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Original Title: Apc Term Paper

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Term paper on

Effect of PID control on system dynamics

Prepared by:

Submitted to :

ENGINEERING SECTION

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT

INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

NIRMA UNIVERSITY

ABSTRACT

PID control algorithm is the most common control loop feedback mechanism used in process

industries. The letters PID three more or less independent actions of the control algorithm :

proportional, integral and derivative. PID controller continuously calculate the error as the

difference between set point and the actual value and to minimize this error it will adjust the

controlled variable such as a position of the control valve. PID control algorithm is mainly based

upon the process variable not on the process model so it is broadly used in the industries. And it

also provides the precise control for the system.

Proportional Controller :

In proportional control algorithm output of the controller is proportional to the error

which is difference between set point and actual value.

P(output) = Kp*ep + p(0)

Where Kp is proportional gain

ep is error

p(0) is output of controller at zero error

If the value of kp is higher then there will be large change in output for small error and it

will cause the oscillation in the error. And if the kp is lower then there will be small

output response for large input error .For lower value of kp system will become less

responsive.

Now as we increase the value of kp then maximum peak overshoot is increases , steady

state error is decreases for the oscillated error, and vice versa. For oscillated error if the

value of kp is very high then settling time will increase and vice versa. So to provide

better performance of the system value of kp should be moderate.

An important characteristic of the proportional control mode is that it produces a

permanent residual error in the operating point of the controlled variable when a change

in load occurs.

In industrial point of view only single proportional control mode is generally not

preferred.

Integral Controller :

We can remove the offset error by implementing the integral controller. Integral action is

provided by summing the error over time, multiplying that sum by a gain, and adding the

result to the present controller output. You can see that if the error makes random

excursions above and below zero , the net sum will be zero so the integral action will not

contribute. But if the error become positive or negative for an extended period of time the

integral action will begin to accumulate and make changes to the controller output.

The gain Ki expresses how much controller output in percent is needed for every percent

time accumulation of the error.

Integral action mode makes system sluggish (slower). As the value of integral action

increases settling time increases so system will become slower and at the infinite time

steady state error will reduce and vice versa .

Derivative controller:

Derivative control action responds to the rate at which the error is changing that is the

derivative of the error . Derivative control action is also called rate action and

anticipatory control . Derivative action predicts system behavior and thus improves

settling time and stability of the system

The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control action is

termed the derivative gain, Kd .

Derivative gain Kd tells us that how much percent to change the controller output for

every percent per second rate of change of error.

From industrial point of view only derivative action is not used alone because it provides

no output at he zero error.

The main advantage of this composite PI control mode is that one to one correspondence

of the proportional is available and the integral mode eliminates the inherent offset error.

When the error is zero controller output is fixed at the value that the integral term had

when the error went to zero. And if the error is not zero the proportional gain contributes

a correction and the integral term begins to increase or decrease the accumulated value

depending upon the nature of the error.

fast response of the system is not required

large disturbances and noise are present during operation of the process

In proportional derivative control mode system can not eliminate the offset of the

proportional controller. It handle fast process load changes as long as the load change

offset error is acceptable.

The main advantage of this control mode is that it will eliminate the offset error of the

proportional controller and still provide the faster speed of response for the system.

In PID control mode derivative mode improves stability of the system and enables

increase in gain K and decrease in integral time constant Ti, which increases speed

of the controller response.

CONCLUSSION

After successfully implementation of PID controller will improve the dynamics

(performance) of the system , system will become faster (high speed of response) , more

stable and accurate. In current industrial scenario we can also improve the system

performance by using the tuning of the PID controller , adaptive control , model

predictive control method, gain scheduling etc.

REFERRENCES

www.google.com

www.wikipedia.com

www.uk-rs.online.com

www.masterlabs.com

www.weschelr.com

www.electricalcontrols.co.in

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