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Advanced Characterization of Asphalt and Concrete Materials

GSP 255 ASCE 2014

Research on Multigrade Asphalt Cement (MAC) Application Based on Evotherm


Warm-mixed Asphalt (EWMA) Technology
Renjuan SUN 1, Tongbo SUN2, Ziqiang FENG3, Zhidong ZHOU4

Assistant Professor, School of Civil Engineering, Shandong University, 17923 Jingshi Road, Jinan,
250061 P.R. China. E-mail: sunrenjuan@sdu.edu.cn
2
Senior Engineer, Shandong Heritage Highway Materials Technologies, IIC , 3366# Jingshi Dong
Road, Jinan, 250011 P.R. China.917757290@qq.com
3
Senior Engineer, Jinan Bureau of Highway Administration, 1# Jiefang Dong Road, Jinan, 250100 P.R.
China, E-mail: 1228701686@qq.com
4

Master degree committer, School of Civil Engineering, Shandong University, 17923 Jingshi Road,
Jinan, 250061 P.R. China. E-mail: 492018366@qq.com

ABSTRACT: Multigrade Asphalt CementMACis a liquefied binder material by


chemical method and is widely applied in the heavy traffic pavement. Its high
construction temperature restricts its application in low temperature. The latest
Evotherm product-EWMA was added into MAC to produce composite binder. Dense
graded hot-mixed mixture AC-20 was selected as the studied aim and Marshall
method was used when the mixture was designed. MAC added of different dosages
EWMA (EWMA-MAC) was mixed with aggregate at 180 and compacted at
different temperatures 155, 140, and 125. The air voids of EWMA-MAC
mixture with 0.7% EWMA compacted at 155 and 140 were very close to those of
MAC mixture compacted at 170 . Water stability, high and low temperature
properties of EWMA-MAC mixture with 0.7% EWMA compacted at 155, 140,
and 125 were measured and discussed. The field tested results show that EWMA
technology can improve the workability of MAC mixture at low temperature and
obtain good early pavement performances.
INTRODUCTION
With the rapid development of traffic volume and the large accumulation of wheel
axle load, asphalt pavement distresses and fails severely and requires frequent repair.
Modified asphalt has been widely used to improve the pavement performances and to
extend the pavement life [1]. In China, modified asphalt SBS asphalt is restrained in
the wearing course application for its high price [2]. A new type asphalt-Multigrade
Asphalt Cement(MAC) is 500~600RMB (80~90$) per ton cheaper than SBS asphalt
and has superior mixture properties than other kinds of asphalt being as middle- and/or
bottom-layer of flexible pavement structure [2].

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Advanced Characterization of Asphalt and Concrete Materials


