11 views

Original Title: Neuro sliding mode control of robotic manipulators

Uploaded by Anonymous ZTe8Oy2E

- Image Enhancement Using Nonlinear Filtering Based Neural Network
- 103820090201
- [1987 J.J. Slotine, W. Li] On the Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators.pdf
- Stability and stabilization of discrete-time systems with time-delay via Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional
- Smooth Stabilization Implies Coprime Factorization
- Rainfall-Runoff Modeling using Artificial Neural Network Technique
- Adaptive+Terminal+Sliding+Mode+Control+for+Rigid+Robotic+Manipulators
- sliding
- A Review on LI-BR Water Absorption Systems Analysis Using Artificial Neural Network
- Vibration Analisi of a Beam Using NN
- me2002-10
- Oral 2012 Automation in Construction
- A Study on an Organization Pattern of Product Development Team
- Paper26 ANN
- Lateral Control for UAVs Using Sliding Mode Technique
- 149-v05
- Urdu Optical Character Recognition OCR Thesis Zaheer Ahmad Peshawar Its Soruce Code is Available on MATLAB Site 21-01-09
- Chapter 1
- 8953083 infarct
- Learning About Algorithms That Learn to Learn

You are on page 1of 25

manipulators

Meliksah Ertugrul a, Okyay Kaynak b,*

a

b

Mechatronics R&A Center, Bogazic i University, 80815, Istanbul, Turkey

Received 27 October 1998; accepted 13 May 1999

Abstract

In this paper, a synergistic combination of neural networks with sliding mode control

(SMC) methodology is proposed. As a result, the chattering is eliminated and error

performance of SMC is improved. In the approach, two parallel Neural Networks (NNs)

are utilized to realize a neuro-SMC. The equivalent control and the corrective control terms

of SMC are the outputs of the NNs. The weight adaptations of NNs are based on the

SMC equations in such a way that the use of the gradient descent method minimizes the

control activity and the amount of chattering while optimizing the error performance. The

approach is almost model-free, requiring a minimal amount of a priori knowledge and

robust in the face of parameter changes. Experimental studies carried out on a direct drive

arm are presented, indicating that the proposed approach is a good candidate for trajectory

control applications. # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Variable structure systems (VSSs) with a sliding mode were rst proposed in the

early 1950s, but it was not until the 1970s that sliding mode control (SMC)

became more popular. It nowadays enjoys a wide variety of application areas. The

main reason for this popularity is the attractive superior properties of SMC, such

as good control performance even in the case of nonlinear systems, applicability

E-mail address: kaynak@boun.edu.tr (O. Kaynak).

0957-4158/00/$ - see front matter # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 9 5 7 - 4 1 5 8 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 5 7 - 4

240

to MIMO systems, design criteria for discrete time systems, etc. The best property

of the SMC is its robustness. Loosely speaking, a system with an SMC is

insensitive to parameter changes or external disturbances [1].

The essential characteristic of VSS is that the feedback signal is discontinuous,

switching on one or more manifolds in state space. When the state crosses each

discontinuity surface, the structure of the feedback system is altered. All motion in

the neighbourhood of the manifold is directed towards the manifold and thus a

sliding motion occurs in which the system state repeatedly crosses the switching

surface [2,3].

The theory of variable structure systems with a sliding mode has been studied

intensively by many researchers. Motion control, especially in robotics, has been

an area that has attracted particular attention and numerous reports have

appeared in the literature [410]. A recent survey is given in [1].

In practical motion control applications, an SMC suers mainly from two

disadvantages. The rst one is the high frequency oscillations of the controller

output, termed ``chattering''. The second disadvantage is the diculty involved in

the calculation of what is known as the equivalent control. A thorough knowledge

of the plant dynamics is required for this purpose [4]. In literature, some

suggestions are made to abate these problems. The most popular technique for the

elimination of the chattering is the use of a saturation function [10]. For avoiding

the computational burden involved in the calculation of the equivalent control an

estimation technique can be used [4]. More recently, the use of ``intelligent''

techniques based on fuzzy logic, neural networks, evolutionary computing and

other techniques adapted from articial intelligence have also been suggested.

These methodologies provide an extensive freedom for control engineers to exploit

their understanding of the problem, to deal with problems of vagueness,

uncertainty or imprecision, and to learn by experience and, therefore, are good

candidates for alleviating the problems associated with sliding mode controllers

above. A good deal of work is reported in the literature in this respect, a few

examples of which are cited in Refs. [1127]. The main emphasis in these works is

on the elimination of the requirement on exact priory knowledge of plant

dynamics and on the smoothing of the control input. In one report [28], the

similarity between fuzzy control and VSS is addressed and in some other [2936],

intelligent techniques are combined sliding mode control techniques.

