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You are on page 1of 38

A brief tutorial

This tutorial is a brief look at what SPSS for Windows is capable of doing. Examples will come from Statistical Methods for

Psychology by David C. Howell. It is not our intention to teach you about statistics in this tutorial. For that you should rely on your

classes in statistics and/or a good textbook. If you're a novice this tutorial should give you a feel for the programme and how to

navigate through the many options. Beyond that, the SPSS Help Files should be used as a resource. Further, SPSS sells a number of

very good manuals.

The Basics

SPSS for Windows has the same general look a feel of most other programmes for Windows. Virtually anything statistic that you wish

to perform can be accomplished in combination with pointing and clicking on the menus and various interactive dialog boxes. You

may have noted that the examples in the Howell textbook are performed/analyzed via code. That is, SPSS, like many other packages,

can be accessed by programming short scripts, instead of pointing and clicking. We will not cover any programming in this tutorial.

Presumeably, SPSS is already installed on your computer. If you don't have a shortcut on your desktop go to the [Start =>

Programs] menu and start the package by clicking on the SPSS icon.

Before proceeding I should say a few words about a very simple convention that will be used in this tutorial. In this point and click

environment one often has to navigate through many layers of menu items before encountering the required option. In the above

paragraph the prescribed task was to locate the SPSS icon in the [Start] menu structure. To get to that icon, one must first click

on [Start] then move the pointer to the [Programs] options, before locating the SPSS icon. This sequence of events can be conveyed

by typing [Start => Programs] . That is, one must move from the outer layer of the menu structure to some inner layer in sequence....

Once you've clicked on the SPSS icon a new window will appear on the screen. The appearance is that of a standard programme for

windows with a spreadsheet-like interface.

of menu options relating to

statistics, on the menu bar. There

are also shortcut icons on the

toolbar. These serve as quick access

to often used options. Holding your

mouse over one of these icons for a

second or two will result in a short

function description for that icon.

The current display is that of an empty data sheet. Clearly, data can either be entered manually, or it can be read from an existing data

file.

Browsing the file menu, below, reveals nothing too surprising - many of the options are familiar. Although, the details are specific to

SPSS. For example, the [New] option is used to specify the type of window to open. The various options, under the [New] heading

are,

[Data] Default window with a blank data sheet ready for analyses

[Syntax] One can write scripts like those present in the Howell text, instead of using the menus. See the SPSS manuals for

help on this topic.

[Output] Whenever a procedure is run, the out is directed to a separate window. One can also have

multiple [Output] windows open to organize the various analyses that might be conducted. Later, these results can be saved

and/or printed.

[Script] This window provides the opportunity to write fullblown programmes, in a BASIC-like language. These programmes

have access to functions that make up SPSS. With such access it is possible to write user-defined procedures - those not part of

SPSS - by taking advantage of the SPSS functions. Again, this is beyond the scope of this tutorial.

avenues for reading data from existing files. The first

is the [Open] option. Like other application packages

(e.g., WordPerfect, Excel, ....) SPSS also has it's own

format for saving data. In this case, the accepted

extension for any file saved using the proprietary

format is "sav". So, one can have a datafile saved as

"data1.sav". Anyways, this format is not readable with

a text editor, it is a binary format. The benefits are that all formatting changes are maintained and the file can be read faster, hence

the [Open] option. It is specifically meant for files saved in the SPSS format. The second option, [Read ASCII Data], as the name

suggests is to read files that are saved in ASCII format. As can be seen, there are two choices - [Freefield] and [Fixed Columns].

Clicking on one of these options will produce a dialog box. One must specify a number of parameters before a file can be read

successfully.

Reading ASCII files requires that the user know something about the format of the data file. Otherwise, one is likely get stuck in the

process of reading, or the result may be a costly error. The more restrictive format is [Fixed Columns]. One must know how many

variables there are, whether a variable is in numeric or string format, and the first and last column of each variable. For example, think

of the following as an excerpt from an ASCII datafile.

male

37 102

male

22 115

male

27 99

....

.. ...

female 48 107

female 21 103

female 28 122

...... .. ...

An examination of the datafile provides several key pieces of information,

1. There are 3 variables

2. Variable 1 is a string , Variable 2 and 3 are numeric

3. Variable 1: first column=1, last column=6

4.

o

Notice that none of the columns overlap. The longest case for column one is the name "female", that spans from the

first column to the sixth - or, the letter e. As you can see, one has to manually locate the first and last column, of each

variable.

