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SPSS for Windows

A brief tutorial
This tutorial is a brief look at what SPSS for Windows is capable of doing. Examples will come from Statistical Methods for
Psychology by David C. Howell. It is not our intention to teach you about statistics in this tutorial. For that you should rely on your
classes in statistics and/or a good textbook. If you're a novice this tutorial should give you a feel for the programme and how to
navigate through the many options. Beyond that, the SPSS Help Files should be used as a resource. Further, SPSS sells a number of
very good manuals.

The Basics
SPSS for Windows has the same general look a feel of most other programmes for Windows. Virtually anything statistic that you wish
to perform can be accomplished in combination with pointing and clicking on the menus and various interactive dialog boxes. You
may have noted that the examples in the Howell textbook are performed/analyzed via code. That is, SPSS, like many other packages,
can be accessed by programming short scripts, instead of pointing and clicking. We will not cover any programming in this tutorial.
Presumeably, SPSS is already installed on your computer. If you don't have a shortcut on your desktop go to the [Start =>
Programs] menu and start the package by clicking on the SPSS icon.
Before proceeding I should say a few words about a very simple convention that will be used in this tutorial. In this point and click
environment one often has to navigate through many layers of menu items before encountering the required option. In the above
paragraph the prescribed task was to locate the SPSS icon in the [Start] menu structure. To get to that icon, one must first click
on [Start] then move the pointer to the [Programs] options, before locating the SPSS icon. This sequence of events can be conveyed
by typing [Start => Programs] . That is, one must move from the outer layer of the menu structure to some inner layer in sequence....

Now, back to the tutorial.


Once you've clicked on the SPSS icon a new window will appear on the screen. The appearance is that of a standard programme for
windows with a spreadsheet-like interface.

As you can see, there are a number


of menu options relating to
statistics, on the menu bar. There
are also shortcut icons on the
toolbar. These serve as quick access
to often used options. Holding your
mouse over one of these icons for a
second or two will result in a short
function description for that icon.
The current display is that of an empty data sheet. Clearly, data can either be entered manually, or it can be read from an existing data
file.
Browsing the file menu, below, reveals nothing too surprising - many of the options are familiar. Although, the details are specific to
SPSS. For example, the [New] option is used to specify the type of window to open. The various options, under the [New] heading
are,

[Data] Default window with a blank data sheet ready for analyses
[Syntax] One can write scripts like those present in the Howell text, instead of using the menus. See the SPSS manuals for
help on this topic.

[Output] Whenever a procedure is run, the out is directed to a separate window. One can also have
multiple [Output] windows open to organize the various analyses that might be conducted. Later, these results can be saved
and/or printed.
[Script] This window provides the opportunity to write fullblown programmes, in a BASIC-like language. These programmes
have access to functions that make up SPSS. With such access it is possible to write user-defined procedures - those not part of
SPSS - by taking advantage of the SPSS functions. Again, this is beyond the scope of this tutorial.

Also present in the [File] menu are two separate


avenues for reading data from existing files. The first
is the [Open] option. Like other application packages
(e.g., WordPerfect, Excel, ....) SPSS also has it's own
format for saving data. In this case, the accepted
extension for any file saved using the proprietary
format is "sav". So, one can have a datafile saved as
"data1.sav". Anyways, this format is not readable with
a text editor, it is a binary format. The benefits are that all formatting changes are maintained and the file can be read faster, hence
the [Open] option. It is specifically meant for files saved in the SPSS format. The second option, [Read ASCII Data], as the name
suggests is to read files that are saved in ASCII format. As can be seen, there are two choices - [Freefield] and [Fixed Columns].
Clicking on one of these options will produce a dialog box. One must specify a number of parameters before a file can be read
successfully.

