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# Advance process control

Term paper on
Effect of PID control on system dynamics

Prepared by:

Submitted to :

## INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL

ENGINEERING SECTION
ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
NIRMA UNIVERSITY

ABSTRACT

PID control algorithm is the most common control loop feedback mechanism used in process
industries. The letters PID three more or less independent actions of the control algorithm :
proportional, integral and derivative. PID controller continuously calculate the error as the
difference between set point and the actual value and to minimize this error it will adjust the
controlled variable such as a position of the control valve. PID control algorithm is mainly based
upon the process variable not on the process model so it is broadly used in the industries. And it
also provides the precise control for the system.

Proportional Controller :
In proportional control algorithm output of the controller is proportional to the error
which is difference between set point and actual value.
P(output) = Kp*ep + p(0)
Where Kp is proportional gain
ep is error
p(0) is output of controller at zero error
If the value of kp is higher then there will be large change in output for small error and it
will cause the oscillation in the error. And if the kp is lower then there will be small
output response for large input error .For lower value of kp system will become less
responsive.
Now as we increase the value of kp then maximum peak overshoot is increases , steady
state error is decreases for the oscillated error, and vice versa. For oscillated error if the
value of kp is very high then settling time will increase and vice versa. So to provide
better performance of the system value of kp should be moderate.
An important characteristic of the proportional control mode is that it produces a
permanent residual error in the operating point of the controlled variable when a change
In industrial point of view only single proportional control mode is generally not
preferred.

Integral Controller :
We can remove the offset error by implementing the integral controller. Integral action is
provided by summing the error over time, multiplying that sum by a gain, and adding the
result to the present controller output. You can see that if the error makes random
excursions above and below zero , the net sum will be zero so the integral action will not
contribute. But if the error become positive or negative for an extended period of time the
integral action will begin to accumulate and make changes to the controller output.

The gain Ki expresses how much controller output in percent is needed for every percent
time accumulation of the error.
Integral action mode makes system sluggish (slower). As the value of integral action
increases settling time increases so system will become slower and at the infinite time
steady state error will reduce and vice versa .

Derivative controller:
Derivative control action responds to the rate at which the error is changing that is the
derivative of the error . Derivative control action is also called rate action and
anticipatory control . Derivative action predicts system behavior and thus improves
settling time and stability of the system
The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control action is
termed the derivative gain, Kd .
Derivative gain Kd tells us that how much percent to change the controller output for
every percent per second rate of change of error.
From industrial point of view only derivative action is not used alone because it provides
no output at he zero error.

## Proportional integral (PI) controller :

The main advantage of this composite PI control mode is that one to one correspondence
of the proportional is available and the integral mode eliminates the inherent offset error.
When the error is zero controller output is fixed at the value that the integral term had
when the error went to zero. And if the error is not zero the proportional gain contributes
a correction and the integral term begins to increase or decrease the accumulated value
depending upon the nature of the error.

## A PI controller is used when

fast response of the system is not required
large disturbances and noise are present during operation of the process

## Proportional derivative (PD) controller :

In proportional derivative control mode system can not eliminate the offset of the
proportional controller. It handle fast process load changes as long as the load change
offset error is acceptable.

## Proportional integral derivative controller :

The main advantage of this control mode is that it will eliminate the offset error of the
proportional controller and still provide the faster speed of response for the system.

In PID control mode derivative mode improves stability of the system and enables
increase in gain K and decrease in integral time constant Ti, which increases speed
of the controller response.

CONCLUSSION
After successfully implementation of PID controller will improve the dynamics
(performance) of the system , system will become faster (high speed of response) , more
stable and accurate. In current industrial scenario we can also improve the system
performance by using the tuning of the PID controller , adaptive control , model
predictive control method, gain scheduling etc.

REFERRENCES