Robotic manipulators are frequently used as test beds for the evaluation of

computationally intelligent identication and control methods because their

coupled nonlinear equations and ambiguities on the friction related dynamics

inevitably require the use of exible control architectures. A recently published

book [37] is devoted entirely to the topic of adaptive neural network control of

robotic manipulators. The use of neural networks for learning the inverse

dynamics of the manipulator is a common approach. Two main approaches can

be identied in this context [11,14,15]. The rst one utilizes o-line learning

techniques and is named as ``general learning''. The learning process tries to

minimize the square of the error between robot input and NN output. In this

structure, after an initial o-line training period, the NN is assumed to have learnt

241

the inverse dynamics and its output is directly connected to the robot input. In the

second approach, termed as ``specialized learning'', on-line learning is adopted.

The learning process tries to minimize the square of the error between the robot

output and desired trajectory. In this structure the control and learning are carried

out simultaneously. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages.

A dierent approach to the computation of inverse dynamics in robot control is

proposed by Kawato et al. [12], termed as ``feedback error learning''. It is based

on the NN realization of the computed torque, plus a secondary PD controller.

The output of the PD controller is used as the error signal to update the weights

of NN.

In this paper, two parallel NNs are proposed to realize the equivalent control

and the corrective control of the SMC design. The equivalent control has a role

similar to that played by inverse dynamics. When the system states are on the

sliding surface, the equivalent control is enough to keep the system on the surface

and the corrective control is zero. The latter is necessary only when the system

states deviate from the surface. Based on this interpretation, a two-layer feedforward NN is designed to compute the equivalent control and weights are

adapted to minimize the square of the corrective control. The corrective control of

SMC is also computed by an additional NN. The proposed adaptation scheme

directly results in chattering-free control action for the corrective control. The

design parameters (the gains) of SMC are admitted as the weights of the NN and

adapted to minimize a cost function.

One of the main problems of an NN design is how to select the layers, number

of neurons for each layer and the connections between layers. In the structure of

the corrective control that is proposed in this paper, this problem is not met since

the network topology of the NN is well determined from the SMC design. NN

has a two-layer structure: a hidden and an output layer. The number of neurons

for each layer and connections between neurons are directly established through

the design of the SMC.

The paper concludes with the presentation of some experimental results

obtained for the control of a direct drive scara-type robot.

In the application of the VSS theory to control nonlinear processes it is argued

that one only needs to drive the error to a ``switching'' or ``sliding'' surface, after

which the system is in a ``sliding mode'' and will not be aected by any modelling

uncertainties and/or disturbances [1,3]. Intuitively, VSS with a sliding mode is

based on the argument that the control of rst-order systems (i.e., systems

described by rst-order dierential equations) is much easier, even when they are

nonlinear or uncertain, than the control of general nth-order systems [10].

242

Consider a nonlinear, non-autonomous, multi-input multi-output system of the

form

i

fi X

x k

i

m

X

bij uj

j1

i derivative of xi. The vector U of components uj is the

control input vector and the state X is composed of the xis and their rst (ki1)

derivatives. Such systems are called square systems since they have as many

control inputs as outputs xi to be controlled [10]. The system can be written in a

more compact form as letting

X bx 1 . . . x m

km 1 T

c

x_ 1 . . . x_ m . . . x 1k1 1 . . . x m

U u1 . . . um T

2

3

_ FX BUt

Xt

2.2. Sliding surface

For the system given in (4), the sliding surface variable that is represented by S

is generally an (m 1) vector. S = 0 denes a sliding surface. It is selected [4] as

SX, t GXd t Xt ft Sa X

where

ft GXd t,

Sa X GXt

i.e., the time and the state dependent parts. The vector Xd represents the desired

(reference) state and G (m n ) is the slope matrix of the sliding surface.

Generally, G is selected such that the sliding surface function becomes

ki 1

d

li

ei

7

Si

dt

where ei is the error for xi (ei=xdixi) and lis are selected as positive constants.

Therefore, ei goes to zero when Si equals zero.

The aim in SMC is to force the system states to the sliding surface. Once the

states are on the sliding surface, the system errors converge to zero with error

dynamics dictated by the matrix G.

243

In this section, the design of an SMC based on the selection of a Lyapunov

function is presented [4]. The control should be chosen such that the candidate

Lyapunov function satises Lyapunov stability criteria. Lyapunov global stability

is stated in the following theorem.

Lyapunov theorem for global stability: assume that there exists a scalar function

V of S, with continuous rst-order derivatives such that (A)

VS is positive definite,

(B)

dV(S )/dt

is

negative

denite,

(C)

VS 4 1 as kSk 4 1, then the equilibrium at the S = 0 is globally

asymptotically stable [10].