Reading ASCII files requires that the user know something about the format of the data file. Otherwise, one is likely get stuck in the
process of reading, or the result may be a costly error. The more restrictive format is [Fixed Columns]. One must know how many
variables there are, whether a variable is in numeric or string format, and the first and last column of each variable. For example, think
of the following as an excerpt from an ASCII datafile.

male
37 102
male
22 115
male
27 99
....
.. ...
female 48 107
female 21 103
female 28 122
...... .. ...
An examination of the datafile provides several key pieces of information,
1. There are 3 variables
2. Variable 1 is a string , Variable 2 and 3 are numeric
3. Variable 1: first column=1, last column=6
4.
o

Notice that none of the columns overlap. The longest case for column one is the name "female", that spans from the
first column to the sixth - or, the letter e. As you can see, one has to manually locate the first and last column, of each
variable.

5. Variable 2: first column=9, last column=10


6. Variable 3: first column=12, last column=14

One needs all of the above information, in addition to, name for each of the three variables. It is a highly structured way of setting up
and describing the data. For such files I would suggest becoming comfortable with a good text editor. Failing that, you may wish to try
Notepad or WordPad in Win95, but ensure that you save as a textfile with WordPad. A fullfledged word processor like Word or
WordPerfect will also work provided that you remember to save as a textfile. These same editors will allow you to figure out the
column locations for each of the variables.
The [Freefield] option is less restrictive. Essentially, the columns can be ragged (i.e., overlapping). One need only preserve the order
of each variable across all of the cases.

male 37 102
male 22 115
male 27 99
.... .. ...
female 48 107
female 21 103
female 28 122
...... .. ...
Experiment with creating datafiles and reading them with this method. As for the SPSS format, there are a large number of sample
datafiles included in your package. Just click on [Open] and find the SPSS home directory. Make sure the filetype in the dialog box
associated with [Open] is set to "*.sav" - the default...
Before we move onto actual data, click on [Statistics] . The menu that appears reveals many classes of statistics available for use.
Each class is further subdivided into other options, as denoted by the little arrow at the right size of the menu selector. Explore what is
offered by moving your mouse over the various
procedures listed.

Data
To begin the process of adding data, just click on the first cell that is located in the upper left corner of the datasheet. It's just like a
spreadsheet. You can enter your data as shown. Enter each datapoint then hit [Enter]. Once you're done with one column of data you
can click on the first cell of the next column.
These data are taken from table2.1 in Howell's text. The first column represents "Reaction Time in 100ths of a second" and the second
column indicates "Frequency".

If you're entering data for the first time, like the


above example, the variable names will be
automatically generated (e.g., var00001,
var00002,....). They are not very informative. To
change these names, click on the variable name
button. For example, double click on the "var00001"
button. Once you have done that, a dialog box will
appear. The simplest option is to change the name to something meaningful. For instance, replace "var00001" in the textbox with "RT"
(see figure below).

In addition to changing the variable


name one can make changes specific
to [Type], [Labels], [Missing
Values], and [Column Format].

[Type] One can specify


whether the data are in
numeric or string format, in

addition to a few more formats. The default is numeric format.

[Labels] Using the labels option


can enhance the readability of the
output. A variable name is
limited to a length of 8
characters, however, by using
a variable label the length can be
as much as 256 characters. This
provides the ability to have very
descriptive labels that will appear

at the output.
Often, there is a need to code categorical variables in numeric format. For example, male and female can be coded
as 1 and 2, respectively. To reduce confusion, it is recommended that one uses value labels . For the example of gender

coding, Value:1 would have a correspoding Value label: male. Similarly, Value:2 would be coded with Value Label: female.
(click on the[Labels] button to verify the above)

[Missing Values] See the accompanying help. This option provides a means to code for various types of missing values.
[Column Format] The column format dialog provides control over several features of each column (e.g., width of column).

The next image reflects the variable name change.

Once data has been entered or modified, it is


adviseable to save. In fact, save as often as possible
[File => SaveAs].