6. Variable 3: first column=12, last column=14

One needs all of the above information, in addition to, name for each of the three variables. It is a highly structured way of setting up

and describing the data. For such files I would suggest becoming comfortable with a good text editor. Failing that, you may wish to try

Notepad or WordPad in Win95, but ensure that you save as a textfile with WordPad. A fullfledged word processor like Word or

WordPerfect will also work provided that you remember to save as a textfile. These same editors will allow you to figure out the

column locations for each of the variables.

The [Freefield] option is less restrictive. Essentially, the columns can be ragged (i.e., overlapping). One need only preserve the order

of each variable across all of the cases.

male 37 102

male 22 115

male 27 99

.... .. ...

female 48 107

female 21 103

female 28 122

...... .. ...

Experiment with creating datafiles and reading them with this method. As for the SPSS format, there are a large number of sample

datafiles included in your package. Just click on [Open] and find the SPSS home directory. Make sure the filetype in the dialog box

associated with [Open] is set to "*.sav" - the default...

Before we move onto actual data, click on [Statistics] . The menu that appears reveals many classes of statistics available for use.

Each class is further subdivided into other options, as denoted by the little arrow at the right size of the menu selector. Explore what is

offered by moving your mouse over the various

procedures listed.

Data

To begin the process of adding data, just click on the first cell that is located in the upper left corner of the datasheet. It's just like a

spreadsheet. You can enter your data as shown. Enter each datapoint then hit [Enter]. Once you're done with one column of data you

can click on the first cell of the next column.

These data are taken from table2.1 in Howell's text. The first column represents "Reaction Time in 100ths of a second" and the second

column indicates "Frequency".

above example, the variable names will be

automatically generated (e.g., var00001,

var00002,....). They are not very informative. To

change these names, click on the variable name

button. For example, double click on the "var00001"

button. Once you have done that, a dialog box will

appear. The simplest option is to change the name to something meaningful. For instance, replace "var00001" in the textbox with "RT"

(see figure below).

name one can make changes specific

to [Type], [Labels], [Missing

Values], and [Column Format].

whether the data are in

numeric or string format, in

can enhance the readability of the

output. A variable name is

limited to a length of 8

characters, however, by using

a variable label the length can be

as much as 256 characters. This

provides the ability to have very

descriptive labels that will appear

at the output.

Often, there is a need to code categorical variables in numeric format. For example, male and female can be coded

as 1 and 2, respectively. To reduce confusion, it is recommended that one uses value labels . For the example of gender

coding, Value:1 would have a correspoding Value label: male. Similarly, Value:2 would be coded with Value Label: female.

(click on the[Labels] button to verify the above)

[Missing Values] See the accompanying help. This option provides a means to code for various types of missing values.

[Column Format] The column format dialog provides control over several features of each column (e.g., width of column).

adviseable to save. In fact, save as often as possible

[File => SaveAs].

SPSS offers a large number of possible formats, including their own. A list of the available formats can be

viewed and selected by clicking on the Save as type: , on the SaveAs dialog box. If your intention is to only

work in SPSS, then there may be some benefit to saving in the SPSS(*.sav) format. I assume that this format

allows for faster reading and writing of the data file. However, if your data will be analyzed and looked by

other packages (e.g., a spreadsheet), it would be adviseable to save in a more universal format (e.g.,

Excel(*.xls), 1-2-3 Rel 3.0 (*.wk3).

Once the type of file has been selected, enter a filename, minus the extension (e.g., sav, xls). You should also save the file in a

meaningful directory, on your harddrive or floppy. That is, for any given project a separate directory should be created. You don't want

your data to get mixed-up.

saved data can be painless if the

saved format is in the SPSS or a

spreadsheet format. All one has to

do is,

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

Open] : a dialog box

will appear

navigate to desired

directory using the Look

select file type in the Files of type menu

click on the filename that is needed.

The process of reading existing files is slightly more involved if the format is ASCII/plain text (see the earlier description

of [Freefield] and [Fixed Columns]). As an example, the ASCII data from table2.1 in the Howell text will be used. A file containing

the data should be included in the accompanying disk for the text. [Note: It was not present in my disk, so I downloaded the file from

Howell's webpage.] I've placed the files on my harddrive at c:\ascdat. In the case of this set of data,there are four columns

representing observation number, reaction time, setsize, and the presence or absence of the target stimulus. This information can be

found in the readme.txt file that is also on the disk. Typically, we are aware of the contents of our own data files, however, it doesn't

hurt to keep a record of the contents of such files.