Let the Lyapunov function be selected as below:

VS

S TS

2

It can be noted that this function is positive denite (V(S = 0)=0 and V(S ) > 0

8S$ 0). It is aimed that the derivative of the Lyapunov function is negative

denite. This can be assured if one can assure that

dVS

S T D signS

dt

signum function is applied to each element of S, i.e.

signS signS1 . . . signSm T

and sign(Si) is dened as

1 if Si > 0

signSi

1 otherwise

10

11

Taking the derivative of (8) and equating this to (9), the following equation is

obtained:

ST

dS

S T D signS

dt

12

The time derivative of S can be obtained using (5) and the plant equation as given

below:

dS

df @Sa dX

df

GFX BU

@ X dt

dt

dt

dt

13

By putting (13) into (12), the control input signal can be written as

Ut Ueq t Uc t

14

244

dft

1

GFX

Ueq t GB

dt

15

Uc t GB 1 D signS K signS

16

The controller of (14) exhibits high frequency oscillations in its output, causing

a problem known as the chattering phenomena. Chattering is highly undesirable

because it can excite the high frequency dynamics of the system. For its

elimination, it is suggested to use a saturation [10] or a shifted sigmoid function

[4] instead of the sign function. In the latter case, the corrective control is

computed as

Uc t KhS

17

hSj

2

1

1 eSj

18

A basic Articial Neural Network consists of ``neurons'', ``weights'' and

``activation functions''. The weights are adapted to achieve a desired mapping

between the input and the output sets. Nowadays, a variety of neuro-controllers

are successfully used for various control applications [11].

3.1. The structure of the proposed controller

In the proposed structure, the equivalent control and the corrective control in

sliding mode control are computed by NN1 and NN2, respectively. The outputs

of NN1 and NN2 are summed to form the control signal to be applied to the

robot.

The weights of the NN2 are updated such that the error performance of the

overall system is improved. The weights of the NN1 are updated to minimize the

output of the secondary controller. In other words, the output of the secondary

controller is accepted as a measure of error for NN1. This is because, in sliding

mode, equivalent control is enough to keep the system on the sliding surface and

245

corrective control is necessary to compensate the deviations from the surface. The

overall system with the proposed controller is presented in Fig. 1.

3.2. Neural computation of the equivalent control

3.2.1. The parallels between the inverse dynamics and the equivalent control

In model based trajectory control of robotic manipulators, the use of inverse

dynamics in a primary feedbackfeed forward loop is very common. In this way,

the nonlinear terms in the dynamics are cancelled as much as possible and a

secondary controller is used to compensate for the plant-model mismatches and

disturbances. The technique is also known as the computed torque. In what

follows, a parallel is drawn between the inverse dynamics and the equivalent

control.

A direct approach to show the equivalence of the inverse dynamics and the

equivalent control is as follows; the system equation given in (4) can be solved for

the desired control signal as given below:

X_ d t FXd BUd t

19

GX_ d t GFXd GBUd t

If (20) is solved for the desired control, it will be obtained as

dft

Ud GB 1 GFXd

dt

20

21

The functional structure of the inverse dynamics is exactly the same as the

246

equivalent control that is given in (15). The only dierence is that the F(Xd) term

in desired control is replaced with F(X ) which is the actual value in the equivalent

control. It can, therefore, be concluded that when the system is in the sliding

mode, the equivalent control is the same as the inverse dynamics.

3.2.2. Computation of the equivalent control by an NN

In a practical application of the control law of (15), there will always be

diculties due to the fact that the knowledge of F(X ) and B will not be exact. It

is shown in the literature that in the face of similar diculties for the calculation

of inverse dynamics, neural networks provide a solution, being able to learn the

inverse dynamics quite satisfactorily. This has motivated the authors of this paper

to use an NN in the computation of the equivalent control.

3.2.3. NN1 structure to compute the equivalent control

The structure of NN1 is selected as a two-layer feed-forward network, with one

hidden layer and one output layer. The inputs and outputs of the network are

dictated by the equivalent control equation. In the computation of the equivalent

control, all the desired and actual states are used, as it is obvious from (15).

Therefore, the inputs to NN1 that will compute the equivalent control are the

desired and the actual states. The number of neurons in the output layer is

determined by the number of the actuators of the robot. In other words, it equals

the number of inputs of the robot. The number of neurons in the hidden layer

should be selected such that the NN1 is capable of computing a whole span of

inverse dynamics. In practice, this can be selected as two times the number of

neurons in the input layer. Any errors that may occur due to poor modelling is

expected to be compensated by the secondary controller.

Let us consider a two degrees of freedom (DOF) robot manipulator. The states

Fig. 2. NN1 structure for a two DOF robot to estimate the equivalent control (Ueq).

247

of the robot dynamics can be selected as angular positions and velocities. The

number of states will therefore be four and the NN has eight inputs (four for

actual states and four for desired states). In accordance with the rule of thumb

stated above, the number of neurons in the hidden layer can be selected as sixteen.

The structure of NN1 for this manipulator is presented in Fig. 2.

