surveying.

Dates: 2 - 6 a n d 9 - 1 3 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0
Costs: £ 1 5 0 p e r w e e k o r £ 2 7 0 f o r t h e f o r t n i g h t ( this is a non-residential course)
Contac t : s a m . d r i s c o l l @ a b s o l u t e a rc h a e o l o g y. c o .uk
Web: h t t p : / /w w w. a b s o l u t e a rc h a e o l o g y. c o . uk

Swe d e n Vi k i n g D i s cove r y Pro gramme


Designated excavations of farmsteads will lead to a better understanding of the Gotlandic farm
in the Viking Age, and will cast light on settlement patterns and house construction as well
as daily life. Archaeological investigations clearly show that hoards have been placed inside
houses or close to houses, and that every farm on Gotland has at least one. Field courses will
be open to students and amateurs from all over the world.

Dates: 2 9 J u n e - 8 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0
Costs: C o s t s : F r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y £ 8 2 5 - £ 1 5 0 5 (2 - 4 weeks)
Conta c t : d a n @ a r k e o d o k . c o m
Web: h t t p : / /w w w. a r k e o d o k . c o m / i n d e x 1 . h t m l

Uni te d St ate s B l a c k t a i l Cave


This will be the second year at the Blacktail cave where archaeologists Rick and Sandy
Martinec will be returning to record known archaeological sites on the 8000-acre Blacktail
Ranch, Montana. They wi ll also continue their search for the original entrance to the extensive
Blacktail cave, which has produced evidence of human occupation. Students will be given
instruction in survey, excavation and finds identification.

Dates: 4 - 1 0 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0
Costs: $ 1 4 0 0
Conta c t : b t r a n c h @ e a r t h l i n k . n e t
Web: h t t p : / / w w w. b l a c k t a i l r a n c h . c o m/

Per u Ba l co n d e l D i a b l o
An archaeological study of the Inca population from the River Chacn basin where there
are elite administrative centres. These centres (huacas) were part of the system of ‘ceques’
and reached out from the Qoricancha (or centre of the world) on imaginary lines to the
whole valley. Systematic excavations will take place within these ceques to try to define the
features, and a survey will be carried out in the surrounding area.

Dates: J u l y - A u g u s t 2 0 1 0
Costs: E n q u i r e s t o p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r s K a r e n D u r a nd and Luis Fernando Bejar
Conta c t : a rq l g a d u ra n d @ h o t m a i l . c o m o r l b e j a rl@pucp.edu.p e

past horizons 48
I rel a n d Ca h e rco n n e l l Arc h a e ological Field S chool
Caherconnell stone ringfort lies at the heart of the Burren region in County Clare. It has
undergone excavation over the past three years, with discoveries dating from the Stone Age up
to the modern era. These have included a late Neolithic/early Bronze Age house, 15th century
human remains, a 10th century drystone enclosure and assorted artefacts including thousands
of lithics and decorated Prehistoric pottery.

Dates: 1 6 - 2 7 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0
Costs: €1 7 0 0 f o r 2 w e e k s
Conta c t : i n f o @ c a h e rc o n n e l l . c om
Web: h t t p : / / w w w. c a h e rc o n n e l l . c om

Aus t ra l i a I nd i g e n o u s Arc h a e ology in Australia Field S chool


This field school will be run as part of the Ngadjuri Heritage Project, a co-ordinated approach
by the Ngadjuri Aboriginal nation to the research, planning and management of key areas and
regions in Ngadjuri land. The aims are to identify and record Aboriginal sites on Plumbago
Station, develop a database of site locations for the region, and conduct archival research
and oral histories.

Dates: 2 0 - 3 0 S e p t e m b e r 2 0 1 0
Cost: S e e w e b s i t e f o r v a r i o u s c o s t o p t i o n s
Contac t : c l a i re . s m i t h @ f l i n d e r s . e d u . au
Web: h t t p : / / w w w. f l i n d e r s . e d u . a u / e h l t / a rc h a e o l ogy/fieldwork/field-schools/indigenous-field-school/indigenous-field-
school _ h o m e . c fm

I tal y Vu l t u r Pro j e c t
An archaeological investigation of the Vultur zone of northern Basilicata involving both
excavation and survey. The project is funded by the Comune of Rionero and the Comunità
Montana del Vulture over five years, and involves a team of archaeologists from Canada,
Israel, Australia and Norway. The project will focus upon the Lucanian Frontier as a sphere
of pre-Roman cultural interaction and Late Roman stability.