To make life easier the [File => Read ASCII Data => Freefield] will be used.

a File , a Name and a Data Type be

specified for each variable, or column of

data. The desired file is accessed by

clicking on the [Browse] button, and then navigating to the desired location. Since the extension for the sought after file is dat there is

no need to change the Files of type: selection. However, if the extension is something else (e.g., *.txt) then it would be necessary to

select All files(*.*) from the Files of type: menu. Since there are 4 variables in this data set, 4 names with the corresponding type

information must be specified. ToAdd the first variable, observations, to the list,

o

o

o

o

the Data Type is set to Numeric by default. If "obs" was a string variable, then one would have to click on String

click on the Add button to include this variable to the list.

repeat the above procedure with new names and data types for each of the remaining variables. It is important that all

variables be added to the list. Otherwise, the data will be scrambled.

(Please explore the various options by clicking on any accessible menu item.)

The resulting data files appears in the data editor like the following.

some descriptive statistics.

Descriptive Statistics

We can replicate the frequency analyses that are described in chapter 2 of the text, by using the file that was just read into the data

editor - tab2-1.dat. These analyses were conducted on the reaction time data. Recall, that we have labelled this data as RT.

To begin, click on [Statistics=>Summarize=>Frequencies]....

The result is a new dialog box that allows the user to select the variables of interest. Also, note the other clickable buttons along the

border of the dialog box. The buttons labelled [Statistics...]and [Charts...] are of particular importance. Since we're interested in the

reaction time data, click on rt followed by a mouse click on the arrow pointing right. The consequence of this action is a transference

of the rt variable to the Variables list. At this point, clicking on the [OK] button would spawn an output window with the Frequency

information for each of the reaction times. However, more information can be gathered by exploring the options offered by

the [Statistics...] and [Charts...].

statistics. Any statistic that is selected will

be summarized in the output window.

As for the options under [Charts...] click on Bar Charts to replicate the graph in the text.

Once the options have been selected, click on [OK] to run the procedure. The results are then displayed in an output window. In this

particular instance the window will include summary statistics for the variable RT, the frequency distribution, and the frequency

distribution. You can see all of this by scrolling down the window. The results should also be identical to those in the text.

You may have gathered from the above that calculating summary statistics requires nothing more than selecting variables, and then

selecting the desired statistics. The frequency example allowed us to generate frequency information plus measures of central

tendencies and dispersion. These statistics can be had by clicking directly on [Statistics=>Summarize=>Descriptives]. Not

surprisingly, another dialog box is attached to this procedure. To control the type of statistics produced, click on

the [Options...] button. Once again, the options include the typical measures of central tendency and dispersion.

Each time as statistical procedure is run, like [Frequencies...] and [Descriptives...] the results are posted to an Output Window. If

several procedures are run during one session the results will be appended to the same window. However, greater organization can be

reached by opening new Output windows before running each procedure - [File=>New=>Output]. Further, the contents of each of

these windows can be saved for later review, or in the case of charts saved to be later included in formattted documents. [Explore by

left mouse clicking on any of the output objects (e.g., a frequency table, a chart, ...) followed by a right button click. The left left

button click will highlight the desired object, while the right button click will popup a new menu. The next step is to click on

the copy option. This action will store the object on the clipboard so that it can be pasted to Word for Windows document, for

example.....]

The computation of the Chi-Square statistic can be accomplished by clicking on [Statistics => Summarize => Crosstabs...]. This

particular procedure will be your first introduction to coding of data, in the data editor. To this point data have been entered in a

column format. That is, one variable per column. However, that method is not sufficient in a number of situations, including the

calculation of Chi-Square, Independent T-tests, and any Factorial ANOVA design with between subjects factors. I'm sure there are

many other cases, but they will not be covered in this tutorial. Essentially, the data have to be entered in a specific format that makes

the analysis possible. The format typcially reflects the design of the study, as will be demonstrated in the examples.

In your text, the following data appear in section 6.????. Please read the text for a description of the study. Essentially, the table below - includes the observed data and the expected data in parentheses.

