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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 2 | Issue 09 | March 2016

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis of


GORAKHPUR Region
Sagar Tripathi
Department of Civil Engineering
Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology,
Gorakhpur

Sana Zafar
Department of Civil Engineering
Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology,
Gorakhpur

Abstract
Many earthquakes have been knowledgeable in Indian peninsular shield, which was previously treated to be seismically steady.
Seismic risk assessment refers to an evaluation of ground motion parameters at a particular area by considering some past
earthquake evidence. In the current study seismic risk assessment is performed for the Gorakhpur city. It is a highly seismic
prone area. It comes under zone IV. The manuscript presents the resolve of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and maximum credible
earthquake (MCE). MCE has been dogged by taking into account the local seismotectonic movement in a propos 350 km radius
about Gorakhpur city. The seismic risk in provisions of peak horizontal acceleration was estimated to be 0.312g using attenuation
model by Sharma (2000) and 0.032g using attenuation model by Iyenger and Raghukanth (2004). The calculated peak
horizontal acceleration in the nearby reading is in verification with the observed values of Nepal earthquakes and is furthermore
similar to standards reported in additional studies.
Keywords: Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE), Seismic hazard
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
I.

INTRODUCTION

Earthquake is an unexpected sadistic vibration of the earth, naturally causing huge devastation, as a end result of activities within
volcanic stroke or the earth's shell.
The current district of Gorakhpur stuck between Long. 83 05' E and 83 56 E and Lat. 26 13 N and 27 29' N. In 1971 it
occupied area about 6,301 sq.km and population which was 30, 38,177 (14, 57,587 females). The area occupies the north-eastern
place of the state next to the area of Deoria, and comprises a large stretch of country lying to the north of the river Ghaghra. In the
zonal map of country (India) the area deceit in zone IV answerable to modest spoil by earthquakes. While till now no foremost
earthquake occurred near to it, the zone being not distant from the Himalayan Boundary fault, experiences the special effects of
modest to grand earthquakes stirring there. The seismic strength may not go beyond to VIII on the Modified Mercalli scale in 1931.
The forests are usually originating in the northern scrap of the regionwhile in the earlier period they comprehensive as far as to the
south of area (Gorakhpur) and along the Rapti in south-eastern part of the region.

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Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis of GORAKHPUR Region


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 09 / 065)

Fig. 1: Earthquake affects the study area (GORAKHPUR) [Google]

A lot of instruction to be learned which are extremely necessary to preparation of structures and still to diminish such calamities
in prospect due to many past earthquakes. The risks connected through earthquakes are called as seismic risks. Work carry out in
seismic design & earthquake engg. Involves many things like mitigation of seismic risks and discovery of sources involve in the
risk.
Basically the damage due to earthquake mainly depends on three factors:
- Path characteristics and earthquake source
- Neighborhood geological and geotechnical spot conditions
- Construction features and structural design
Seismic hazard analyses entail the quantitative assessment of ground quaking hazards at a meticulous region. Two type of
analysis are done for the estimation of the seismic risks.
- Probabilistic Seismic hazard analysis (PSHA)

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Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis of GORAKHPUR Region


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 09 / 065)

Deterministic Seismic hazard analysis (DSHA)


Initial approach taken to seismic risk investigation discovered in nuclear power engineering applications
In Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA), is organized for a meticulous earthquake, also realistic or assumed. The
Deterministic Seismic Hazard approach uses the identified seismic sources suitably by the accessible historical seismic and
geographical data to generate discrete, single-valued events or models of ground motion at the site in general one or more
earthquakes are detailed by location and magnitude with admiration to the location. Generally the earthquakes are implicit to
happen on the part of the location nearby to the site. The spot ground motions are expected deterministically, given site condition
the magnitude and source to-site distance
DSHA mainly consist of four steps are as follows (Kramer, 1996).
- Identification and characterization of all sources
- Selection of source-site distance parameter
- Selection of controlling earthquake.
- Definition of hazard using controlling earthquake

Fig. 2: Four Step DSHA Process [Google]

Here we are using two main equations for the finding of the peak ground acceleration (PGA).
Following equation is describe as follows. And also we will compare the PGA values getting from these two relation for Gorakhpur
region.
- Iyenger and Raghukanth (2004)
- Sharma (2000)
Iyenger and Raghukanth (2004)
The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at substratum stage is expected by the attenuation relation of sturdy ground movement
projected for Peninsular India
ln(y) = C1 + C2 (M-6) + C3 (M-6)2 C4 r ln(R) ln()
Where r is hypocentral distance, M is magnitude, C1, C2, C3, and C4 are the constant whose values are written below
(C1 = 1.7236), (C2 = 0.9453), (C3 = -0.0740), (C4 = 0.0064), (ln() = 0.3439)
ln() taken as zero 0 because it is very small.
Sharma (2000)
For the Himalayan region an attenuation connection for peak horizontal ground accelerations in India has been urbanized. Where
M is the magnitude, A is the peak ground acceleration (g) and X is the hypocentral space from the source. Using relationship the
vertical to horizontal acceleration ratio with admiration to the hypocentral space.
Log Ah(g) = [-1.072 + 0.3903M - 1.21log10 ( X + e0.5873M )]
Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) The major earthquake that appears competent of taking place under the recognized
tectonic construction for a seismic source or detailed fault, as based on geologic and seismologic information. Based on the highest
earthquake from deterministic analysis (DSHA). There may be several MCEs for a place, each starting a unlike fault or seismic
source.
Controlling earthquake the earthquake that is predictable to make the strongest stage of quaking at a location. , controlling
earthquake is not based on earthquake size. It is based on ground motions. Controlling earthquake can be based on probabilistic or