SPSS offers a large number of possible formats, including their own. A list of the available formats can be
viewed and selected by clicking on the Save as type: , on the SaveAs dialog box. If your intention is to only
work in SPSS, then there may be some benefit to saving in the SPSS(*.sav) format. I assume that this format
allows for faster reading and writing of the data file. However, if your data will be analyzed and looked by
other packages (e.g., a spreadsheet), it would be adviseable to save in a more universal format (e.g.,
Excel(*.xls), 1-2-3 Rel 3.0 (*.wk3).
Once the type of file has been selected, enter a filename, minus the extension (e.g., sav, xls). You should also save the file in a
meaningful directory, on your harddrive or floppy. That is, for any given project a separate directory should be created. You don't want
your data to get mixed-up.

The process of reading already


saved data can be painless if the
saved format is in the SPSS or a
spreadsheet format. All one has to
do is,
o

click on [File =>

New => Data]


o

o
o
o

o
o

click on [File =>


Open] : a dialog box
will appear
navigate to desired
directory using the Look

in: menu at the top of the dialog box


select file type in the Files of type menu
click on the filename that is needed.

The process of reading existing files is slightly more involved if the format is ASCII/plain text (see the earlier description
of [Freefield] and [Fixed Columns]). As an example, the ASCII data from table2.1 in the Howell text will be used. A file containing
the data should be included in the accompanying disk for the text. [Note: It was not present in my disk, so I downloaded the file from
Howell's webpage.] I've placed the files on my harddrive at c:\ascdat. In the case of this set of data,there are four columns
representing observation number, reaction time, setsize, and the presence or absence of the target stimulus. This information can be

found in the readme.txt file that is also on the disk. Typically, we are aware of the contents of our own data files, however, it doesn't
hurt to keep a record of the contents of such files.
To make life easier the [File => Read ASCII Data => Freefield] will be used.

The resulting dialog box requires that


a File , a Name and a Data Type be
specified for each variable, or column of
data. The desired file is accessed by
clicking on the [Browse] button, and then navigating to the desired location. Since the extension for the sought after file is dat there is
no need to change the Files of type: selection. However, if the extension is something else (e.g., *.txt) then it would be necessary to
select All files(*.*) from the Files of type: menu. Since there are 4 variables in this data set, 4 names with the corresponding type
information must be specified. ToAdd the first variable, observations, to the list,
o
o
o
o

type "obs" in the Name box


the Data Type is set to Numeric by default. If "obs" was a string variable, then one would have to click on String
click on the Add button to include this variable to the list.
repeat the above procedure with new names and data types for each of the remaining variables. It is important that all
variables be added to the list. Otherwise, the data will be scrambled.

(Please explore the various options by clicking on any accessible menu item.)

The resulting data files appears in the data editor like the following.

The next section will cover


some descriptive statistics.

Descriptive Statistics
We can replicate the frequency analyses that are described in chapter 2 of the text, by using the file that was just read into the data
editor - tab2-1.dat. These analyses were conducted on the reaction time data. Recall, that we have labelled this data as RT.
To begin, click on [Statistics=>Summarize=>Frequencies]....

The result is a new dialog box that allows the user to select the variables of interest. Also, note the other clickable buttons along the
border of the dialog box. The buttons labelled [Statistics...]and [Charts...] are of particular importance. Since we're interested in the
reaction time data, click on rt followed by a mouse click on the arrow pointing right. The consequence of this action is a transference
of the rt variable to the Variables list. At this point, clicking on the [OK] button would spawn an output window with the Frequency
information for each of the reaction times. However, more information can be gathered by exploring the options offered by
the [Statistics...] and [Charts...].

[Statistics...] offers a number of summary


statistics. Any statistic that is selected will
be summarized in the output window.

As for the options under [Charts...] click on Bar Charts to replicate the graph in the text.

Once the options have been selected, click on [OK] to run the procedure. The results are then displayed in an output window. In this
particular instance the window will include summary statistics for the variable RT, the frequency distribution, and the frequency
distribution. You can see all of this by scrolling down the window. The results should also be identical to those in the text.