GSP 255 ASCE 2014

MAC is produced by gelling a liquefied asphalt material and is accomplished by


saponifying method or by adding the already saponified product to the liquefied
asphalt [3]. Substantially it is free of water, at least one fatty acid and at least one resin
acid with an alkali metal base [3]. MAC has improved properties over conventional
asphalt cement, including higher viscosity, higher soft point, reduced temperature
susceptibility and lower rate of age hardening. The high viscosity causes thick asphalt
film covering the aggregates and makes the concrete have good durability under the
proper design and construction conditions [3]. These advantages make MAC mixture
has been widely used in the high-type asphalt pavement construction. In recent 10
years, 100,000 tons MAC have been used in the pavement construction annually in
China [3].
According to Technical Specifications for Skeleton Dense Asphalt Mixture [4],
during the mixture production, the aggregate should be heated to 185 to 200,
MAC should be heated to 175 to 190, and the mixture should be mixed at the
temperature ranges from 175 to 185. After the mixture was delivered to the field,
the spreading temperature should be equal or larger than 170 . The initial
compaction temperature should be equal or larger than 160. On one hand, the higher
construction temperature increases the energy consumption and greenhouse gas
emissions, and cause higher cost [5]. On the other hand, the workability is easy to lose
and the compaction degree decrease likely. These properties give rigorous challenges
to construction, and restraint the application of MAC in low temperature climates.
Evotherm technology is a typical warm-mixed technology invented by Westvaco
Corporation and is based on activating additives mechanism. This technology initiates
from Evotherm [6] additive used in the form of emulsion. The latest generation
product is Evotherm Warm-mixed Asphalt (EWMA), which is water-free and can be
added into asphalt binder or added into the mixture during its mixing [6]. Mixture with
EWMA has advantages over other kinds of mixture [7]. At present, most warm-mixed
asphalt mixtures used in China are based on Evotherm technology [6] and have
accepted common approval around the pavement projects.
The objective of this research is applying EWMA to improve the workability of
MAC mixture first time and to extend its compaction temperature range. The research
also includes a series of assessments of the properties of EWMA-MAC mixture. An
investigation on construction workability and field performances for EWMA-MAC
mixture will be introduced also.
EFFECTS OF EWMA ON MAC MIXTURE PRODUCTION
Materials of EWMA-MAC Mixture
The properties of MAC and EWMA used in these tests are shown in Table1.Three
weight ratios of EWMA were added into pre-heated MAC to produce EWMA-MAC
binder. They are 0.4%, 0.7%, and 1% respectively. The EWMA-MAC had been
stirred for about 5 minutes to make the binder uniformly mixed and was casted in the
195 modes for the tests. The tested penetration and softening point are listed in
Table2. The results mean that EWMA doesnt affect the properties of MAC almost.

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GSP 255 ASCE 2014

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For the dense grade mixture AC20 production, the coarse aggregate, fine aggregate,
and filler used are crushed from limestone were used. The property of the aggregate is
illustrated in Table 3 and the gradation is shown in Table 4.
Table 1. MAC and EWMA properties
Item
Criteria
35~60
Penetration (25100g5s; 0.1mm)

MAC

Penetration (4100g5s; 0.1mm)

7.55

0.54

Softening point ()

65~75

Dynamic viscosity (60; Pa.s)

500

71
550

Flash Point ()
Density (25; g/cm )

245
NA

260
1.03

Solubility (%)

99

Viscosity (20; mPa.s)

660~1225

99.5
780

Viscosity (20; mPa.s)

245

260

Density (25; g/cm3)

NA

0.968

Amine Value (g)

515~605

577

EWMA

Measured
43.73

Table 2. Penetration and Softening Point of EWMA-MAC


EWMA
Penetration
Penetration
Softening point
(%)
( 25, 0.1mm)
4, 0.1mm
()
0
41.2
13.0
71.0
0.4
41.9
13.6
72.3
0.7
41.5
13.3
73.2
1.0
41.4
13.5
74.1
Criteria
35~60
12~35
65~75

Advanced Characterization of Asphalt and Concrete Materials


GSP 255 ASCE 2014

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Table 3 Aggregate Properties of AC20 Mixture


Item
Measured
Crushed stone value (%)
Los angles weared stone value (%)
Apparent relative density
Water absorption (%)
Soundness (%)

9.8
15
2.723
0.939
5
6.5

Content of e flaky and elongated particle (%)


Adhesion grade
Content of mud (%)

Table 4. Aggregate gradation for AC20 Mixture


Percent passing ()

Item
Sieve size
(mm)
Upper
limit
Lower
limit
Blend

5
0.2

26.5

19

16

13.2

9.5

4.75

2.36

1.18

0.6

0.3

0.15

0.075

100

100

95

86

70

48

33

23

16

11

100

90

83

73

56

35

22

15

10

100

95.34

89.2

80.38

62.43

38.32

23.31

16.02

11.27

7.66

6.09

2.00

The Marshall design method was used in the research and 4.3% weight ratio to the
total mixture was determined as the MAC content. Besides the MAC without EWMA,
EWMA-MAC with three dosage of EWMA 0.4%, 0.7%, and 1% were mixed with the
same aggregate to produce AC20.
Effects of EWMA on MAC Mixture Properties at Decreased Compaction
Temperatures
In order to analyze the effects of EWMA on the compaction properties of MAC
mixture at decreased compaction temperatures, specimens mixed at 180 were
compacted at 170, 155, 140, and 125 respectively. Marshall tests were run
on the specimens and the curves of volume of air voids are shown in Fig. 1. We can
see from the curves, the slopes of MAC with EWMA are smaller than that of EWMAMAC. This trend means EWMA can improve the compaction property of MAC
mixture. With the decease of compaction temperature, the air void of mixture with
0.7% EWMA increases slightly and is much less than those of other three mixtures.
The result illustrates 0.7% dosage of EWMA can be determined as the additive
content for the decreased compaction.

