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1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Ability to molt
Takes about 2 days to reach reproductive maturity
Takes 4 days to reach reproductive maturity
Start of visible segmentation at ~2.5 days
Time of hatching or birth similar to xenopus

a. C. elegans
b. zebrafish

6. Model organism (among the six) with the fastest


a.
rate
of development to reach adult stage
b.
7. Model organism (among the 6) with the slowest
rate of
development to reach adult stage
8. Can yield high numbers of embryos for genetic manipulation
9. Fertilization is external
10. Microsurgery from eggs is possible
11. Shorter time period (bet 2 model org.) to start the
formation of germ layers
12. Takes about 3.5 months to reach sexual maturity
13. Takes about 5 months to reach sexual maturity
14. Takes about 9 months to reach sexual maturity
15. Capable of molting/metamorphosis

drossophila
xenopus

a. Chick
b. Mouse

16. Beginning of Balbiani body assembly


17. Reduction of pigmentation at the animal hemisphere
18. Accumulation of pigment granules at the vegetal
19. Convergent extension
20. Beginning of axis specification

a. Oogenesis
b. Cleavage

21. Convergent extension takes place


22. Involves the non-canonical wnt signaling pathway
23. High gene expression of sox2 and N-CAM
24. Dependent on the formation of the Spemann
organizer
25. Requires high concentration of BMP4

a. Gastrulation
b. Neurulation

26. Region expressing high concentration of BMP


inhibitors
27. Regional specification formed immediately after
cortical rotation
28. Formation is favoured at low vegT expression
29. Formation is favoured at high vegT expression
30. Expresses high concentration of xnrs

a. Nieuwkoop centre
b. Spemanns
organzer

31. High expression of BMP4


32. High expression of follistatin
33. Default fate of the dorsal-ventral region near the
Spemann organizer
34. Fate of ectodermal cells
35. Fate of yolky endoderm

pole

a. Epidermis
formation
b. Brain formation

36. Regulates convergent extension during gastrulation


37. Wnt5a as the dominant ligand
38. Leads to the stabilization of beta-catenin
39. Involves the phosphoprotein dishevelled
40. Leads to the activation of RhoA and Rac
41. Requires the frizzled receptor

a. Wnt canonical
pathway
b. Wnt planar polarity
pathway

Sequencing:
Oogonium maturation into primary oocyte
42. Expression and association of VegT and Veg1 within the Balbiani body
43. Cdc25 phosphorylation
44. Activation of MPF
45. Release of progesterone from ovarian follicle cells
46. c-Mos activation
Fertilization
47. secondary oocytes arrested in metaphase II
48. release of second polar body
49. rise in intracellular Ca+
50. secondary oocyte fertilized by sperm
51. destruction of c-mos nd Cdk2 complex
Cleavage
52. transcription of zygotic genome commence
53. cytoplasmic rearrangement
54. accumulation of beta catenin in the region of blastoporal lip
55. secretion of dorsalizing factors
56. formation Spemann organizer
57.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

dorsalizing factor
ventralizing factor
c. dorsal mesoderm
ventral mesoderm
ectoderm

58. noggin
59. chordin
60. goosecoid
61. BMP4
62. BMP4
63. vegT
64. vg1
65. xnr1
66. siamois
67. not

a. Endoderm
b. Neural plate formation region of
the brain
c. Primordial germ cells
d. Highly expressed in gut tissues
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.

vent1
vent2
sox2
Cat2
N-CAM
Krox20
pdx1
cdx
brachyury
mix1