You may have gathered from the above that calculating summary statistics requires nothing more than selecting variables, and then
selecting the desired statistics. The frequency example allowed us to generate frequency information plus measures of central
tendencies and dispersion. These statistics can be had by clicking directly on [Statistics=>Summarize=>Descriptives]. Not

surprisingly, another dialog box is attached to this procedure. To control the type of statistics produced, click on
the [Options...] button. Once again, the options include the typical measures of central tendency and dispersion.
Each time as statistical procedure is run, like [Frequencies...] and [Descriptives...] the results are posted to an Output Window. If
several procedures are run during one session the results will be appended to the same window. However, greater organization can be
reached by opening new Output windows before running each procedure - [File=>New=>Output]. Further, the contents of each of
these windows can be saved for later review, or in the case of charts saved to be later included in formattted documents. [Explore by
left mouse clicking on any of the output objects (e.g., a frequency table, a chart, ...) followed by a right button click. The left left
button click will highlight the desired object, while the right button click will popup a new menu. The next step is to click on
the copy option. This action will store the object on the clipboard so that it can be pasted to Word for Windows document, for
example.....]

Chi-Square & T-Test


The computation of the Chi-Square statistic can be accomplished by clicking on [Statistics => Summarize => Crosstabs...]. This
particular procedure will be your first introduction to coding of data, in the data editor. To this point data have been entered in a
column format. That is, one variable per column. However, that method is not sufficient in a number of situations, including the
calculation of Chi-Square, Independent T-tests, and any Factorial ANOVA design with between subjects factors. I'm sure there are
many other cases, but they will not be covered in this tutorial. Essentially, the data have to be entered in a specific format that makes
the analysis possible. The format typcially reflects the design of the study, as will be demonstrated in the examples.

In your text, the following data appear in section 6.????. Please read the text for a description of the study. Essentially, the table below - includes the observed data and the expected data in parentheses.

Fault
Low
High
Total

Guilty
153(127.559)
105(130.441)
258

Not Guilty
24(49.441)
76(50.559)
100

Total
177
181
358

In the hopes of minimizing the load time for remaining pages, I will make use of the built in table facilty of HTML to simulate the
Data Editor in SPSS. This will reduce the number of images/screen captures to be loaded.
For the Chi-Square statistic, the table of data can be coded by indexing the column and row of the observations. For example, the
count for being guilty with Low fault is 153. This specific cell can be indexed as coming from row=1 and column=1. Similarly, Not
Guilty with High fault is coded as row=2 and column=2. For each observation, four in this instance, there is unique code for location
on the table. These can be entered as follows,

Row
1
1
2
2

Column
1
2
1
2

So, 2 rows * 2 columns equals 4 observations. That should be clear.

Count
153
24
105
76

For each of the rows, there are 2 corresponding columns, that is reflected in the Count column. The Count column represents
the number of time each unique combination Row andColumn occurs.

The above presents the data in an unambigous manner. Once entered, the analysis is a matter of selecting the desired menu items, and
perhaps selecting additional options for that statistic. [Don't forget to use the labelling facilities, as mentioned earlier, to meaningfully
identify the columns/variables. The labels that are chosen will appear in the output window.]
To perform the analysis,

The first step is to inform SPSS that the COUNT variable represents the frequency for each unique coding of ROW and
COLUMN, by invoking the WEIGHT command. To do this, click on [Data => Weight Cases]. In the resultant dialog box,
enable the Weight cases by option, then move the COUNT variable into the Frequency Variable box. If this step is forgotten,
the count for each cell will be 1 for the table.

controlling dialog box.

Now that the


COUNT variable
has been processed
as a weighted
variable,
select [Statistics
=> Summarize =>
Crosstabs...] to
launch the

At the bottom of the dialog box are three buttons, with the most important being the [Statistics...] button. You must click on
the [Statistics...] button and then select the Chi-square option, otherwise the statistic will not be calculated. Exploring this
dialog box makes it clear that SPSS can be forced to calcuate a number of other statistics in conjuction with Chi-square. For
example, one can select the various measures of association (e.g., contingency coefficient, phi and cramer's v,...), among
others.
Move the ROW variable into the Row(s): box, and the COLUMN variable into the Column(s):, then click [OK] to perform
the analysis. A subset of the output looks like the following,

Although simple,
the calculation of
the Chi-square
statistic is very
particular about all
the required steps
being followed.
More generally, as

we enter hypothesis testing, the user should be very careful and should make use of manuals for the programme and textbooks for
statistics.