The inputs (designated as Z ) to the net consist of desired and actual states

(Z=[(Xd)T X T]T). The net sum and the output of the hidden layer are designated

as Ynet and Yout, respectively. Similarly, the net sum and the output of the output

layer are designated as Unet and Ueq, respectively. The values can be computed as

Ynetj

2n

X

W zj, i Zi

j 1, . . . , 4n Youtj gYnetj

22

i1

Unetj

4n

X

Wyj, i Youti

j 1, . . . , m

i1

23

where Wzj,i is the weight from input node-i to hidden node-j, and Wyj,i is the

weight from hidden node-i to output node-j. The activation function, g(), is

selected as a shifted sigmoid function as dened in (18). (4n ) represents the

number of the hidden neurons. Umaxj is a constant that represents the maximum

available value of the controller output (or limits of the robot inputs). Ueq is the

estimated value of the equivalent control. As a precaution against the equivalent

controls reaching unreasonably large values, the outputs of the neural network are

kept between 21, and multiplied by the maximum available controller outputs.

The inputs are normalized by dividing them by their maximum values.

3.2.4. Weight adaptation of NN1 for the equivalent control estimation

The weight adaptation is based on a minimization of a cost function that is

selected as the dierence between the desired and the estimated equivalent control

2 U

^

X

1m

eqj Ueqj

E

2 j1

Umax j

!2

24

Gradient descent method (or back propagation) is used for the output layer as

@E

@E @ Unetj

m

mdyj Youtj

@Wyj, i

@Unetj @ Wyj, i

25

@E

@ E @ U^ eqj

Umax j

@Unetj

@Unetj

@ U^ eqj @Unetj

26

DWyj, i m

where

dy j

248

dy j

Ucj @gUnetj

Umax j @ Unetj

27

@gUnetj

1

1 gUnetj 2

2

@ Unetj

28

DWzj, i m

@E

@E @ Ynetj

m

mdzj Zi

@Wzj, i

@ Ynetj @Wzj, i

29

where

@E

d zj

@ Ynetj

!

m

X

dyk Wyk, j 1 Youtj 2

30

k1

The most important point in this derivation is that the error between desired and

estimated equivalent control is replaced with the corrective control of the sliding

mode control, as it is seen from (27).

3.3. NN2 for the corrective control computation

In this NN structure, the gains of SMC are taken as the weights of NN2. The

aim is the use of NN weight adaptation techniques to adapt the gains of SMC.

The structure of NN2 is thus well determined from the SMC design. NN2 has a

two-layer structure: a hidden and an output layer. The number of neurons for

each layer and connections between neurons are obviously established.

Fig. 3. NN2 structure for a two DOF robot to compute the corrective control (Uc).

249

The inputs for the neural network are selected as the state errors. In the hidden

layer, the number of neurons is equal to the number of sliding functions (i.e. the

number of plant inputs). Each input is not connected to all neurons at the hidden

layer; instead, it is connected to only one neuron at the hidden layer so that an

appropriate sliding surface is formed at that neuron. The outputs of the hidden

layer are passed through an activation function too, such as the sign function or

sign-like continuous functions (e.g. shifted sigmoid).

The hidden layer is fully connected to the output layer at which the number of

neurons is equal to the number of plant inputs. There is no activation function for

this layer. The output of the neurons is the corrective control term to be added to

equivalent control as shown in (16). The structure of NN2 for the manipulator is

presented in Fig. 3.

An adaptation scheme to minimize the control eort and sliding function is

proposed using the gradient descent method. The criterion (cost) which is to be

minimized is chosen as

J 12 S T S U Tc Uc

31

The reason behind the selection of the cost function as in (31) is that minimizing

(optimizing) the S function results in a minimization of the error, because S is a

function of error as dened in (5) and optimizing Uc results in elimination of

chattering and optimization of the control.

To make J small it is reasonable to change the parameters (weights) in the

direction of the negative gradient of it, i.e.

DKj, i g

@J

@Kj, i

and

DGj, i g

@J

@ Gj, i

32

Weight adaptation for the output layer also means the adaptation of the Kmatrix of SMC. The eect of K-adaptation is presented in Fig. 4. The gradient

250

DKj, i g

@J @Sj

@J @Ucj

g

@Sj @Kj, i

@Ucj @ Kj, i

where j 1, . . . , m

and

33

i 1, . . . , m

The partial derivatives are calculated as

@J

Sj ,

@Sj

@J

U cj ,

@Ucj

and

@ Ucj

hSi

@ Kj, i

34

The sliding function in (5) can be rewritten using (17) and the integral of (4) as

35

S GXd X GXd G FX BUeq KhS dx

Taking the partial derivative of (35) and assigning the constants to g' which are

obtained by multiplication of elements of G and B:

@Sj

0

g hSi xdx

36

@Kj, i

The last form of K-adaptation is obtained as

37

The minimization of the corrective controller (Uc) prevents chattering when the

system is on the sliding surface or inside the boundary layer. Minimization outside

the boundary layer eects the overall performance negatively; the reaching time

and the error will increase. Consequently, the adaptation of K as in (37) can be

modied in a boundary layer (Sb):

