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SLEEP

Basic human need


Historically- state of unconsciousness
Recently- an altered state of
consciousness
Is a complex biological rhythms
Somnology- the study of sleep
Biological rhythms- exist in plants,
animals, and humans
Sleep disorder- irregular cycling and/or
absent sleep stages.
Sleep architecture- the basic organization
of normal sleep.
TYPES OF SLEEP
1. NREM (NON-RAPID-EYEMOVEMENT) SLEEP
Activity in the RAS is inhibited.
About 75% to 80% of sleep during a
night is NREM sleep.
Stages
Stage I- is the stage of very light
sleep and lasts only a few minutes.
Feels drowsy and relaxed, the eyes roll
from side to side, and the heart and
respiratory rates drop slightly.
Stage II- is the stage of light sleep
during which body processes continue
to slow down. The eyes are generally
still, the heart and respiratory rates
decrease slightly, and the body
temperature falls. 10 to 15 minutes;
44% to 55% of total sleep.
Stage III and IV- are the deepest
stages of sleep, differing only in the
percentage of delta waves. During
deep sleep or delta slee, the sleepers
heart and respiratory rates drop 20%
to 30% below exhibited during waking
hours.
2. REM (RAPID-EYE-MOVEMENT)
SLEEP
Usually recurs about every 90 minutes
and lasts 5 to 30 minutes.
Most dreams takes place.
Brain is slightly active.
Sometimes called PARADOXICAL
SLEEP.
NEWBORNS
Sleep 16 to 18 hours a day.
REM sleep immediately. ( active
sleep during the newborn period).
NREM sleep (quiet sleeping during
the newborn period).
Sleep cycle is about 50 minutes.
INFANTS
Awaken every 3 to 4 hours, eat,
and then sleep.
Sleep through the night from
midnight to 5 am.
Takes two naps. 14 to 15 hours of
sleep in 24 hours.

Self-soothers- falls asleep


independently.
Signallers- parental assistance to
sleep.
TODDLERS
1 to 3 yrs old= 12 to 14 hours of
sleep.
Nightmares or nighttime fears are
common.
PRESCHOOLERS
3 to 5 years old= 11 to 13 hours of
sleep/night.
Stage of dislike bedtime
Limiting TV will reduce nightmares.
SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN
5 to 12 years old=10 to 11 hours of
sleep.
Decrease in sleep due to some
factors.
ADOLESCENT
12 to 18 years old= 9 to 10 hours
of sleep/night.
Nocturnal emissions wet dreams
(orgasm and emission of semen
during sleep).
ADULTS
7 to 9 hours of sleep.
Need sleep- drowsy & falling
asleep.
Women disrupted sleeppregnancy, menses, &
perimenopausal period.
ELDERS
65 to 75 years old.
7 to 9 hours of sleep
Dementia- sundown syndrome
( agitation, anxiety, aggression,
delusions).
FACTORS AFFECTING SLEEP
Sleep quality- is a subjective characteristic
and is often determined by whether a person
wakes up feeling energetic or not.
Quantity of sleep- is the total time the
individual sleeps.
ILLNESS
Causes pain or physical distress
Needs more sleep
Due to some illness REM sleep or
delta sleep decreases. And sleep is
affected.
ENVIRONMENT
Can promote or hinder sleep.
Noise, light and discomfort may
reduce sleep.
LIFESTYLE
Irregular morning and night time
schedule can affect sleep.
Avoid doing homework before or
after bed time.
EMOTIONAL STRESS
Number one cause of short-term
sleeping difficulties.
STIMULANTS AND ALCOHOL

Caffeine act as a stimulant of the


central nervous system.
Alcohol disrupt REM sleep.

DIET
Weight gain- reduced total sleep,
broken sleep, earlier awakening.
Weight loss- increase in sleep time,
less broken sleep.
Cheese and milk- induced sleep
SMOKING
Smokers- light sleepers
Stopped smoking improves sleep.
MOTIVATION
Can increase alertness in some
situations
MEDICATIONS
Beta blockers cause insomnia and
nightmares.
Drugs disrupts sleep or cause
excessive sleep.
COMMON SLEEP DISORDERS
INSOMNIA
Inability to obtain a sufficient
quality or quantity of sleep.
Inability to fall asleep or remain
asleep.
Acute insomnia- last one to several
nights.
Chronic insomnia- longer than a
month.
Older age and female gender.

EXCESSIVE DAYTIME SLEEPINESS


HYPERSOMNIA
Sufficient sleep at night but still
cannot stay awake during the day.

Caused by medical condition


NARCOLEPSY
Excessive daytime sleepiness
caused by the lack of the chemical
hypocretin
Sleep paralysis
Hallucinations
SLEEP APNEA
Frequent short breathing pauses
during sleep.
May lead to Cardiac arrest & Heart
failure
Loud snoring
Men, postmenopausal women,
childhood.
Three common types of apnea:
1. Obstructive Apnea- Block the
flow of air.
2. Central Apnea- Defect in the
respiratory center of the brain.
3. Mixed Apnea
INSUFFICIENT SLEEP
Fatigue
Difficulty in work or duty
PARASOMNIAS
Behaviour that may interfere with
sleep and may even occur during
sleep.
Arousal disorders
Sleep-wake transition disorders
Nightmares
E.g.,.,.,
SLEEP HYGIENE
Interventions used to promote sleep.
END