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ABB Switzerland Ltd

High Voltage Products


PTHG-V / Marta Lacorte
Business Development LAM

Copyright 2004 ABB.


All rights reserved. - 1 07/05/2007

High Current Systems

Generator CircuitBreaker Systems

Generator Circuit-Breaker? What are we talking about?

GCB

Copyright 2004 ABB


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Layout without

Layout with

Generator Circuit-Breaker

Generator Circuit-Breaker

Advantages of Generator Circuit-Breakers


Simplified operation
Improved generator protection
Improved main and unit transformers protection

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Increased power plant availability


Decreased costs (case dependent)

Advantages of Generator Circuit-Breakers


Simplified Operation
GCB

clear and logical plant arrangement

generator starting-up or shutting-down


only GCB operates

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switching operations number reduction


power plant and the high-voltage grid operation
responsibilities
clearly defined

Advantages of Generator Circuit-Breakers


Generator, main and unit Transformers Improved
Protection
generator, main and unit transformers differential
protection zones
maximum selectivity

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Generator-fed short-circuit currents


interrupted

four cycles

Advantages of Generator Circuit-Breakers


Increased Power Plant Availability
simplified operation
clearly defined operational responsibilities
reduced operational errors

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more reliable generator synchronisation

Advantages of Generator Circuit-Breakers


Increased Power Plant Availability
rapid and selective clearing clearance of all types of
faults
avoid expensive secondary damage
avoid long down repair times
main or unit transformer tank bursting
generator damper winding thermal destruction

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turbine-generator mechanical destruction

Advantages of Generator Circuit-Breakers


Decreased costs (case dependent)
associated items of switchgear integration into GCB enclosure
simpler and more economic power plant layouts
simpler and more economic erection and commissioning
elimination of station transformer and associated high-voltage and mediumvoltage switchgear
increased power plant average availability
0.30.5 %

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increased operating hours


higher power plant operator profit

Requirements for Generator Circuit-Breakers


GCB requirements
requirements

transmission and distribution CB

GCB high technical requirements


Rated current
Short-circuit currents (system-source and generatorsource)

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Fault currents due to out-of-phase conditions


Fault currents asymmetry, delayed current zeros
Recovery Voltages rate-of-rise

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Standards IEC 62271-100 / 2001 (former IEC 56)

Generator circuit-breakers installed between generator and stepup transformer are not within the scope of this standard

Standards
IEEE C37-013
1. Scope
This standard applies to all ac highvoltage generator circuit breakers rated
on a symmetrical current basis that are
installed between the generator and the
transformer terminals. Pumped storage
installations are considered a special
application, and their requirements are
not completely covered by this standard.

Copyright 2004 ABB


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NOTE Since no other national or


international standard on generator
circuit breakers exists, this standard is
used worldwide.

Copyright 2004 ABB


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ABB Generator Circuit Breakers worldwide

DB 1954-1993

DR 1969-1998

HEC 3-6 1995-

HGC 1998-

Our business card is nearly 5500


units installed and operating worldwide

HEK 1984-1999

HGI 1992-

Airblast GCB
SF6 GCB
HEC 7/8 2000-

HECS 2003-

HECPS 3/5S 2005-

> 1900 units


> 3450 units

ABB Switzerland Ltd, High Current Systems


Design and Manufacturing in
Zurich-Oerlikon, Switzerland
Approx. 100 Employees
Deliveries in 2006: 352 GCBs

>70%

Market share world-wide: >70%

Copyright 2004 ABB


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January 2007: received orders for almost 3600


GCBs in SF6 technology (since 1985)
Worldwide more than 3000 ABB GCBs (SF6) are
already in operation

GCB PORTFOLIO 2006


Short Circuit Current [kA]
210kA

160kA
140kA
130kA
100kA
80kA

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63kA
50kA

HECS-130 (HECPS-5S / HECS-130R)

HECS-100 (HECPS-3S / HECS-100R)


HEC 7S

HECS- 80

HEC 7

HEC 8

HGI 3
HGI 2

6300A

8000A

10500A

13000A

18000A

Rated Current [A]

23000A

24000A

28000A (57000A)

Copyright 2004 ABB


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Development of Generator Circuit-Breaker

GCB type: HECS (SF6)

Generator Circuit-Breaker System Type HECS

7
MO

9
3T

6T
5

2
1

6G 10

3G

Copyright 2004 ABB


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(1)

Generator Circuit-Breaker

(2)

Series Disconnector

(3)

Capacitors

(4)

Starting Disconnector for SFC

(5)

Manuell Short-Circuit Connection

(6)

Earthing Switches

(7)

Current Transformers

(8)

Potential Transformers

(9)

Surge Arrestor

(10)
G

Motorized Short-Circuit Connection

Generator Circuit-Breaker System Type HECS


View into one pole of Circuit-breaker type HECS-130L
Current transformer
Voltage transformer

Interrupting chamber
Series Disconnector

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Surge arrester

Interruption Chamber and Disconnector


Interrupting chamber
of the circuit-breaker type HECS-100L

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Series Disconnector
View through the inspection windows
of HECS to assure that the disconnect
switch is in the open position.