DKj, i

>

>

>

< g1 Sj hSi xdx g2 Ucj hSi

>

>

>

: g1 Sj hSi xdx

251

if Sb < Sj < Sb

38

otherwise

Weight adaptation for the hidden layer also means the adaptation of G. The

eect of G-adaptation is presented in Fig. 5. Similar to the derivation of (33), the

gradient descent for G can be derived as

DGj, i g

m

X

@J @Sj

@ J @Uck

g

@Sj @Gj, i

@ Uck @Gj, i

k1

39

@Sj

Ei

@Gj, i

and

@ Uck

@ Uck @hSj @Sj

1

Kk, j 1 h2 Sj Ei

@ Gj, i

@hSj @ Sj @Gj, i

2

40

2

DGj, i g3 Sj Ei g4 1 h Sj Ei

m

X

Uck Kk, j

k1

41

252

outside the boundary layer, the nal form of G-adaptation is obtained as

8

!

m

X

>

>

2

< g Sj Ei g 1 h Sj Ei

Uck Kk, j

if Sb < Sj < Sb

3

4

42

DGj, i

k1

>

>

:

g3 Sj Ei

otherwise

It is to be noted that the adaptation process of G and K should be stopped when

the state errors reach acceptable small values, as they may be sensitive to system

perturbations. Additionally, limits should be put on G and K values to assure

stability. The overall algorithm described above is summarized in The Application

Algorithm.

4. Robotics application

In order to study the performance of the proposed controller, extensive

implementation studies are carried out on a two DOF, direct drive, scara-type

experimental manipulator, shown in Fig. 6.

4.1. The application algorithm

Step 1. Initialize: Set all weights of NN1 to small random values, between

20.01. Set all weights of NN2 to form an SMC corrective control. Select values

for the adaptation rates as 0 < m < 1 and 0 < g < 1.

Step 2. Compute the equivalent control from NN1: Using Eqs. (22) and (23)

compute the net outputs to form the equivalent control.

Step 3. Compute the corrective control from NN2: Compute it as explained in

(17).

Step 4. Apply control to robot: Sum the estimated equivalent control and the

corrective control to form the control signal and then apply this to the robot.

Measure the angular positions and velocities of the robot.

Step 5. Update the weights of NN1: Update them as explained in (25) and (29).

Step 6. Update the weights of NN2: Update them as explained in (38) and (42).

Step 7. Repeat by going to step 2.

4.2. Robotic dynamics

The robot model is written as

_ q_ fc t

Mqq Cq, q

43

where q is the vector of joint angles. The torque vector applied to the joints are

represented by t. M is the inertia matrix. C is the vector of centripetal and coriolis

forces, and fc stands for Coulomb friction. The details of the dynamics can be

253

found in [38]. The model in (43) can be written in the state-space form

representation as

x_ 1

x_ 2

0

x2

u

M1 Cx 2 fc

M1

44

where

x 1

x 2 T q

_ T q1

q

q2

q_ 1

q_ 2 T

and

ut

Eq. (44) is in the form of (4), and the proposed method can be applied.

4.3. Experimental results

The results of the experimental studies are shown in Figs. 718, the dashed

curves of which are always related to the elbow link. The reference state trajectory

used is depicted in Fig. 7, and the related angular errors are presented in Fig. 8. It

should be pointed out that the initial condition errors are deliberately introduced

to show the system behaviour when the system is not on the sliding surface. Such

cases are shown in Figs. 9 and 10. Theoretically, when the states reach to the

origin on the phase plane, they should stay there. However, in DSP-based

sampled data applications, due to the fact that the system is an open loop for the

duration of the sampling time (2 ms is used in this paper), they deviate from the

254

255

256

257

Fig. 15. The changes in slope 1 (dashed), S1 (solid) and e1 (dotdashed) at the initial stages (slope 1

and e1 are scaled and shifted for clarity).

258

Fig. 16. The changes in K1,1 (dashed) and S1 at the initial stages (K1,1 is scaled and shifted for clarity).

259

origin. When the control for the next sampling time is applied, the states again

move towards the origin. In other words, the proposed controller establishes a

stable domain of attraction around the origin.

The adapted parameters of the G matrix are presented in Figs. 11 and 12. Fig.

15 depicts the changes in slope, sliding surface variable (S ) and error (E ). It is to

be noted that the slope and E values are scaled and shifted, to be able to see on

the same gure how they change with respect to each other. It is seen that the

slope of the sliding line is decreased until the value of S goes into the boundary

layer. Obviously, this minimizes the reaching time. When S is inside the boundary

layer, the slope is increased until the error converges to zero or the E vicinity of

zero and this minimizes the sliding time.