T-tests
By now, you should know that there are two forms of the t-test, one for dependent variables and one for independent variables, or
observations. To inform SPSS, or any stats package for that matter, of the type of design it is necessary to have to different ways of
laying out the data. For the dependent design, the two variables in question must be entered in two columns. For independent t-tests,
the observations for the two groups must be uniquely coded with a Gruop variable. Like the calculation of the Chi-square statistic,
these calculations will reinforce the practice of thinking about, and laying out the data in the correct format.

Dependent T-Test
To calculate this statistic, one must select [Statistics => Compare Means => Paired-Samples T Test...] after enterin the data. For
this analysis, we'll use the data from Table 7.3, in Howell.

Enter the data into a new datafile. Your data should look a bit like the following. That is, the two variables should occupy
separate columns...

Mnths_6
124
94
115
110

Mnths_24
114
88
102
2

116
139
116
110
129
120
105
88
120
120
116
105
...
...
123

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
...
...
132

Note that the variable names start with a letter and are less than 8 characters long. This is a bit constraining, however, one can
use the variable label option to label the variable with a longer name. This more descriptive name will then be reproduced in
the output window.

To calculate the t statistic click on [Statistics => Compare Means => Paired-Samples T Test...], then select the two variables
of interest. To select the two variables, hold the [Shift] key down while using the mouse for selection. You will note that the
selection box requires that variables be selected two at a time. Once the two variables have been selected, move them to
thePaired Variables: list. This procedure can be repeated for each pair of variables to be analyzed. In this case, select
MNTHS_6 and MNTHS_24 together, then move them to the Paired Variables list. Finally, click the [OK] button.

The critical result for the current analysis will appear in the output window as follows,

As you can see an exact t-value is provided


along with an exact p-value, and this p-value is
greater that the expected value of 0.025, for a
two-tailed assessment. Closer examination
indicates several other statistics are presented in
output window.

Quite simply, such calculations require very little effort!

Independent T-tests
When calculating an independent t-test, the only difference involves the way the data are formatted in the datasheet. The datasheet
must include both the raw data and group coding, for each variable. For this example, the data from table 7.5 will be used. As an
added bonus, the number of observations are unequal for this example.
Take a look at the following table to get a feel for how to code the data.

Group
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

Exp_Con
96
127
127
119
109
143
...
...
106
109
114
88
104
104
91
96
...
...
114
132

From the above you can see that we used the "Group" variable to code for the two variables. The value of 1 was used to code for
"LBW-Experimental", while a value of 2 was used to code for "LBW-Control". If you're confused please study the table, above.
To generate the t-statistic,

Clik on [Statistics => Compare Means => Independent-Samples T Test] to launch the appropriate dialog box.
Select "exp_con" - the dependent variable list - and move it to the Test Variable(s): box.
Select "group" - the grouping variable list - and move it to the Grouping Variable: box.
The final step requires that the groups be defined. That is, one must specify that Group1 - the experimental group in this case is coded as 1, and Group2 - the control group in this case - is coded as 2. To do this, click on the [Define Groups...] button.
Click on the [Continue] button to return to the controlling dialog box.
Run the analysis by clicking on the [OK] button.
The output for the current analysis extracted from the output window looks like the following.

The p-value of .004 is way lower than the cutoff of 0.025, and that suggests that the means are significantly different. Further, a
Levene's Test is performed to ensure that the correct results are used. In this case the variances are equal, however, the calculations for
unequal variances are also presented, among some other statistics - some not presented.
In the next section we will briefly demonstrate the calculation of correlations and regression, as discussed in Chapter 9 of Howell. In
truth, you should be able to work through many statistics with your current knowledge base and the help files, including correlations
and regressions. Most statistics can be calculated with a few clicks of the mouse.