Advanced Characterization of Asphalt and Concrete Materials


GSP 255 ASCE 2014

Fig.1 Relationship between air voids of EWMA-MAC mixture with temperature


EFFECTS OF EWMA ON MAC MIXTURE PROPERTIES
The EWMA-MAC mixture specimens with 0.7% EWMA compacted at 155, 140,
and 125 were tested for properties evaluation respectively, with MAC mixture
specimens compacted at 170 for reference. The tested properties include water
stability, rutting resistance under high temperature, and fracture resistance under low
temperature.
Water Stability
In China, large amounts of pavements fail from the water damage due to the decrease
of the binder-aggregate interface cohesion, and cause high cost in the repair every
year. In order to increase the resistance of the pavement to water damage, the water
stability of asphalt mixture is required in Chinese national pavement specification [9].
Water stability is evaluated by carrying out freeze-thaw split test and immersion
Marshall test on the mixture samples.
Splitting strengths (RT) of the control mixture samples without freezing-thaw action
and those of the samples with freezing-thaw action were tested in the freeze-thaw split
test. Then, the RT of control group was divided by the RT of freezing-thaw group to get
tensile strength ratio (TSR). The tested results shown in Table 5 illustrate that
EWMA-MAC mixtures compacted at 155 and 140 have higher TSR than MAC
mixture compacted at 170 has. The TSR of EWMA-MAC mixture compacted at
125 is a little less than that of MAC mixture compacted at 170. All the TSR
results are larger than the required TSR in the specification.

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GSP 255 ASCE 2014

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Table 5. RT and TSR of EWMA-MAC mixture compacted at different


temperature
Mixture type
RT
(MPa)

Before

Freezingthaw group
TSR (%)

0% EWMA
compacted at
170
1.05

0.7% EWMA
compacted at
155
1.09

0.7% EWMA
compacted at
140
1.06

0.7% EWMA
compacted at
125
1.01

0.84

0.94

0.86

0.81

81

86.24

81.13

80.20

Immersion Marshall tests were run on the specimens to measure the residual stability
under immersion condition. The testing results as shown in Fig.2 illustrate that the
residual stabilities of EWMA-MAC mixtures compacted at 155 and 140 are
higher than that of MAC mixture compacted at 170. The residual stability of
EWMA-MAC mixture compacted at 125 is lower than that of MAC mixture.
The good water sensibilities of EWMA-MAC mixture result from the EWMA acting
as a bridge between the asphalt binder and the aggregate surface, promoting adhesion
and resisting the action of water.

Fig.2 Immersion Marshall residual stability of EWMA-MAC mixture compacted


at different temperature
Resistance to Rutting at High Temperature
The dynamic stability tested in the rutting test is shown in Fig.3. The result illustrates
that the dynamic stabilities of EWMA-MAC mixture are higher than that of MAC
mixture.

Advanced Characterization of Asphalt and Concrete Materials


GSP 255 ASCE 2014

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Fig.3 Dynamic stability of EWMA-MAC mixture compacted at different


temperature
Resistance to Fracture at Low Temperature
The bending tensile tests were carried out on the two sets of samples at -10. The
measured flexural-tensile strength RB, maximum bending strain , and fractured
bending stiffness modulus SB are listed in Table 6. The results show that the maximum
bending strain of the EWMA-MAC mixture compacted at 155 is higher than that of
MAC mixture, and the bending strength and fractured bending stiffness modulus are a
little higher than that of the mixture with EWMA. The results mean the EWMA
promote the resistance to low temperature fracture of MAC.
Table 6. Results of low temperature bending tensile tests
Mixture type

RB (MPa)

SB (MPa)