Dates: 1 9 J u l y - 3 0 A u g u s t 2 0 1 0
Costs: € 10 0 0
Conta c t : f l e t c h e r @ v u l t u r p ro j e c t . c om
Web: h t t p : / / w w w. v u l t u r p ro j e c t . c o m /

Jord a n G re at Ara b R e vo l t Pro j ec t


As the aim of the project in its first five-year phase is to explore the theme of desert warfare
between Ma’an and Mudawwara, work will continue in 2010 on the line of th e Hijaz Railway
in this region. It is intended to carry out surveys and sample excavations at one or two new
sites, mainly as a comparative exercise in relation to the intensive work already carried out
in the Wadi Rutm/Batn Al-Ghoul/Aqabat-Hijaz study area.

Dates: 2 4 O c t o b e r- 7 N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 0
Costs: £ 2 4 5 0 ( i n c l u d e s f l i g h t s , a c c o m m o d a t i o n and food)
Conta c t : s u s a n @ g w a g . o r g
Web: h t t p : / / w w w. j o r d a n 1 9 1 4 - 1 8 a rc h a e o l o g y. o rg/

Ala s k a B ro k e n M a m m o t h
The Broken Mammoth site is one of the oldest archaeological sites in Beringia and North
America, and contains stone, bone and mammoth ivory tools, and well-preserved faunal
remains. Excavation at the site will focus on recovery of stone tools and faunal remains
from late Pleistocene/early Holocene levels as well as testing the Younger Dryas sediments
for possible evidence of an asteroid impact affecting human settlement.

Dates: 1 4 J u n e - 1 7 J u l y 2 0 1 0
Cost: $ 1 2 9 5 p l u s 4 - c re d i t t u i t i o n f e e
Contac t : D r. D a v i d Ye s n e r a f d r y @ u a a . a l a s k a . e d u
Web: h t t p : / / a n t h ro . u a a . a l a s k a . e d u

To v iew lots mo re projec ts go to: http : / / w w w. p a s t h o r i zo n s. co m / Wo rl d Pro j e c t s


49 past horizons
Recipes for Archaeologists

A SOUP FOR ALL SEASONS


Soups are a great way of extending Before my trip to Syria I b o r r o w e d
the variety of food on a dig. Not only cookbooks from the l i b r a r y a n d
Annie Evans are they good value for money and discovered many Mid d l e E a s t e r n
The Dig Cook easy on the budget, they are also very recipes for some grea t s o u p s . B y
versatile. Iced sou p is wonderfully doing this type of resea r c h I c a n g e t
refreshing on a boiling hot day, while a picture of what is av a i l a b l e i n a
a big steaming hot bowl of soup is country I haven’t work e d i n b e f o r e
warming and nourishing when the and, of course, there’s a l s o a g r e a t
temperature plunges. feeling of excitement and e x p e c t a t i o n
of exploring another cui s i n e . I l o v e
A very easy way of extending a being a dig cook!
meal if there are unexpected guests
is to make some soup, and my stick Here’s a recipe for a g a z p a c h o t h a t
blender travels to every dig site with can be made in a few m i n u t e s . P l a c e
me, an essential piece of equipment one kilo of ripe, roug h l y - c h o p p e d
that makes preparing soup fast and tomatoes (or three cans o f t o m a t o e s )
simple. in a big bowl along wit h a c h o p p e d
Lebanese cucumber, on e r e d o n i o n
Soup is a great di sh to have when roughly chopped, two c l o v e s o f
you are sampling local breads and, if garlic, a handful of fres h h e r b s s u c h
time permits, some freshly-baked hot as parsley, chives, bas i l , c o r i a n d e r
bread straight from the oven can turn or oregano, a cup of ic e c u b e s , t w o
this humble dish into a substantial teaspoons of vegetable s t o c k p o w d e r,
meal. For lunch, a bowl of soup, hot a pinch of sea salt and fre s h l y - g r o u n d
or cold, interesting bread, various pepper, and a teaspoo n o f s u g a r.
dips, cheeses and deli meats, plus a Blend until smooth. Adju s t s e a s o n i n g
fruit platter to fini sh, makes a very and serve with either a s w i r l o f s o u r
satisfying meal. cream, yoghurt, crumb l e d f e t a o r
labneh. Some crusty b r e a d i s t h e
Soups are also a good way to use up finishing touch. If you h a v e t i m e ,
leftover cooked meats, vegetables, chill for one to two hou r s .
rice, pasta, beans o r lentils from the
previous day but should be handled The following soup recip e i s o n e t h a t
carefully. In my kitchen, any we cook in the local s o u p k i t c h e n
leftovers that are n ot eaten the very where I work as a volunt e e r, a n d i t i s
next day are thrown out. You can also both delicious and extre m e l y e a s y t o
vary the pattern of the evening meal prepare. Just put all the i n g r e d i e n t s
by having soup and a main course into a large pot and sim m e r s l o w l y
without dessert. and gently for a coupl e o f h o u r s ,
then blend.
Most cultures have their traditional
delicious soups both hot and cold.