The adapted parameters of the K matrix are presented in Figs. 13 and 14. The

change of K1,1 is detailed in Fig. 16 to show how it is adapted based on the value

of S1. The value of K1,1 is increased until S1 goes into the boundary layer. This

decreases the reaching time. When S1 is inside the boundary layer, the value of

K1,1 is decreased to decrease the excessive control activity.

The control signals that are applied to the robot are presented in Fig. 17. As

can be seen there is some ringing at the beginning. However, this is quickly

eliminated as a result of K- and G-adaptation. The equivalent control that is

estimated by NN1 is presented in Fig. 18. As is expected, it is a continuous signal.

The learning rate (m ) for NN1 is selected as 0.04.

In the adaptation process for G and K, limits are used to assure stability. The

initial, maximum and minimum values of G and K matrices are selected as below:

260

20 0

1 0

100 0

Ginit

Gmax

0

20 0 1

0

100

1 0 0:5 0

Gmin

0 1 0

0:5

Kinit

400

0

135

Kmax

500

1

200

5

0

0

5

Kmin

20

1

1

The important tuning parameters in the weight adaptation of NN2 are gis that

appear in (38) and (42). When selecting a value for gi, there are two criteria:

adaptation capability and stability. While a low value causes low adaptation

capability, a high value may lead to instability. As a result, a suciently large

value that does not make the system unstable should be chosen. The results

presented in this paper are obtained by

bg1

g2

g3

g4 c 10:0

1:0

0:5

0:0001

5. Conclusions

In this paper, a Neuro-Sliding Mode Controller is proposed and experimental

results are presented. Two parallel NNs are used to realize the Neuro-SMC.

The structure of the neural network that estimates the equivalent control (NN1)

is a standard two-layer feed-forward NN with the back propagation adaptation

algorithm. The error between the desired and estimated equivalent control is

accepted as the corrective control.

The structure of the neural network for the corrective control (NN2) is such

that its weights are the gains of SMC and its outputs are the corrective control

terms that are to be added to the equivalent control. An adaptation scheme based

on gradient descent is used to adapt its weights. The aim of the adaptation is to

eliminate chattering and to reduce the error. Therefore, the cost function is

selected as the sum of squares of the corrective control and the sliding function.

In the design of a classical SMC, the controller output is obtained as the

equivalent control plus a corrective control term. The corrective control is

necessary when the system deviates from the sliding surface. This term pushes the

system back on to the sliding surface and keeps it there. Therefore, the corrective

control should be minimized when the system is in the vicinity of the sliding

surface to minimize chattering. This can be achieved by minimizing the

multiplicative gain K for the second layer. The G-adaptation eects the slope of

the sliding surface, i.e. the speed of response. The adaptation process enables one

to minimize the ``sliding time'' and the ``reaching time''.

The experimental studies have shown that the proposed Neuro-SMC has the

following advantages:

261

1. The learning process is on-line: learning and the calculation of the control

signal are carried out simultaneously.

2. Chattering and the excessive activity (ringing) of the control signal are

eliminated without a degradation of the trajectory following performance.

3. There is no need to compute the inertia (or inverse) matrix to estimate the

equivalent control.

4. In the case of the NN used for the computation of the corrective control, the

problem of how to choose its structure (number of layers, number of neurons

and connections) is not met, the structure is uniquely determined by the SMC

design.

5. The weights of NN used for the computation of the corrective control do not

have to be randomly initialized, the required performance from the sliding

mode controllers allows the designer to x the initial weights.

6. In neurocontroller applications, the eect of each neuron and weight is not

clear on the overall controller performance. However, in the structure of the

neural network proposed for corrective control computation, they carry clear

meanings.

7. The neuro-controller incorporates a degree of robustness, brought about by the

characteristics of SMC.

The experimental results presented in this paper indicate that the suggested

approach has considerable advantages compared to the classical one and is

capable of achieving a good chatter-free trajectory following performance without

an exact knowledge of the plant parameters. These characteristics make it a good

candidate for motion control applications.

Acknowledgements

The second author would like to acknowledge the support provided by Bogazic i

University Research Fund within the Project No: 97A0202.

References

[1] Hung JY. Variable structure control: a survey. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

1993;40(1):222.

[2] Utkin VI. Sliding modes in control optimization. Springer-Verlag, 1981.

[3] Utkin VI. Variable structure systems with sliding modes. IEEE Trans Autom Contrl 1977;ACC22(2):21222.

[4] Ertugrul M, Kaynak O, Sabanovic A, Ohnishi K. A generalized approach for Lyapunov design of

sliding mode controllers for motion control applications. In: Proceedings of the of Advanced

Motion Control Conference, 1996. p. 40712.

[5] Young KD. Variable structure control for robotics and aerospace applications. Elsevier, 1993.

[6] Zinober ASI, editor. Variable structure and Lyapunov control. Springer-Verlag, 1994.