Fault

Low

High

Total

Guilty

153(127.559)

105(130.441)

258

Not Guilty

24(49.441)

76(50.559)

100

Total

177

181

358

In the hopes of minimizing the load time for remaining pages, I will make use of the built in table facilty of HTML to simulate the

Data Editor in SPSS. This will reduce the number of images/screen captures to be loaded.

For the Chi-Square statistic, the table of data can be coded by indexing the column and row of the observations. For example, the

count for being guilty with Low fault is 153. This specific cell can be indexed as coming from row=1 and column=1. Similarly, Not

Guilty with High fault is coded as row=2 and column=2. For each observation, four in this instance, there is unique code for location

on the table. These can be entered as follows,

Row

1

1

2

2

Column

1

2

1

2

Count

153

24

105

76

For each of the rows, there are 2 corresponding columns, that is reflected in the Count column. The Count column represents

the number of time each unique combination Row andColumn occurs.

The above presents the data in an unambigous manner. Once entered, the analysis is a matter of selecting the desired menu items, and

perhaps selecting additional options for that statistic. [Don't forget to use the labelling facilities, as mentioned earlier, to meaningfully

identify the columns/variables. The labels that are chosen will appear in the output window.]

To perform the analysis,

The first step is to inform SPSS that the COUNT variable represents the frequency for each unique coding of ROW and

COLUMN, by invoking the WEIGHT command. To do this, click on [Data => Weight Cases]. In the resultant dialog box,

enable the Weight cases by option, then move the COUNT variable into the Frequency Variable box. If this step is forgotten,

the count for each cell will be 1 for the table.

COUNT variable

has been processed

as a weighted

variable,

select [Statistics

=> Summarize =>

Crosstabs...] to

launch the

At the bottom of the dialog box are three buttons, with the most important being the [Statistics...] button. You must click on

the [Statistics...] button and then select the Chi-square option, otherwise the statistic will not be calculated. Exploring this

dialog box makes it clear that SPSS can be forced to calcuate a number of other statistics in conjuction with Chi-square. For

example, one can select the various measures of association (e.g., contingency coefficient, phi and cramer's v,...), among

others.

Move the ROW variable into the Row(s): box, and the COLUMN variable into the Column(s):, then click [OK] to perform

the analysis. A subset of the output looks like the following,

Although simple,

the calculation of

the Chi-square

statistic is very

particular about all

the required steps

being followed.

More generally, as

we enter hypothesis testing, the user should be very careful and should make use of manuals for the programme and textbooks for

statistics.

T-tests

By now, you should know that there are two forms of the t-test, one for dependent variables and one for independent variables, or

observations. To inform SPSS, or any stats package for that matter, of the type of design it is necessary to have to different ways of

laying out the data. For the dependent design, the two variables in question must be entered in two columns. For independent t-tests,

the observations for the two groups must be uniquely coded with a Gruop variable. Like the calculation of the Chi-square statistic,

these calculations will reinforce the practice of thinking about, and laying out the data in the correct format.

Dependent T-Test

To calculate this statistic, one must select [Statistics => Compare Means => Paired-Samples T Test...] after enterin the data. For

this analysis, we'll use the data from Table 7.3, in Howell.

Enter the data into a new datafile. Your data should look a bit like the following. That is, the two variables should occupy

separate columns...

Mnths_6

124

94

115

110

Mnths_24

114

88

102

2

116

139

116

110

129

120

105

88

120

120

116

105

...

...

123

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

...

...

132

Note that the variable names start with a letter and are less than 8 characters long. This is a bit constraining, however, one can

use the variable label option to label the variable with a longer name. This more descriptive name will then be reproduced in

the output window.

To calculate the t statistic click on [Statistics => Compare Means => Paired-Samples T Test...], then select the two variables

of interest. To select the two variables, hold the [Shift] key down while using the mouse for selection. You will note that the

selection box requires that variables be selected two at a time. Once the two variables have been selected, move them to

thePaired Variables: list. This procedure can be repeated for each pair of variables to be analyzed. In this case, select

MNTHS_6 and MNTHS_24 together, then move them to the Paired Variables list. Finally, click the [OK] button.

The critical result for the current analysis will appear in the output window as follows,

along with an exact p-value, and this p-value is

greater that the expected value of 0.025, for a

two-tailed assessment. Closer examination

indicates several other statistics are presented in

output window.