The Dig Cook’s website


http://www.digcook.com © Annie E v a n s 2 0 1 0
past horizons 50
LENT I L A N D V E G E TA B L E S O U P
P l a c e a l l t h e f o llowing ingredients
i n t o a l a rg e p o t .

12 cups water
7 5 0 g r a m s r e d lentils
H a l f a h e a d o f celery and some leaves,
o r a b u l b o f f e nnel and some leaves
r o u gh l y c h o p p ed
1 k g c h o p p e d c arrots
2 m e d i u m o n i o ns peeled and roughly
chopped
4 c l o v e s g a r l i c , peeled
1 h e a p e d t e a s p oon curry powder
1 2 t e a s p o o n s v egetable stock powder

C o o k a l l t o g e t her on a low heat for two hours, checking to make sure it’s not cat c h i n g o n t h e
b o t t o m . S t a b m ix it with a stick blender leaving chunks of vegetables. Adjust se a s o n i n g , a d d
f r e s h l y - g r o u n d pepper and add more water if it’s too thick. Makes about five to s i x l i t r e s .

CHIC K E N S O U P W I T H L E M O N A ND EGG

4 c u p s c h i c k e n stock (powdered chic ken stock and water) or use the stock recipe b e l o w
1 / 3 c u p l o n g g rain rice soaked and rinsed
4 t a b l e s p o o n s l emon juice
3 egg yolks
2 t a b l e s p o o n s finely-chopped fresh parsley and chives
S e a s a l t a n d f r eshly-ground black pepper.

Chick e n Sto c k

1.4 kg chicken
8 cups water
2 b l a c k p e p p e r corns
1 c h o p p e d c a r r ot
1 c h o p p e d b r o wn onion
1 s t a l k c e l e r y, chopped
½ cup parsley

C o m b i n e a l l i n gredients for stock in a large pot and simmer, covered, for two ho u r s . R e m o v e
c h i c k e n a n d s t rain stock. Cover and refrigerate overnight. Skim fat from cold s t o c k .

S oup M e t h o d

B r i n g s t o c k t o the boil, add rice, tur n down heat and simmer until rice is tende r, s t i r r i n g t o
p r e v e n t s t i c k i n g. Just before serving, whisk eggs and lemon juice in a bowl un t i l t h i c k a n d
f r o t h y. G r a d u a lly whisk in two cups of the hot stock to the egg/lemon mix th e n a d d e g g /
l e m o n / h o t s t o c k mix to the stock on the stove. Whisk over heat till warmed thro u g h . D o n o t
b o i l . Ta s t e a n d then season with salt and pepper.