[7] Wijesoma SW. Robust trajectory following of robots using computer torque structure with VSS,

Int J Control 1990;52(4):935962.

262

[8] Denker A, Kaynak O. Applications of VSC in motion control systems. In: Zinober ASI, editor.

Variable structure and Lyapunov control. Springer-Verlag, 1994. p. 36582.

[9] Zhao F, Utkin VI. Adaptive simulation and control of variable structure control systems in sliding

regimes. Automatica 1996;32(7):10371042.

[10] Slotine JJ, Li W. Applied nonlinear control. Prentice-Hall, 1991.

[11] Tzafestas SG. Neural networks in robotics: state of the art. In: IEEE International Conference on

Industrial Electronics, 1995. p. 1220.

[12] Kawato M, Uno Y, Isobe M, Suzuki RA. Hierarchical model for voluntary movement and with

application to robotics, IEEE Control System Magazine 1988;8(2):816.

[13] Fukuda T, Shibata T. Theory and applications of neural networks for industrial control systems.

IEEE Trans on Industrial Electronics 1992;39(6):47289.

[14] Barto AG [Chapter 1]. In: Neural networks for control. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999. p. 5

58 [Chapter 1].

[15] Hunt KJ, Sbarbaro D, Zbikowski R, Gawthrop PJ. Neural networks for control systems a survey. Automatica 1992;28(6):1083112.

[16] Ozaki T, Suzuki T, Furuhashi T, Okuma S, Uchikawa Y. Trajectory control of robotic manipulators using neural networks. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 1991;38(3):195202.

[17] Lippmann RP. An introduction to computing with neural nets. IEEE ASSP Magazine

1987;4(2):422.

[18] Bose NK, Liang P. Neural network fundamentals with graphs, algorithms, and applications.

McGraw-Hill, 1996.

[19] Albus J. A new approach to manipulator control: the cerebellar model articulation controller

(CMAC). J Dyn Syst Meas and Control 1975;97:220227.

[20] Psaltis D, Sideris A, Yamamura A. Neural controllers. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International

Conference on Neural Networks, 1987. p. 1721.

[21] Guez A, Ahmad Z. Solution to the inverse problem in robotics by neural networks. In:

Proceedings of the International Conference on Neural Networks, 1988. p. 61724.

[22] Elsley R. A learning architecture for control based on back-propagation neural-networks. In:

IEEE Conference on Neural Networks, 1988. p. 5847.

[23] Grossberg S, Kuperstein M. Neural dynamics of adaptive sensory-motor control. Elmsford, NY:

Pergamon Press, 1989.

[24] Fukuda T, Shibata T, Tokita M, Mitsuoka T. Neural servo controller: adaptation and learning.

In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop Advanced Motion Contr., 1990. p. 10715.

[25] Bekey GA. In: Kosko B, editor. Robotics and neural networks, in neural networks for signal processing. Prentice-Hall, 1992.

[26] Narendra K, Parthasarathy K. Identication and control of dynamical systems using neural networks. IEEE Trans Neural Networks 1990;1(1):427.

[27] Tokita M, Mitsuoka T, Fukuda T, Kurihara T. Force control of robots by neural models: control

of one-dimensional manipulators. J Japan Society of Robotics Engineers 1989;8(3):529.

[28] Erbatur K, Kaynak O, Sabanovic A, Rudas I. Fuzzy adaptive sliding mode control of a direct

drive robot. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 1996;19:21522.

[29] Ertugrul M, Kaynak O. Neural network adaptive sliding mode control and its application to scara

type robot manipulator. In: Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Conference on Robotics

and Automation, 1997. p. 29327.

[30] Ertugrul M, Kaynak O. Neural computation of the equivalent control in sliding mode for robot

trajectory control applications. In: Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Conference on

Robotics and Automation, 1998. p. 20427.

[31] Ertugrul M, Kaynak O. Neuro-sliding mode control of robotic manipulators. In: Proceedings of

the IEEE 8th International Conference on Advanced Robotics, 1997. p. 9516.

[32] Parma GG, Menezes BR, Braga AP. Sliding mode algorithm for training multilayer articial

neural networks. Electronics Letters 1998;34(1):978.

[33] Jezernik K, Rodic M, Safaric R, Curk B. Neural network sliding mode robot control. Robotica

1997;15:2330.

263

[34] Sundareshan MK, Askew C. Neural network-assisted variable structure control scheme for control

of a exible manipulator arm. Automatica 1997;33(9):1699710.

[35] Karakasoglu A, Sundareshan MK. A recurrent neural network-based adaptive variable structure

model following control of robotic manipulators. Automatica 1995;31(10):1495507.

[36] Ramirez HS, Morles EC. A sliding mode strategy for adaptive learning in adalines. IEEE Trans

on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications 1995;42(12):100112.