Correlations and Regression


This will be a brief tutorial, since there is very little that is required to calculate correlations and linear regressions. To calculate a
simple correlation matrix, one must use [Statistics => Correlate => Bivariate...], and [Statistics => Regression => Linear] for the
calculation of a linear regression.
For this section, the analyses presented in the computer section of the Correlation and Regression chapter will be replicated. To begin,
enter the data as follows,

IQ
102
108
109
118
79
88
...
...
85

GPA
2.75
4.00
2.25
3.00
1.67
2.25
...
...
2.50

Simple Correlation

Click on [Statistics => Correlate => Bivariate...], then select and move "IQ" and "GPA" to the Variables: list. [Explore the
options presented on this controlling dialog box.]
Click on [OK] to generate the requested statistics.

The results from output window should look like the following,

As you can see, r=0.702, and p=.000. The


results suggest that the correlation is
significant.

Note: In the above example we only created a correlation matrix based on two variables. The process of generating a matrix based on
more than two variables is not different. That is, if the dataset consisted of 10 variables, they could have all been placed in
the Variables: list. The resulting matrix would include all the possible pairwise correlations.

Correlation and Regression


Linear regression....it is possible to output the regression coefficients necessary to predict one variable from the other - that minimize
error. To do so, one must select the [Statistics => Regression => Linear...] option. Further, there is a need to know which variable
will be used as the dependent variable and which will be used as the independent variable(s). In our current example, GPA will be the
dependent variable, and IQ will act as the independent variable. Specifically,

Initiate the procedure by clicking on [Statistics => Regression => Linear...]


Select and move GPA into the Dependent: variable box
Select andmove IQ into the Independent(s): variable box
Click on the [OK] to generate the statistics.
Note: A variety of options can be accessed via the buttons on the bottom half of this controlling dialog box (e.g., Statistics,
Plots,...). Many more statistics can be generated by explore the additional options via the Statistics button.

Some of the results of this analysis are presented below,

The correlation is still 0.702, and the p value is still 0.000. The additional statistics are "Constant", or a from the text, and "Slope",
or B from the text. If you recall, the dependent variable is GPA, in this case. As such, one can predict GPA with the following,
GPA = -1.777 + 0.0448*IQ
The next section will discuss the calculation of the ANOVA.

One-Way ANOVA
As in the independent t-test datasheet, the data must be coded with a group variable. The data that will be used for the first part of this
section is from Table 11.2, of Howell. There are 5 groups of 10 observations each - resulting in a total of 50 observations. The group
variable will be coded from 1 to 5, for each group. Take a look at the following to get an idea of the coding.

Groups
1

Scores
9

1
1
...
1
2
2
2
...
...
...
5
5
...
5

8
6
...
7
7
9
6
...
...
...
10
19
...
11

The coding scheme uniquely identifies the origin of each observation.


To complete the analysis,

Select [Statistics => Compare Means => One-Way ANOVA...] to launch the controlling dialog box.
Select and move "Scores" into the Dependent list:
Select and move "Groups" into the Factor: list
Click on [OK]
The preceeding is a complete spefication of the design for this oneway anova. The simple presentation of the results, as taken
from the output window, will look like the following,

The analysis that was just


performed provides
minimal details with
regard to the data. If you
take a look at the
controlling dialog box,
you will find 3 additional buttons on the bottom half -[Contrasts...], [Post Hoc..], and [Options...].

Selecting [Options...] you will


find,

If Descriptive is enabled, then the descriptive statistics for each condition will be generated. Making Homogeneity-ofvariance active forces a Levene's test on the data. The statistics from both of these analyses will be reproduced in the output window.
Selecting [Post Hoc] will launch the following dialog box,

One can active one or


multiple post hoc
tests to be performed.
The results will then
be placed in the
output window. For
example, performing
a R-E-G-W
F statistic on the
current data would
produce the
following,

Finally, one can use


the [Contrasts...] option to specify linear

and/or orthogonal sets of contrasts. One can also perform trend analysis via this option. For example, we may wish to contrast the
third condition with the fifth,

For each contrast, the


coefficients must be entered
individually, and in order. Once
can also enter multiple contrasts,
by using the [Next] present in
the dialog box. The result for the
example contrast would look like
the following,

Further, one can use the Polynomial option to test whether a specific trend in the data exists.
Factorial designs will be covered in the next section.