51 past horizons
Videography

Filmin g o n t h e Th a m e s Fo re s h o re

past horizons 52
i n Arch a e ol o g y

Prescot Street excavations

B y Anies Hassan

T
he phenomena of moving images began
with the Lumiere brothers over one hundred
years ago, and since then technology has
advanced far beyond those days of faltering black
and white ima ges to bring us portable, digital
video cameras in the present age. Not only
can we make our own movies, the technology
is affordable and simple to use, too, thanks
to the ubiquitous camera mobile phone with
video capabilities. This has seen an explosion
of amateur videos on the internet with content
ranging from talking cats to insightful political
discussion.

Shrewd businesses have taken advantage of these


developments, utilising internet videography as
a cheap and effective means of promotion. We
look at how the archaeological world is joining
this trend, embracing technology as part of
the dissemination of information and public
engagement, and focus on three areas where
videography can be used to support the public
face of archaeology.

53 past horizons
O U TR E A C H The archaeological project team a t B a m b u rg h
T V ’s a r c h a e o l ogical documentaries have Castle has also experimented with videography,
p o p u l a r i s e d t h e past for many years, from the providing students with tuitio n i n b a s i c
d r y, y e t i n f o r m ative, Chronicle of the 1970s, camera and editing techniques. T h e s t u d e n t s
t o t h e Ti m e Te a m’s wonky camera an gles and have then made short films and v i d e o d i a r i e s
s e n s e o f u rg e n cy. The value of the television about the ongoing excavations.
d o c u m e n t a r y r emains strong, but how often
a r e a r c h a e o l o g i cal discoveries anything more Videography can also be used to g r e a t e ff e c t i n
t h a n a l o c a l n e ws item, if that? education programmes at school s a n d w i t h i n
higher education. Technical vid e o s c r e a t e d
T h e a ff o r d a b i l ity of camera equipment and for students or volunteers, such a s t h o s e m a d e
t h e e a s e o f a ccess to the internet allows for the Thames Discovery Prog r a m m e , c a n
a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to tell their side of the story explain complex techniques and c o n c e p t s i n a
w i t h o u t r e s t r i c tions imposed by television user-friendly manner at very low c o s t .
executives or commercial sponsors.
F u r t h e r m o r e , t he internet can broadcast these ARCHIVE
f i n d s t o a w o r l dwide audience. A number of academic project s h a v e u s e d
film for archival purposes for som e t i m e n o w,
I b e c a m e i n volved in the videography and could certainly be used mo r e o f t e n t o
p r o c e s s w i t h i n archaeology through the enrich the traditional archaeolog i c a l a r c h i v e .
a w a rd - w i n n i n g public outreach project at The site of Catalhoyuk in cen t r a l Tu r k e y,
a c o m m e r c i a l archaeological site in East for example, has produced arch i v a l v i d e o s
L o n d o n c a l l e d Prescot Street. Before working since the mid-nineties, which w e r e a d d e d
a s a s u p e r v i s o r at this excavation I had never as supplementary DVDs to th e p u b l i s h e d
e v e n h e l d a v i deo camera, so I had to learn monographs. With the birth of m i n i d i g i t a l
fast. T h e c o mbination of the incredibly video cameras like the creative v a d o a n d f l i p ,
i n t e r e s t i n g a r c haeology and the company’s recording certain aspects of the a r c h a e o l o g y
c o m m i t m e n t t o public engagement inspired with video could become stand a r d p r a c t i c e
m e t o c r e a t e a series of short films about the within commercial archaeology a s w e l l . N o t
s i t e . E a c h f i l m had a theme with th e aim of every post hole needs discussion o n v i d e o , o f
i n f o r m i n g t h e a udience about various aspects course, but more significant featu r e s c o u l d b e
o f t he a r c h a e o l ogical process. These themes reviewed on camera, or a summar y o f t h e s i t e
c o v e r e d e x c a v a tion techniques, environmental discussed. This may be especia l l y r e l e v a n t
s a m p l i n g , f i n d s recording, GIS and so on. All with large features, like ring ditc h e s , t h a t a r e
t h e f i l m s a r e a vailable to view on the Prescot difficult to capture with a stills c a m e r a .
S t r e e t s i te .
The use of time-lapse photog r a p h y c o u l d
T h e s e v i d e o s were produced in tandem with offer up some valuable rewards, t o o . I n o n e
a d a i l y o n l i n e journal/blogs written by every experiment I filmed myself an d t h e a r e a
m e m b e r o f t h e site staff, and a comprehensive supervisor excavating a mud-b r i c k w a l l a t
p h o t o d i a r y o f the site and finds as they were Catalhoyuk using a digital stills c a m e r a w i t h
u n c o v e r e d . T h e team produced accompanying a time-lapse function. After editin g i t t o g e t h e r
a r t i c l e s c o v e r i ng the historical background the result was rather amateuri s h b u t m o s t
o f t h e s i t e a nd made the archaeological people who watched it felt they h a d l e a r n e d
d a t a ( c o n t e x t s records, plans, maps and something about the excavation p r o c e s s .
p h o t o g r a p h s ) a vailable to any web browser
v i a t h e i r i n - h ouse designed database ARK This is an archive resource that c o u l d b e u s e d
( A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Recording Kit). The use of on more complex, sensitive sites, a s a r e c o r d o f
v i d e o g r a p h y w as one amongst many forms the excavation process and would b e a v a l u a b l e
o f o u t r e a c h u s ed by L – P : Archaeology at tool for future generations to und e r s t a n d h o w
P r e s c o t S t r e e t b ut it added that extra dimension sites were excavated using tec h n i q u e s t h a t
t o t h e a u d i e n c e ’s experience of a commercial may, by then, be old-fashioned and o u t o f d a t e .
excavation. It is also a historical record o f t h e p e o p l e