Independent T-tests

When calculating an independent t-test, the only difference involves the way the data are formatted in the datasheet. The datasheet

must include both the raw data and group coding, for each variable. For this example, the data from table 7.5 will be used. As an

added bonus, the number of observations are unequal for this example.

Take a look at the following table to get a feel for how to code the data.

Group

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Exp_Con

96

127

127

119

109

143

...

...

106

109

114

88

104

104

91

96

...

...

114

132

From the above you can see that we used the "Group" variable to code for the two variables. The value of 1 was used to code for

"LBW-Experimental", while a value of 2 was used to code for "LBW-Control". If you're confused please study the table, above.

To generate the t-statistic,

Clik on [Statistics => Compare Means => Independent-Samples T Test] to launch the appropriate dialog box.

Select "exp_con" - the dependent variable list - and move it to the Test Variable(s): box.

Select "group" - the grouping variable list - and move it to the Grouping Variable: box.

The final step requires that the groups be defined. That is, one must specify that Group1 - the experimental group in this case is coded as 1, and Group2 - the control group in this case - is coded as 2. To do this, click on the [Define Groups...] button.

Click on the [Continue] button to return to the controlling dialog box.

Run the analysis by clicking on the [OK] button.

The output for the current analysis extracted from the output window looks like the following.

The p-value of .004 is way lower than the cutoff of 0.025, and that suggests that the means are significantly different. Further, a

Levene's Test is performed to ensure that the correct results are used. In this case the variances are equal, however, the calculations for

unequal variances are also presented, among some other statistics - some not presented.

In the next section we will briefly demonstrate the calculation of correlations and regression, as discussed in Chapter 9 of Howell. In

truth, you should be able to work through many statistics with your current knowledge base and the help files, including correlations

and regressions. Most statistics can be calculated with a few clicks of the mouse.

This will be a brief tutorial, since there is very little that is required to calculate correlations and linear regressions. To calculate a

simple correlation matrix, one must use [Statistics => Correlate => Bivariate...], and [Statistics => Regression => Linear] for the

calculation of a linear regression.

For this section, the analyses presented in the computer section of the Correlation and Regression chapter will be replicated. To begin,

enter the data as follows,

IQ

102

108

109

118

79

88

...

...

85

GPA

2.75

4.00

2.25

3.00

1.67

2.25

...

...

2.50

Simple Correlation

Click on [Statistics => Correlate => Bivariate...], then select and move "IQ" and "GPA" to the Variables: list. [Explore the

options presented on this controlling dialog box.]

Click on [OK] to generate the requested statistics.

The results from output window should look like the following,

results suggest that the correlation is

significant.

Note: In the above example we only created a correlation matrix based on two variables. The process of generating a matrix based on

more than two variables is not different. That is, if the dataset consisted of 10 variables, they could have all been placed in

the Variables: list. The resulting matrix would include all the possible pairwise correlations.

Linear regression....it is possible to output the regression coefficients necessary to predict one variable from the other - that minimize

error. To do so, one must select the [Statistics => Regression => Linear...] option. Further, there is a need to know which variable

will be used as the dependent variable and which will be used as the independent variable(s). In our current example, GPA will be the

dependent variable, and IQ will act as the independent variable. Specifically,

Select and move GPA into the Dependent: variable box

Select andmove IQ into the Independent(s): variable box

Click on the [OK] to generate the statistics.

Note: A variety of options can be accessed via the buttons on the bottom half of this controlling dialog box (e.g., Statistics,

Plots,...). Many more statistics can be generated by explore the additional options via the Statistics button.

The correlation is still 0.702, and the p value is still 0.000. The additional statistics are "Constant", or a from the text, and "Slope",

or B from the text. If you recall, the dependent variable is GPA, in this case. As such, one can predict GPA with the following,

GPA = -1.777 + 0.0448*IQ

The next section will discuss the calculation of the ANOVA.

One-Way ANOVA

As in the independent t-test datasheet, the data must be coded with a group variable. The data that will be used for the first part of this

section is from Table 11.2, of Howell. There are 5 groups of 10 observations each - resulting in a total of 50 observations. The group

variable will be coded from 1 to 5, for each group. Take a look at the following to get an idea of the coding.

Groups

1

Scores

9

1

1

...

1

2

2

2

...

...

...

5

5

...

5

8

6

...

7

7

9

6

...

...

...