Earthing Switch - HECS

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Earthing switch

In CLOSED position

Semaphore and key


locking

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Hydro-Mechanical Spring Drive HMB 4.5

Schematic diagram of the hydraulic


spring operating mechanism

View of a hydraulic spring


operating mechanism

Copyright 2004 ABB


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Current Transformer / Voltage Transformer


Current transformer

Voltage transformer

According to
IEC 60044-1
or IEEE C57.13

According to
IEC 60044-2
or IEEE C57.13

ABB GCB advantages


GCB ABB smaller in width and smaller length
less transportation cots and more flexibility for installation

Dimensions
transport units

GCB totally mounted in the factory, the three phases and the control
cubicle mounted in the structure. Shorter commissioning time, less
assembling on site, less assembling mistake,higher availability

mechanic-hydraulic drive
maintenance

20 years or 20000 mechanical operations, until reach one of these limits only
supervision services are necessary, without take the GCB out of service

Copyright 2004 ABB


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arc extinction method


type tests

thousands of units installed in the world, approved


equipment, without failures

self blast extinction, assuring performance in the currents


interruption of high amplitude as well as of small current

performed according to GCB standard IEEE C37.013 and in independent


laboratory KEMA
out-of-phase type test performed with 180of phases disagreement

19
8

GCBType
Type"D":
"D":
GCB
SouthAmerica
America
South

0
50

DR 36 sc 1750

San Agaton

DR 36 t 0500

Planta Centro
Unidad 5

DR 36 t 0500

Planta Centro
Unidad 4

DR 36 t 0500

Planta Centro
Unidad 1 + 2

DR 36 t 0500

Planta Centro
Unidad 3

DRT24.125

Macagua 2

DRT24.125

Macagua 2

DRT24.125

Macagua 2

DRT24.125

Macagua 2

18

43

10

Copyright 2004 ABB


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South America
World

148
1928

11

15

GCBSF6
SF6Type
Type
GCB
"H":
"H":
SouthAmerica
America
South

12
6

8
27

HECS-100M

Pedro Camejo

HEK 4

Macagua 2

HEK 4

Macagua 2

HEK 4

Macagua 2

Copyright 2004 ABB


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13

South America
World

103
3203

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Replacement Northfield Mountain / USA

Northfield Mountain - After


Northfield Mountain. - Before

Copyright 2004 ABB


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Replacement Benmore HPP / New Zealand

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Retrofit TPP Berezovskaja / Belorussia Estonia

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Retrofit TPP Berezovskaja / Belorussia Estonia

Copyright 2004 ABB


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TPP Kuala Langat (250MW) / Malaysia

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elimination of station transformer and high-voltage bay

GCB

Copyright 2004 ABB


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Layout without

Layout with

Generator Circuit-Breaker

Generator Circuit-Breaker

Arc resistance effect in GCB


6

Arc resistance
d o

r e s is t n c ia

a rc o

Ta = Xd/{2(Ra)}

Ta = Xd/{2(Ra + Radd)}
0

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-1

0 .0 5

0 .1

0 .1 5

0 .2

Interruption of Generator-Fed Fault Currents

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Without Generator Circuit-Breaker (Unit Connection)

Interruption of Generator-Fed Fault Currents

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With Generator Circuit-Breaker

Simplified Operational Procedures


Layout without generator
circuit-breaker

Layout with generator circuit-breaker

Unit start-up:

Unit start-up:

1)

1)

2)
3)

Run-up unit on station transformer (startup supply) and synchronise generator


with high-voltage grid by means of highvoltage circuit-breaker
Parallel unit auxiliaries supplies
Separate unit auxiliaries from station
transformer (start-up supply)

Unit routine shut-down:


1)
2)
3)

Parallel unit auxiliaries supplies


Separate unit auxiliaries from unit
transformer
Trip high-voltage circuit-breaker and shutdown unit on station transformer

Copyright 2004 ABB


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Unit emergency shut-down:


1)
2)

3)

Trip high-voltage circuit-breaker, unit


auxiliaries are isolated
Automatic transfer of unit auxiliaries from
unit transformer to station transformer
(approx. 45 cycles)
Shut-down unit on station transformer

Run-up unit on unit transformer and


synchronise generator with high-voltage
grid by means of generator circuitbreaker

Unit routine shut-down:


1)

Trip generator circuit-breaker and shutdown unit on unit transformer

Unit emergency shut-down:


1)

Trip generator circuit-breaker and shutdown unit on unit transformer

Equipment Failures
Main Transformer Failures
Sequence of events:
t = 0 ms: earth fault at
HV-side of transformer
t = 45 ms: 2-phase
short-circuit
t = 95 ms: 3-phase
short-circuit

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t 150 ms: explosion


of transformer

Equipment Failures

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Short-Time Unbalanced Load Conditions

Short Circuit Characteristic


G

system-source short-circuit
asymmetry 74%
voltage rate of rise TRV 6 kV/ms

Copyright 2004 ABB


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generator-source short-circuit currents


asymmetry 130%
voltage rate of rise TRT 2.2 kV/ms