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Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis of GORAKHPUR Region


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 09 / 065)

deterministic methods. For critical structures, controlling earthquake may same as the MCE from a seismic source or specific fault.
For simple structures, controlling earthquake is fewer than the MCE and generally based on probabilistic methods.
The first step of computing the peak ground acceleration is gathering of the data like magnitude, epicentral distance, faults etc
which is necessary in calculation and then the equation through which PGA can be calculated. So there are some collected data is
written in the table which we consider while calculation of PGA for the GORAKHPUR region. And the two equations which
are used to find PGA and then compare their values are already discussed above.

Fig. 3: relation in epicenter and depth [Google]

Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Table - 1
Fault Detail around Gorakhpur
Sr. no.
Faults Name
Magnitude (M)
Epicentre
1.
Slip along Main Frontal Thrust
5.7
281.2
2.
Slip along Main Frontal Thrust
6.3
292.2
3.
Slip along Main Frontal Thrust
6.7
283.2
4.
Main Frontal Thrust
7.8
202.2
5.
Main Frontal Thrust
5.5
380.2
6.
Himalayan frontal thrust
5.5
399.2
7.
Main Frontal Thrust
5.5
354.2
8.
Main Frontal Thrust
5.6
373.2
9.
Himalayan frontal thrust
5.5
325.2
10.
Main Frontal Thrust
6.8
323.0
11.
Main Frontal Thrust
5.6
306.2
12.
Main Frontal Thrust
5.6
346.2
13.
Strike Slip Motion on Sleep Fault
6.6
386.2
14.
Main Frontal Thrust
5.7
291.2
Table:-2
Major Earthquake around Study Area GORAKHPUR
Sr. no.
Date
Latitude (0N)
Longitude (0S)
Magnitude
Depth (Km)
1
16/05/2015
27.546
86.075
5.7
10
2
12/05/2015
27.618
86.166
6.3
15
3
26/04/2015
27.782
85.997
6.7
17
4
25/04/2015
28.147
84.708
7.8
15
5
26/02/2010
28.436
86.726
5.5
35
6
07/11/2007
29.49
86.008
5.5
5
7
27/11/2001
29.606
81.752
5.5
33
8
03/09/1998
27.86
86.941
5.6
33
9
03/11/1997
29.078
85.383
5.5
33
10
27/08/1988
26.755
86.616
6.8
57
11
09/08/1987
29.502
83.717
5.6
47
12
18/05/1984
29.577
81.869
5.6
33
13
29/07/1980
29.598
81.092
6.6
18
14
24/03/1947
27.727
86.11
5.7
33
Table - 3
Calculated PGA Values
Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA)
Magnitude (M)
Hypocentral Distance (R)
Sharma(2000)
Iyenger and Raghukanth (2004)
5.7
281.37
0.0458
0.0024
6.3
292.58
0.0731
0.0038
6.7
283.70
0.1042
0.0060
7.8
202.75
0.3123
0.0325
5.5
381.80
0.0291
0.0007
5.5
399.23
0.0279
0.0006

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Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis of GORAKHPUR Region


(IJSTE/ Volume 2 / Issue 09 / 065)

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

5.5
5.6
5.5
6.8
5.6
5.6
6.6
5.7

355.73
374.65
326.87
327.99
309.78
347.76
386.61
293.06

0.0311
0.0323
0.0337
0.0999
0.0385
0.0346
0.0733
0.0442
0.3123g

Max of PGA

0.0009
0.0009
0.0012
0.0042
0.0016
0.0011
0.0020
0.0021
0.0325g

II. CONCLUSION
In the current study, peak ground accelerations (PGA) at rock level have been estimated for the Gorakhpur region covering Long.
83 05' E and 83 56 E and Lat. 26 13 N and 27 29' N. In 2016 using state of the art deterministic seismic hazard analysis. The
PGA calculated shows that the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) is capable of producing peak horizontalacceleration (Ah) of 0.3123 g
using attenuation relationships by Sharma(2000) and peak horizontal acceleration (Ah) of 0.0324 g using attenuation
relationships by Iyenger and Raghukanth (2004) . Maximum Credible Earthquake for the Gorakhpur region is 7.8 at which
maximum value of peak ground acceleration is calculated. Peak horizontal acceleration is destructive in nature and the mainly
destruction of building depends on the duration of earthquake. The earthquake data of entire Gorakhpur and its neighboring area
has been organized which will be helpful for lots of seismic studies in the area. The outcome developed in this cram is preface in
nature however certainly provides the several bases in the plan of new services and defensive accessible structures.
III. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Authors would honestly like to thank eveyone from all across India for their co-operation and kind help and to be part of this
project. This work has been carried out in civil engineering department of madan mohan malviya university of technology,
Gorakhpur.
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