10

19

...

11

To complete the analysis,

Select [Statistics => Compare Means => One-Way ANOVA...] to launch the controlling dialog box.

Select and move "Scores" into the Dependent list:

Select and move "Groups" into the Factor: list

Click on [OK]

The preceeding is a complete spefication of the design for this oneway anova. The simple presentation of the results, as taken

from the output window, will look like the following,

performed provides

minimal details with

regard to the data. If you

take a look at the

controlling dialog box,

you will find 3 additional buttons on the bottom half -[Contrasts...], [Post Hoc..], and [Options...].

find,

If Descriptive is enabled, then the descriptive statistics for each condition will be generated. Making Homogeneity-ofvariance active forces a Levene's test on the data. The statistics from both of these analyses will be reproduced in the output window.

Selecting [Post Hoc] will launch the following dialog box,

multiple post hoc

tests to be performed.

The results will then

be placed in the

output window. For

example, performing

a R-E-G-W

F statistic on the

current data would

produce the

following,

the [Contrasts...] option to specify linear

and/or orthogonal sets of contrasts. One can also perform trend analysis via this option. For example, we may wish to contrast the

third condition with the fifth,

coefficients must be entered

individually, and in order. Once

can also enter multiple contrasts,

by using the [Next] present in

the dialog box. The result for the

example contrast would look like

the following,

Further, one can use the Polynomial option to test whether a specific trend in the data exists.

Factorial designs will be covered in the next section.

SPSS adalah sebuah program aplikasi yang memiliki kemampuan analisis statistik cukup tinggi serta sistem manajemen data pada

lingkungan grafis dengan menggunakan menu-menu deskriptif dan kotak-kotak dialog yang sederhana sehingga mudah untuk

dipahami cara pengoperasiannya. Beberapa aktivitas dapat dilakukan dengan mudah dengan menggunakan pointing dan clicking

mouse.

SPSS banyak digunakan dalam berbagai riset pemasaran, pengendalian dan perbaikan mutu (quality improvement), serta riset-riset

sains. SPSS pertama kali muncul dengan versi PC (bisa dipakai untuk komputer desktop) dengan nama SPSS/PC+ (versi DOS).

Tetapi, dengan mulai populernya system operasi windows. SPSS mulai mengeluarkan versi windows (mulai dari versi 6.0 sampai

versi terbaru sekarang).

Pada awalnya SPSS dibuat untuk keperluan pengolahan data statistik untuk ilmu-ilmu social, sehingga kepanjangan SPSS itu sendiri

adalah Statistikal Package for the Social Sciens. Sekarang kemampuan SPSS diperluas untuk melayani berbagai jenis pengguna

(user), seperti untuk proses produksi di pabrik, riset ilmu sains dan lainnya. Dengan demikian, sekarang kepanjangan dari SPSS

Statistikal Product and Service Solutions.

SPSS dapat membaca berbagai jenis data atau memasukkan data secara langsung ke dalam SPSS Data Editor. Bagaimanapun struktur

dari file data mentahnya, maka data dalam Data Editor SPSS harus dibentuk dalam bentuk baris (cases) dan kolom (variables). Case

berisi informasi untuk satu unit analisis, sedangkan variable adalah informasi yang dikumpulkan dari masing-masing kasus.

Hasil-hasil analisis muncul dalam SPSS Output Navigator. Kebanyakan prosedur Base System menghasilkan pivot tables, dimana kita

bisa memperbaiki tampilan dari keluaran yang diberikan oleh SPSS. Untuk memperbaiki output, maka kita dapat mmperbaiki output

sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Beberapa kemudahan yang lain yang dimiliki SPSS dalam pengoperasiannya adalah karena SPSS

menyediakan beberapa fasilitas seperti berikut ini:

Data Editor. Merupakan jendela untuk pengolahan data. Data editor dirancang sedemikian rupa seperti pada aplikasi-aplikasi

spreadsheet untuk mendefinisikan, memasukkan, mengedit, dan menampilkan data.

Viewer. Viewer mempermudah pemakai untuk melihat hasil pemrosesan, menunjukkan atau menghilangkan bagian-bagian tertentu

dari output, serta memudahkan distribusi hasil pengolahan dari SPSS ke aplikasi-aplikasi yang lain.

