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223.

00-4

Fluid Mechanics - Course 223


MINOR LOSSES

These nre lo~ses which occur in pipelines, due to bends,


elbows, joints, valves, etc and are called 'minor losses'.
This is a misnomer, because in many situations the minor
losses are more significant than the losses due to pipe
friction, which we have already considered.
We have already seen, in level 3, that the pressure
energy loss "aries as the square of the velocity.
This is
basically true for all minor losses in turbulent flow.
Sudden
contractions in area also cause losses, as in entrances and
exits from pipework.
alent
loss.

Minor losses are accountea Ior, by considering ~ne equ~v


leng~h of pipework which would give the same pressure

V2

where 2

K
'lhU5 L

KE

dimensionless coefficient

'K' is quoted fnr various fittings as shown in Table 4.1.


Ey considering all the fittings that are involved, the
va.J:"ic;;.s c:oefficients may be added together to give a total
equiualent ,Talue of r K I . This value may be substituted into
.
.
1 ent 1 engt h 0 fp1pe,
'
.
L = KD
~ to ceterm1ne
t h e equ1va
t h a t 1S
J.

equal to the resistance of the fittinqs.

?f':

an

Snme tables quote the friction effect of the fittings


~q;,iT"'II"''''':: 10ngth in pipe diame-!:-p.rs.

EXrlmpl~

A 90 n Stand?rd Elbow has an LID ratio of 30.


is 16" then the ~quiva1ent length = 30
16
x 12

If the pipe

40 ft
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January 1977

223.00-4

TABLE 4.1
LOSS COEFFICIENTS FOR COMMERCIAL PIPE FITTINGS

'Kl

Fitting

. .. .. . .. . . .. . ... .. .. ... . . . ...

10

Angle valve, fully open..............................

Swing check valve, fully open ...............

2.5

Globe valve, fully open.

. .. .. . .. . . ... .... .. . .. .... . .


Tee, through side outlet. . ........ . .. .... .. . .. . . . .. ..
Short radius elbow . .... .. . . . . ... ... . . .. .. ......... . .
Medium radius elbow. ... . . .. ...... . ..... . . ... . . .. .. .. .
Closed return bend

2.2

1.8
0.9

0.8

Long radius elbow.

0.6

4S-degree elbow ...

0.4

Gate valve, fully open ...........................

0.2

Gate valve, 3/4 open

Gate valve, 1/2 open


Gate valve, 1/4 open

5.6
24

223.00-4

TABLE 4.2
Resistance Due to Sudden Eniargementl and Contractions=

1.0

........

I"

0.9
0.8
~

..!.

ii

0.7

=0.6

'u

cu
o

cu

u
c:

.sen
li1

~- ~-

-... I--

0.5

0.3

.. I

t'

d1

SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT}

/v

" - - -,-

d2

1T : 2T
1-

r-.....
I!\
-- -~;~lI 1\

~-

SUDDEN CONTRACTION

II

0.2

.~

t
d1

d2

0.1

o ----L
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

~~

" '"

I:
0.6

0.7

dIid z

0.8

6.065

-- =
II.qJ8

051

Sole, The values for the resistance


coefficient, K, are based on velocity
in the small pipe, To determine K
values in terms of the greater diameter, multiply the chart values by
(d?'dd 4

r--...

0.9

6.065
1 I.qJ8 = 0,51

Sudden contraction: The resistance coefficient K for a sudden contraction from 12-inch Schedule 40
pipe to 6-inch Schedule 40 pipe is 0, J 3,
based on the 6-inch pipe size,

-d l

I
0.5

d.

d;

to-

0.4

c:::

...

~~

" '\i\

Sudden enlargement: The resistance coefficient K for a sudden enlargement from 6-inch Schedule 40
pipe tu l2-inch Schedule 40 pipe is
0,55. based on the 6-inch pipe size,

1.0

Resistance Due to Pipe Entrance and Exit

..L

II
= 0.71
Inward

L
r-

L
--..

rI

K = 0.50

K = 0.23

Prni_cting Piatt

Sharp
Edaed

Slightly
Ilaunded

K = 0.04
Well
Ilounded

Entrance

Entrance

Entrance

Entrance

---r
--L

K=

1.0

'roj.ctir>g
Pip.
Exit

---I

----,

K=

1.0
Sharp

Edg_d
Exit

--.J

K=

1.0

110....<1.<1

.. .... ,
r_!&

Problem:

Determine the total re-

sistance coefficient

for

8.

pipe one

diameter long having a sharp edged


entrance and a sharp edged exit,
Solution: The resistance of pipe
one diameter long is small and can be
neglected (K = f L/D).

From the diagrams, note:


Resistance for a sharp edged entrance
Resistance for a sharp edged exit

0.5
1.0

Then,
the total resistance, K, for the pipe

1.5

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223.00-4

TABLE 4.3

Schedule (Thickness) of Steel Pipe Used in Obtaining Resistance


Of Valves and Fittings of Various Pressure Classes by Tes~*
Valve or Fitting
ASA Pressure Classification
(Steam Ratin~)

Schedule No.
of Pipe
(Thickness)

*These schedule numbers have been arbitrarilv selected only for the DUrDOSe of
=====-====~======== identi.fying the various pressurecla~es
250-Pound and Lower
Schedule 40
of valves and fittings with specific
300-Pound to 600-Pound
Schedule 80
pipe dimensions for the interpretation
9OO-Pound
Schedule 120
of flow test data; they should not be
1500-Pound
Schedule 160
construed as a recommendation fOI
Sizes
J2
to
b-inch
xx
(Double
Extra Strong)
installation purposes.
2500-Pound
Sizes 8-inch and larger