[37] Ge SS, Lee TH, Harris CJ. Adaptive neural network control of robotic manipulators. World

Scientic, 1998.

[38] Direct drive manipulator R&D package User Guide. Integrated Motion Incorporated, Berkeley,

CA, 1992.

- Image Enhancement Using Nonlinear Filtering Based Neural NetworkUploaded byJournal of Computing
- 103820090201Uploaded byOSCARIEM
- [1987 J.J. Slotine, W. Li] On the Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators.pdfUploaded bybagus setyaji
- Stability and stabilization of discrete-time systems with time-delay via Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionalUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Smooth Stabilization Implies Coprime FactorizationUploaded bysamim_kh
- Rainfall-Runoff Modeling using Artificial Neural Network TechniqueUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Adaptive+Terminal+Sliding+Mode+Control+for+Rigid+Robotic+ManipulatorsUploaded byRuben Raygosa
- slidingUploaded byValery Zegarra Rodriguez
- A Review on LI-BR Water Absorption Systems Analysis Using Artificial Neural NetworkUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- Vibration Analisi of a Beam Using NNUploaded byboynadua
- me2002-10Uploaded byalbertofgv
- Oral 2012 Automation in ConstructionUploaded byGeorge Nunes
- A Study on an Organization Pattern of Product Development TeamUploaded byjavier
- Paper26 ANNUploaded byWilly Echama
- Lateral Control for UAVs Using Sliding Mode TechniqueUploaded bynaderjsa
- 149-v05Uploaded byAgung Imaduddin
- Urdu Optical Character Recognition OCR Thesis Zaheer Ahmad Peshawar Its Soruce Code is Available on MATLAB Site 21-01-09Uploaded byZaheer Ahmad
- Chapter 1Uploaded byPawan Rajwanshi
- 8953083 infarctUploaded byElena Bivol
- Learning About Algorithms That Learn to LearnUploaded byCody Wild
- Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence Systems Performance in Precipitation ForecastingUploaded byTI Journals Publishing
- Batch Gradient Method for Training of Pi-Sigma Neural Network With PenaltyUploaded byAdam Hansen
- NCCR Summer School Workshop Sept 04Uploaded byiqbal kurniawan
- Rainfall Prediction using Data-Core Based Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network for ClassificationUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- S01-PH07-A3Uploaded byapi-3706534
- IJETR041117Uploaded byerpublication
- project report finalUploaded byapi-298102482
- 804512Uploaded byMohammed Aarif
- Personal Informatics and Context: Using Context to Reveal Factors that Affect BehaviorUploaded byIan Li
- Detecting Earnings ManipulationUploaded byPatrisia Ind

- Electrical Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste of Kanpur CityUploaded byijsret
- A Systematic Literature Review on the State of Research 2015Uploaded byamirebrahimi002
- Amortiguadores Para BarraUploaded byCesar Zamudio
- Trie pascal.docUploaded byKamel Tifas
- 2.LIS 02 Programme Narrative 25.10.2015Uploaded byLokesh Konganapalle
- Power World TutorialUploaded byLAGB2007
- cuke4ninja-2011-03-16Uploaded byAlvin Ng
- CT10 Barcode Scanner User Manual v4.0.pdfUploaded byklark9054
- microprocessor 8085 & 8255Uploaded byneelam05
- Sran Performance Measurements Sran16 2Uploaded byPARAS
- ReleaseNotes AnalyzerUpdate 2013 08 AugustUploaded byanh00
- ChE 312 Portfolio Feedback and Marking SheetUploaded byNicholas Ang
- Spheroidization of Low Carbon Steel-1630.pdfUploaded bykarthegre
- Mitsubishi 6.6kvUploaded byTifano Khristiyanto
- UldUploaded bykapilnabar
- CMD2dsUploaded byAbdul Manan
- 1201793Uploaded bydinkohe
- Soundiron Kazoo ReadmeUploaded bySergio Terebeiko
- How To Service Your Transmission Shift PinsUploaded bywardof
- Save Dimmeys. Stage (2) Proposed Nine Storey Tower. VCAT Decision. 1-3 Railway Place, Cremorne.Uploaded bySave Dimmeys
- Syllabus B Tech I Semester101117013310Uploaded bystrangeankit
- Mechanical Engineering Semiar TopicsUploaded bySantosh Baraiya
- A Multi-link Aggregate IPSec ModelUploaded byaksssudhakar
- Batesville CaseUploaded bykaritya88
- Low simulated radiation limit for runaway greenhouse climates.pdfUploaded bysupertierra
- Chem2 RevisionUploaded byLee da Don
- Licad4Acad_Plant3D - Manual.pdfUploaded byEdinson Navarro
- Manual de IntrawebUploaded byManuel Bertorel
- Amylose Content in Potatoes - Copy (2)Uploaded byChinkee Paul Illanza Lim
- Application_of_FRP_for_Strengthening_and.pdfUploaded byracel paredes