Multidimensional Pivot Tables. Hasil pengolahan data akan ditunjukkan dengan multidimensional pivot tables. Pemakai dapat

melakukan eksplorasi terhdap tabel dengan pengaturan baris, kolom, serta layer. Pemakai juga dapat dengan mudah melakukan

pengaturan kelompok data dengan melakukan splitting tabel sehingga hanya satu group tertentu saja yang ditampilkan pada satu

waktu.

High-Resolution Graphics. Dengan kemampuan grafikal beresolusi tinggi, baik untuk menampilkan pie charts, bar charts, histogram,

scatterplots, 3-D graphics, dan yang lainnya, akan membuat SPSS tidak hanya mudah dioperasikan tetapi juga membuat pemakai

merasa nyaman dalam pekerjaannya.

Database Access. Pemakai program ini dapat memperoleh kembali informasi dari sebuah database dengan menggunakan Database

Wizard yang disediakannya.

Data Transformations. Transformasi data akan membantu pemakai memperoleh data yang siap untuk dianalisis. Pemakai dapat dengan

mudah melakukan subset data, mengkombinasikan kategori, add, aggregat, merge, split, dan beberapa perintah transpose files, serta

yang lainnya.

Electronic Distribution. Pengguna dapat mengirimkan laporan secara elektronik menggunakan sebuah tombol pengiriman data (email) atau melakukan export tabel dan grafik ke mode HTML sehingga mendukung distribusi melalui internet dan intranet.

Online Help. SPSS menyediakan fasilitas online help yang akan selalu siap membantu pemakai dalam melakukan pekerjaannya.

Bantuan yang diberikan dapat berupa petunjuk pengoperasian secara detail, kemudahan pencarian prosedur yang diinginkan sampai

pada contoh-contoh kasus dalam pengoperasian program ini.

Akses Data Tanpa Tempat Penyimpanan Sementara. Analisis file-file data yang sangat besar disimpan tanpa membutuhkan tempat

penyimpanan sementara. Hal ini berbeda dengan SPSS sebelum versi 11.5 dimana file data yang sangat besar dibuat temporary

filenya.

Interface dengan Database Relasional. Fasilitas ini akan menambah efisiensi dan memudahkan pekerjaan untuk mengekstrak data dan

menganalisnya dari database relasional.

Analisis Distribusi. Fasilitas ini diperoleh pada pemakaian SPSS for Server atau untuk aplikasi multiuser. Kegunaan dari analisis ini

adalah apabila peneliti akan menganalisis file-file data yang sangat besar dapat langsung me-remote dari server dan memprosesnya

sekaligus tanpa harus memindahkan ke komputer user.

Multiple Sesi. SPSS memberikan kemampuan untuk melakukan analisis lebih dari satu file data pada waktu yang bersamaan.

Mapping. Visualisasi data dapat dibuat dengan berbagai macam tipe baik secara konvensional atau interaktif, misalnya dengan

menggunakan tipe bar, pie atau jangkauan nilai, simbol gradual, dan chart.

SPSS ini sendiri memiliki dua view yaitu: data view yaitu memasukan data yang di analisis dan variabel view di berikan nama

variabel dan pemberian koding

buka program spss dan lakukan selanjutnya klik toolbar analyze > lalu pilih descriptiv statistic > pilih explore maka akan munul

gambar seperti ini

langkah

selanjutnya

adalah kita bisa

menguji

normalitas dari

data yang kita

masukan dengan

langkah langkah

berikut ini

2. Klik plots

3. Aktifkan normality with plots with test. Klik continue kemudian ok

Selanjutnya klik

toolbar analyze >

lalu

pilih

correlate > pilih

bivariate

Aktifkan box pearson lalu kilk Ok

Maka

akan

menampilkan

layar seperti ini

lohh

SPSS REGRESI

Analisis regresi adalah analisis lanjutan dari

korelasi

Menguji sejauh mana pengaruh variabel

independen terhadap variabel dependen setelah diketahui ada hubungan antara variabel tersebut

Data harus interval/rasio

Data Berdistribusi normal

klik toolbar analyze > pilih Regression > pilih Linear

Untuk mencari nilai regresi linear

Cara caranya

adalah :

1.

Variabel

pendapatan

nasional

masukan dalam

kotak dependen

2. Variabel nilai

ekspor masukan

dalam

kotak

independent

3. Abaikan yang

lain lalu klik

ok ,maka akan

berbentuk seperti

di bawah ini

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