Schedule 160

Representative Equivalent Length t in Pipe Diameters (LID)


Of Various Valves and Fiings

Equivalent Length
In Pipe Diameten

Description of Product

IConventional Globe./
y -Pattern

Gl~be

Conventional Angle

Pulp Stock Gate

Valve~

I With strainer and poppet lift-type disc

In-Line Ball Check I With ,trainer and

Straight-Through Cocks
Three-Way Cocks

35
Thrce-quarters open
161>
One-half open
On~-qu:lrtcr open
900
17
Fully open
50_
Three-quarters open
260
One-half open
1200
O~-quarter Of:}t'n___ _ __
Fullyopen
3"
Fully open
20
O.5t
Fully open I
135
0.5t
Fully open
50
Z.ot
Fullyopen Same as Cony. Globe
Z.Ot
Fullv open Same as Cony. Angle.

Conduit Pipe line Gate


Butterfly (f,-inch and larger)
Conventional Swing Check
Clearway Swing Check
Globe Lift Check or Stop-Check
Angle Lift Check or Stop-Check

--- Foot

~:!

~~:~r. ~~~

lcatll;f;h~::~:~a~i:nc:l025 horizon;~~; : : . ~:;;~ :~~

'Rectangular plug port :lrea equal to 100% of pipe area

I Rectangular plug port area equal to


80% of pipe area (fully open)

90 Degree Street Elbow


Fittings 4S Degree Street Elbow
_~9uare Corner E.::lbo:.=.;w::-

Fully open ,

18

Flow straight through


Flow through branch

Pipe

Miter Bends
Sudden Enlargements and Contractions
Entrance and Exit Losses
tMinimum calculated pressure drop (p~iJ acro,~
,'alve to provide sufficienc flow to lift disc fully.

EX8Ct equivalent length is equal to the

length between Range (aces or welding ends.

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44
140

j,.

50
26
5_7_ _

-+

.::.::-_-----------

For ........11 'actor "IC", equi"",,-, ''''11'''

II !!

With Row through run


With flow through branch
Close Pattern Return Bend
90 Degre:c Pipe Benu.s

420

1;~

,i

IEg:=:: E;:;:~~;~bUW
Standard Tee

13

FuHyopen

------------i------------

175
145
145
200

Fully open
Fully open

340
451>

Fully open
Fully open
Fully open
Fully open

With no obstruction in nat, bevel. or plug type seat


With wing or pin guided disc
With stem 6G degrees from run of pipe line
With stem 45 degrees from run of pipe line
With no obstruction in nat, bevel, or plug type seat
With wing or pin guided disc

iConventional Wedge
Disc, Double Disc,
or Plug Gate

Valves

(lIn)

10
60
50

I
I

See Pii~C ,-\-27


See PaRe :\-27
See Page ,\-20
See Page :\.-26

tFor limitations,
see page :;.} I.

'eet 0' pi,... aM ""ui....'.." flow caelfi';..., "C... ... page. "'31 alWl "'.32.

223.00-4

Example
If the fittings, in a L~" pipeL1ne have a tOtaL resistance
coefficient K = 20 and if f = 0.02 for the line, then the
equivalent length of the fitting may be added to the actual
length of the line as below:
.
Equlvalent Length L

KD
= -r
=

20 x 1
0.02'

1,000 ft

Problems involving pressure losses have a basic solution


pattern:
(a)

Determine the Reynolds' No.

(b)

Use the RE to find 'f', the friction factor.

(c)

Determine 'K' for all the fittings and evaluate an


equivalent length, including entrance and exit losses.

(d)

Use ELOSS

'f'

LV 2
2D to obtain total loss.

Example
A 10" SCH 40 ~ipe is 100 m, and carries oil at 0.3 m3 /s"
Density = 850 kg/m and ~ = 1 X 10- 1 ns/m 2
The line is fitted
with a swing check valve, which is fully open at the inlet
and a gate valve which is fully open at the outlet"
Calculate:
(a)

The pressure drop in the line.

(b)

The power required.


Velocity

flowrate
area

VDi

5.9 x 10 x 2.54 X 10- 2


1 x 10- 1

0.3

5 9
= __
"_

508.7 x lO-~
X

m/ s

850

12,738

E/D from Chart 1 - 0.00018


f from Chart 2

0.029

K for swing check valve = 2.5


gate valve = 0.19
2.69
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223.00-4

KD

=f

Thus equivalent length

2.69 x lOx 2.54"


0.029

23.6 m

where L

100 + 23.6

123.6 m

0.029 x 123.6 x 5.9 2


2 x 10 x 2.54 X 10- 2

246 Jjkg

Pressure Energy
Thus

~p

'X

10- 2

Pressure Energy

=T

kg

246 x 850 Pa

AP = 209.1 kPa
Power required

Qm x ELOSS

QV x

= -m
s

x ELOSS

Q,

m3

kg

J
= -s =

0.3 x 850 x 246

62.73

k\'J

ASSIGNMENT

6 -

1.

What are minor losses and why are they important?

2.

How are minor losses calculated.

3.

A line is fitted with a plug seat g~oDe valve, a conventional swing check valve, 5 x 90 0 standard elbows
and a standard tee with flow through the branch.
If
the line is 10" diameter, what is the effective length
due to the resistance of the fittings?

223.00-4

4.

provides 60 k,'1 to pump ~rJater along a 12" pipe at


The line is fitted with four medium standard
90 elbows and a swing check valve. What is the
longest length of line that may be used to satisfy
these conditions and what is the pressure drop?
3
( = 998 kg/m ; y = 1.007 X 10- 6 m'js)

pum~

0.4 m Is.

J. Irwin-Childs

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