Cara Menggunakan SPSS 21 Dengan Gambar Panduan


SPSS adalah sebuah program aplikasi yang memiliki kemampuan analisis statistik cukup tinggi serta sistem manajemen data pada
lingkungan grafis dengan menggunakan menu-menu deskriptif dan kotak-kotak dialog yang sederhana sehingga mudah untuk
dipahami cara pengoperasiannya. Beberapa aktivitas dapat dilakukan dengan mudah dengan menggunakan pointing dan clicking
mouse.
SPSS banyak digunakan dalam berbagai riset pemasaran, pengendalian dan perbaikan mutu (quality improvement), serta riset-riset
sains. SPSS pertama kali muncul dengan versi PC (bisa dipakai untuk komputer desktop) dengan nama SPSS/PC+ (versi DOS).
Tetapi, dengan mulai populernya system operasi windows. SPSS mulai mengeluarkan versi windows (mulai dari versi 6.0 sampai
versi terbaru sekarang).

Pada awalnya SPSS dibuat untuk keperluan pengolahan data statistik untuk ilmu-ilmu social, sehingga kepanjangan SPSS itu sendiri
adalah Statistikal Package for the Social Sciens. Sekarang kemampuan SPSS diperluas untuk melayani berbagai jenis pengguna
(user), seperti untuk proses produksi di pabrik, riset ilmu sains dan lainnya. Dengan demikian, sekarang kepanjangan dari SPSS
Statistikal Product and Service Solutions.
SPSS dapat membaca berbagai jenis data atau memasukkan data secara langsung ke dalam SPSS Data Editor. Bagaimanapun struktur
dari file data mentahnya, maka data dalam Data Editor SPSS harus dibentuk dalam bentuk baris (cases) dan kolom (variables). Case
berisi informasi untuk satu unit analisis, sedangkan variable adalah informasi yang dikumpulkan dari masing-masing kasus.
Hasil-hasil analisis muncul dalam SPSS Output Navigator. Kebanyakan prosedur Base System menghasilkan pivot tables, dimana kita
bisa memperbaiki tampilan dari keluaran yang diberikan oleh SPSS. Untuk memperbaiki output, maka kita dapat mmperbaiki output
sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Beberapa kemudahan yang lain yang dimiliki SPSS dalam pengoperasiannya adalah karena SPSS
menyediakan beberapa fasilitas seperti berikut ini:
Data Editor. Merupakan jendela untuk pengolahan data. Data editor dirancang sedemikian rupa seperti pada aplikasi-aplikasi
spreadsheet untuk mendefinisikan, memasukkan, mengedit, dan menampilkan data.
Viewer. Viewer mempermudah pemakai untuk melihat hasil pemrosesan, menunjukkan atau menghilangkan bagian-bagian tertentu
dari output, serta memudahkan distribusi hasil pengolahan dari SPSS ke aplikasi-aplikasi yang lain.
Multidimensional Pivot Tables. Hasil pengolahan data akan ditunjukkan dengan multidimensional pivot tables. Pemakai dapat
melakukan eksplorasi terhdap tabel dengan pengaturan baris, kolom, serta layer. Pemakai juga dapat dengan mudah melakukan
pengaturan kelompok data dengan melakukan splitting tabel sehingga hanya satu group tertentu saja yang ditampilkan pada satu
waktu.
High-Resolution Graphics. Dengan kemampuan grafikal beresolusi tinggi, baik untuk menampilkan pie charts, bar charts, histogram,
scatterplots, 3-D graphics, dan yang lainnya, akan membuat SPSS tidak hanya mudah dioperasikan tetapi juga membuat pemakai
merasa nyaman dalam pekerjaannya.
Database Access. Pemakai program ini dapat memperoleh kembali informasi dari sebuah database dengan menggunakan Database
Wizard yang disediakannya.
Data Transformations. Transformasi data akan membantu pemakai memperoleh data yang siap untuk dianalisis. Pemakai dapat dengan
mudah melakukan subset data, mengkombinasikan kategori, add, aggregat, merge, split, dan beberapa perintah transpose files, serta
yang lainnya.
Electronic Distribution. Pengguna dapat mengirimkan laporan secara elektronik menggunakan sebuah tombol pengiriman data (email) atau melakukan export tabel dan grafik ke mode HTML sehingga mendukung distribusi melalui internet dan intranet.