0% EWMA compacted at 170

1962

8.56

4748

0.7% EWMA compacted at 155

2612

7.99

3504

FIELD APPLICATION OF EWMA-MAC MIXTURE AND PAVEMENT


PERFORMANCE
There is a 1.6km long urban arterial road Zhenda road connected two existing roads in
Yantai City of Shandong Province, China. 1km tunneling construction spent very long
time and the road completed in the early winter. The surface course was designed as
10cm thick asphalt mixture AC20, which had the same material proportion as the
studied one. The construction started at November 14, 2013 and finished at November
24, 2013. The average daily temperature during that period was 5, which was lower
than the required minimum construction temperature 10 listed in the specification
[4].
In order to obtain required compaction degree and pavement performances, 0.7%
EWMA was added into the mixture. After the mixture was delivered and spread to the
site, the mixture temperature decreased to 145 to 155, which is lower than the
required initial compaction temperature [4]. With the addition of EWMA, the mixture

Advanced Characterization of Asphalt and Concrete Materials


GSP 255 ASCE 2014

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had good compaction workability and obtained the performances as required in


Technical Specifications for Construction of Highway Asphalt Pavements of China [9].
The measured results are shown in Table 7 and the field construction and finish state
are presented in Fig.4.
Table 7. Compaction performances of EWMA-MAC AC20 mixture
Tested Item

Measured
Specification

Compaction
degree
%
96
93

Roughness
maximum
clearancemm
4.1
5

Roughness
Standard
deviationmm
1.33
1.8

water permeability
coefficient
Ml/min
215
300

Fig.4 Field application of EWMA-MAC mixture at low temperature


CONCLUSIONS
(1) With the addition of 0.7% EWMA, the EWMA-MAC mixtures compacted at
155 and 140 have almost the same air void as MAC mixture compacted at 170 .
(2) The water stability and resistance to rutting of EWMA-MAC mixture compacted at
155 and 140 are better than those of MAC mixture compacted at 170 .
(3) The tested results show that EWMA promotes the resistance of MAC to fracture at
low temperature.
(4) The measured results in the field show that EWMA can improve the workability of
MAC mixture at very low temperature and extend the period of MAC construction.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors appreciate the support of Independent Innovation Foundation of
Shandong University, IIFSDU(2012TS057), and Shandong Heritage Highway
Materials Technologies IIc.
REFERENCES
[1] Endong Wang (2009). Development and Application Research on Multigrade.
Master thesis Asphalt Cement. Chang'an University.

Advanced Characterization of Asphalt and Concrete Materials


GSP 255 ASCE 2014

[2] Yongjun Chen (2011). Mechanism and Performance of Modified Asphalt with
MAC. Highway Engineering. 36(2): 187-191.
[3] Sheng Zhao, Baoshan HuangXiang Shu, Mark Woods (2013). Comparative
evaluation of warm mix asphalt containing high percentages of reclaimed asphalt
pavement. Construction and Building Materials. 44:92-100
[4] Shandong Bureau of Quality Supervision (2010). Technical Specifications for
Skeleton Dense Asphalt Mixtures (DB37/T 1724-2010).
[5] Newcomb D .(2005). An introduction to warm mix asphalt. National Asphalt
Pavement Association (NAPA). <http://fs1.hotmix.org/mbc/Introductionto
_Warm-mix_Asphalt.pdf> [accessed 08.08.07].
[6] Li Zhengzhong, Wei, Ruxi, Song Xiaoyan, Matao (2013). Two-Stage Design
Method for the Evotherm Warm-Mix Asphalt Mixtures Journal of Chongqing
University (Natural Science) Vol. 32 (4)::610-613.
[7] NCHRP (2011.). Mix design practices for warm mix asphalt. National
cooperative highway research program report 691. Washington (DC):
Transportation Research Board;
[8] Ministry of Transport of the Peoples Republic of China (2011). Standard Test
Methods of Bitumin and Bituminous Mixtures for Highway Engineering JTG
E20-2011.
[9] Ministry of Transport of the Peoples Republic of China (2004). Technial
Specifications for Construction of Highway Asphalt Pavements, JTG F40-2004.

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