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Code of practice for power system

protection
The entire wiring of circuitry for indications, alarms, metering and
protection should be permanent wiring.
The leads should be marked and identified by ferrules near
terminals.
Every lead should end at a terminal point and no junction by
twisting is allowed.
The wiring should be by copper leads for C.T secondary for all cores
i.e. metering cores as well as protection cores and for PT secondary
for protection core.
The wiring should be by copper leads 1.07 The copper lead for 1.05 &
1.06 above should be stranded but not single lead type.
Aluminum leads can be used for indication, alarms and PT
secondary for metering but stranded wires only are to be used. But
copper leads are always preferable for these said purposes.
The terminations should be lugged by ring shape O lugs. U shape
lugs should be avoided since U shape lugs may slip if terminal is
loosen.
For CT Secondary terminations, two nuts with one spring washer
and two flat washers to be compulsorily used.
The CT terminal strips should be stud type with nuts and not screwin-type.
Wherever two sets of batteries are available, the primary protection
and back-up protection should be from different batteries.
Where there is only one battery at an Electrical Power Substation,
the primary and back-up protections should be given D.C supply

through two individual circuits with independent fuses run from D.C
bus.

When CBs have two trip coils, both main protection and backup
protection will energize both the trip coils.
D.C and A.C supplies should not be taken through different cores of
the same cable. Totally different cables should be used for DC and
AC supplies.
Independent D.C cables should be run to each equipment in the yard
and looping of D.C supply from one equipment to other is not
permitted.
The D.C emergency lighting in substation should be through
independent cables and not mixed up with protection and other
circuitry.
Standard color codes for wires in control circuit of different sizes
should be as follows,
SIZE

COLOR

Indication, Alarm, trip, close etc

1.5 mm2

Gray

Red Phase Metering PT Circuit

1.5 mm2

Red

Yellow Phase Metering PT Circuit

1.5 mm2

Yellow

Blue Phase Metering PT Circuit

1.5 mm2

Blue

Red Phase Protection PT Circuit

2.5 mm2

Red

Yellow Phase Protection PT Circuit

2.5 mm2

Yellow

Blue Phase Protection PT Circuit

2.5 mm2

Blue

Red Phase Metering and Protection CT Circuit

2.5 mm2

Red

PURPOSE

Yellow Phase Metering and Protection CT Circuit

2.5 mm2

Yellow

Blue Phase Metering and Protection CT Circuit

2.5 mm2

Blue

Phase for auxiliary AC supply

2.5 mm2

Red

Neutral for auxiliary AC supply

2.5 mm2

Black

Common star point of CTs

2.5 mm2

Black

Common star point of Protection PTs

2.5 mm2

Black

Common star point of Metering PTs

1.5 mm2

Black

Earthing Connection

2.5 mm2

Green

The lead numbers are also standardized as follows so that anyone can easily
identify the purpose for which the lead is connected
Alphabet
Series

Purpose

Example

J Series

D.C Incoming

J1, J2, etc.

K Series

Control Closing, Tripping, etc.

K1, K2, K3 etc.

L Series

Alarms, indications and


annunciations

L1, L2, L3, etc.

M Series

Motor Circuit

M1, M2, etc.

E Series

Potential transformer secondaries

E1, E2, E3, etc.

H Series

LT A.C Supply

H1, H2, H3,


etc..

A Series

C.T secondary for special protection

A1, A2, A3, etc.

B Series

Bus bar protection

B1, B2, B3, etc..

C Series

Protection Circuits

C1, C2, C3, etc.

D Series

Metering Circuit

D1, D2, D3, etc.

The CT ratios available and adopted with number of cores shall be


displayed on each panel as follows: (with underlined position as
adopted).
400 200 100 / 1-1-1
Wherever CT cores are not used SHORTING LOOPS should be
provided in CT secondary terminals and not in marshaling boxes or
at panels.
The Cable entries in the equipment, marshaling boxes and panels
should be through appropriate size of cable glands. No other means
are allowed.
PT secondaries should have group MCBs with D.C alarm.
Few cells from a battery set should not be used for separate low
voltage D.C circuits. Here D.C D.C converters may be employed
for utilizing full D.C voltage of the entire battery as input.
Standard lead numbers used in control circuit of protection of
power system
Certain lead numbers are standardized as follows and should be compulsorily
adopted with ferrules at terminations of leads.

Main DC Positive supply J1


Main DC Negative supply J2
DC Positive bus inside panel K1
DC Negative bus inside panel K2
Remote Close - K15R
Remote Trip - K5R

Local Close - K15L


Local Trip - K5L
Metering CT secondaries D11, D31, D51, D71 etc.
Protection CT secondaries C11, C31, C51, C71 etc.
Special Protection CT secondaries A11, A31, A51, A71 etc.
PT scondaries E11, E31, E51, E71 etc.

Different relay device number used in protection of power system

Mark
Number

Name of the Device

Time delay relay

Checking or Interlocking relay

21

Distance relay

25

Check synchronizing relay

27

Under voltage relay

30

Annunciator relay

32

Directional power (Reverse power) relay

37

Low forward power relay

40

Field failure (loss of excitation) relay

46

Negative phase sequence relay

49

Machine or Transformer Thermal relay

50

Instantaneous Over current relay

51

AC IDMT Over current relay

52

Circuit breaker

52a

Circuit breaker Auxiliary switch Normally open (a


contact)

52b

Circuit breaker Auxiliary switch Normally closed (b


contact)

55

Power Factor relay

56

Field Application relay

59

Overvoltage relay

60

Voltage or current balance relay

64

Earth fault relay

67

Directional relay

68

Locking relay

74

Alarm relay

76

D.C Over current relay

78

Phase angle measuring or out of step relay

79

AC Auto reclose relay

80

Monitoring loss of DC supply

81

Frequency relay

81U

Under frequency relay

81O

Over frequency relay

83

Automatic selective control or transfer relay

85

Carrier or pilot wire receive relay

86

Tripping Relay

87

Differential relay

87G

Generator differential relay

87GT

Overall differential relay

87U

UAT differential relay

87NT

Restricted earth fault relay

95

Trip circuit supervision relay

99

Over flux relay

186A

Auto reclose lockout relay

186B

Auto reclose lockout relay