past horizons 54
i n v o l v e d i n t h e project and their individual The creation of short videos is i n r e a c h o f
c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the archaeological process almost everyone, hence the globa l d o m i n a t i o n
– a n d c a n r e v e a l the real, back-breaking work of Youtube. Even for those with l i t t l e o r n o
o f e x c a v a t i o n t o the uninitiated. experience the technology of v i d e o g r a p h y
can be used with relative ease b y i n t e r e s t e d
PROMOTION archaeologists, whether they work in
F i l m c a n b e a very effective medium for the the commercial, community o r a c a d e m i c
p r o m o t i o n o f a project or archaeological unit, fields, especially if they seek a d v i c e f r o m
s e r v i c e s o ff e r e d, expert advice available and knowledgeable users before i n v e s t i n g i n
s o f o r t h . P o t e ntial clients, particularly those equipment.
w i t h o u t p r e v i ous interest or involvement
i n t h e a r c h a e o logical world, find the video Videography is not the only s o l u t i o n t o
f o r m a t a c c e s s i ble and easy to comprehend. encourage wider public eng a g e m e n t i n
archaeology, but it can certain l y a c t a s a
W h e n e m b e d d e d in a company’s website, sent valuable addition to the widen i n g t o o l b o x
a s a Tw e e t , a Facebook update on a group available to the 21st century ar c h a e o l o g i s t .
p a g e , o r a s a p ost on a blog, a short video of Whatever the outcome, this is a n e x c i t i n g
a r o u n d f i v e m i nutes can be used to attract an opportunity for archaeologists t o e m b r a c e a
a u d i e n c e a n d quickly provide them with the new technology and enrich the ar c h a e o l o g i c a l
r e l e v a n t i n f o r m ation. process and experience.

A n ie s H a s s a n has recently set up a vi deo company called Tollan Films. For more i n f o r m a t i o n
v i s i t t h e w e b s ite: http://www.tollanfilms.com

Ship’s timbers and how to record them - Thames Discover y Programme episode 4, by Anies Hassan

If you are viewi ng this magazine on SCRIBD, then


you will not be able to see the video.

You can view it on either the full flip page version of


the magazine:

www.pasthorizons.com/magazine

OR

Here: http://vimeo.com/6231355

55 past horizons
WHS
W O R K H A R D O R S TA RV E

F i n d i t H e re

past horizons 56

Related Interests