Online Help. SPSS menyediakan fasilitas online help yang akan selalu siap membantu pemakai dalam melakukan pekerjaannya.
Bantuan yang diberikan dapat berupa petunjuk pengoperasian secara detail, kemudahan pencarian prosedur yang diinginkan sampai
pada contoh-contoh kasus dalam pengoperasian program ini.
Akses Data Tanpa Tempat Penyimpanan Sementara. Analisis file-file data yang sangat besar disimpan tanpa membutuhkan tempat
penyimpanan sementara. Hal ini berbeda dengan SPSS sebelum versi 11.5 dimana file data yang sangat besar dibuat temporary
filenya.
Interface dengan Database Relasional. Fasilitas ini akan menambah efisiensi dan memudahkan pekerjaan untuk mengekstrak data dan
menganalisnya dari database relasional.
Analisis Distribusi. Fasilitas ini diperoleh pada pemakaian SPSS for Server atau untuk aplikasi multiuser. Kegunaan dari analisis ini
adalah apabila peneliti akan menganalisis file-file data yang sangat besar dapat langsung me-remote dari server dan memprosesnya
sekaligus tanpa harus memindahkan ke komputer user.
Multiple Sesi. SPSS memberikan kemampuan untuk melakukan analisis lebih dari satu file data pada waktu yang bersamaan.
Mapping. Visualisasi data dapat dibuat dengan berbagai macam tipe baik secara konvensional atau interaktif, misalnya dengan
menggunakan tipe bar, pie atau jangkauan nilai, simbol gradual, dan chart.
SPSS ini sendiri memiliki dua view yaitu: data view yaitu memasukan data yang di analisis dan variabel view di berikan nama
variabel dan pemberian koding
buka program spss dan lakukan selanjutnya klik toolbar analyze > lalu pilih descriptiv statistic > pilih explore maka akan munul
gambar seperti ini
langkah
selanjutnya
adalah kita bisa
menguji
normalitas dari
data yang kita
masukan dengan
langkah langkah
berikut ini

1. Masukan variabel yang akan diuji normalitasnya ke kotak dependent list


2. Klik plots
3. Aktifkan normality with plots with test. Klik continue kemudian ok
Selanjutnya klik
toolbar analyze >
lalu
pilih
correlate > pilih
bivariate

Selanjutnya Blok kedua variabel,Klik tombol,


Aktifkan box pearson lalu kilk Ok

Maka
akan
menampilkan
layar seperti ini
lohh

SPSS REGRESI
Analisis regresi adalah analisis lanjutan dari
korelasi
Menguji sejauh mana pengaruh variabel
independen terhadap variabel dependen setelah diketahui ada hubungan antara variabel tersebut
Data harus interval/rasio
Data Berdistribusi normal
klik toolbar analyze > pilih Regression > pilih Linear
Untuk mencari nilai regresi linear

Cara caranya
adalah :
1.
Variabel
pendapatan
nasional
masukan dalam
kotak dependen
2. Variabel nilai
ekspor masukan
dalam
kotak
independent
3. Abaikan yang
lain lalu klik
ok ,maka akan
berbentuk seperti
di bawah ini

hasil nya adalah