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Intensive Math
th

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

6-5

Practice A
Percent of Increase and Decrease

## State whether each change represents an increase or decrease.

1. from 10 to 15
_______________________

2. from 16 to 12

3. from 8 to 14

________________________

________________________

## Find each percent of increase or decrease to the nearest

percent.
4. from 2 to 5
_______________________

7. from 8 to 5.6
_______________________

10. from 17 to 21
_______________________

13. from 7 to 11
_______________________

5. from 10 to 6

6. from 12 to 18

________________________

8. from 15 to 8

________________________

9. from 21 to 15

________________________

11. from 10 to 2

________________________

12. from 4 to 9

________________________

14. from 3 to 9

________________________

15. from 12 to 5

________________________

________________________

16. World Toys buys bicycles for \$38 and sells them for \$95.
What is the percent of increase in the price?

_________________

17. Jack bought a stereo on sale for \$231. The original price
was \$385. What was the percent of decrease in price?

_________________

for \$80. What percent of increase is this?

_________________

19. Asabis average in math for the first quarter of the school
year was 75. His second quarter average was 81. What was
the percent of increase in Asabis grade?

_________________

20. A shoe store is selling athletic shoes at 30% off the regular
price. If the regular price of a pair of athletic shoes is \$45,
what is the sale price?

_________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

362

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

6-5

Compare and Contrast

## Percent can be used to describe change. It is shown as a ratio.

amount of change
percent of change =
original amount
Compare the two lists. Change can either increase or decrease.
Decrease

Increase
A collector sold 15 CDs.
Then she sold 25 more CDs.

## Ben had a collection of 60 CDs.

Now he has only 45 CDs.

## Sales went up, so the ratio will show a

percent of increase.

## The CD collection went down, so the

ratio will show a percent of decrease.

## Change: 25  15 = 10 more CDs

10
Percent of change =
25
Change fraction to percent: 40%

## Change: 60  45 = 15 fewer CDs

15
Percent of change =
60
Change fraction to percent: 25%

1. Compare percent of increase with percent of decrease. How are they the same?
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 2. Write the ratio that stands for percent of change.

________________________________________________________________________________________

## Write percent of increase or percent of decrease to describe

each situation.
3. Sophie had \$70 saved. She withdrew \$15 from her savings.
________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Kate bought \$50 worth of groceries. Then she bought \$20 more.
________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

369

LESSON

6-5

## Review for Mastery

Percent of Increase and Decrease

## To find the percent of increase:

Find the amount of increase by subtracting the lesser number from the greater.
Write a fraction: percent of increase =

amount of increase
original amount

## If possible, simplify the fraction.

Rewrite the fraction as a percent.
The temperature increased from 60F to 75F.
Find the percent of increase.
75  60
15
1
percent of increase =
=
=
= 25%
60
60
4
Complete to find each percent of increase.
1. Membership
2. Savings
increased from
increased from
80 to 100.
\$500 to \$750.

_________________


_________________

= __________

= __________

80

= __________

= __________ %

500

= __________

= __________ %

## Find the amount of increase.

percent of increase =

amount of increase
original amount

## Change the fraction to a percent.

3. Price increased
from \$20 to \$23.
Find the amount of increase.

_________________

percent of increase =

20
20

= 20

= _________________ %

amount of increase
original amount

## Change the fraction to a percent.

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

365

LESSON

6-5

## Review for Mastery

Percent of Increase and Decrease (continued)

## To find the percent of decrease:

Find the amount of decrease by subtracting the lesser number from the greater.

amount of decrease
original amount

## Write a fraction: percent of decrease =

If possible, simplify the fraction.
Rewrite the fraction as a percent.

## Carls weight decreased from 175 lb to 150 lb.

Find the percent of decrease.
0.143
175  150
25
1
percent of decrease =
=
=
= 7 1.000 = 14.3%
175
175
7

## Complete to find each percent of decrease.

4. Enrollment
5. Temperature
decreased from
decreased from
1000 to 950.
75F to 60F


_________________


_________________

= __________

= __________

1000

100

= __________ %

75

15

## Find the amount of decrease.

percent of decrease =

100

= __________ %

amount of decrease
original amount

## Change the fraction to a percent.

6. Sale price
decreased from
\$22 to \$17.
Find the amount of decrease.

_________________

percent of decrease =

22
22

= 22

= _________________ %

amount of decrease
original amount

## Change the fraction to a percent.

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

366

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

## 6-5 Percent of Increase and Decrease

Problem 1
36 to 45 . . . is this an increase or a decrease?

bigger amount
Decrease: bigger amount to smaller amount

## Increase: smaller amount to

Always subtract
smaller number
from greater number.

Amount of Change  45  36  9
amount of change

Multiply by 100.

 3
 0.25
6
original amount
 25%

## The amount increased

by 25% because you
went from a smaller to
a greater amount.

Problem 2
Original Price

\$750

Sale Percentage

Discount

35%

BIG
SALE
C

OM

\$750

S
ITOR
P U T E R M ON !
To d a y O n l

y!!

750 0.35  d
262.50  d
Sav

35 %

So, Anthony
saved \$262.50.

Original Price

Amount Saved

Sale Price

\$750

\$262.50

750  262.50  s
487.50  s

## So, Anthony bought his

monitor on sale for \$487.50.

## Think and Discuss

1. What words in a mathematical sentence signify a decrease?

84

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class__________________

LESSON

6-5

Problem Solving
Percent of Increase and Decrease

## Use the table below. Write the correct answer.

1. What is the percent of increase
in the population of Las Vegas,
NV from 1990 to 2000? Round
to the nearest tenth of a percent.
Solution:

## Fastest Growing Metropolitan Areas,

19902000
Metropolitan
Area

Population
1990

2000

Increase

1,563,282  852,737
= 0.833
852,737

Las Vegas,
NV

852,737

1,563,282

Naples, FL

152,099

251,377

Yuma, AZ

106,895

## 2. What is the percent of increase

in the population of Naples,
FL from 1990 to 2000?
Round to the nearest tenth
of a percent.

 152,099

Percent
of

49.7%

## 3. What was the 2000 population of

Yuma, AZ to the nearest whole
number?

## = _______  100 = _______%

________________________________________

For Exercises 46, round to the nearest tenth. Choose the letter
5. In 1967, a 30-second Super Bowl
commercial cost \$42,000. In 2000,
a 30-second commercial cost
\$1,900,000. What was the percent
increase in the cost?

## 4. The amount of money spent on

advertising costs in 2000 was 4.4%
lower than in 1999. If the 1999
spending was \$1,812.3 million, what
was the 2000 spending?
A \$79.7 million

A 44.2%

B \$1,732.6 million

B 442.4%

C \$1,892 million

C 4,423.8%

## 6. In 1896 Thomas Burke of the U.S.

won the 100-meter dash at the
Summer Olympics with a time of
12.00 seconds. In 2004, Justin
Gatlin of the U.S. won with a time of
9.85 seconds. What was the percent
decrease in the winning time?
A 2.15%
B 17.9%
C 21.8%

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

104

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

6-6

Practice A
Applications of Percents

## Let c = the commision amount and write an equation to find the

commission for the following. Do not solve.
1. 10% commission on \$4000

2. 6% commission on \$8450

_______________________________________

________________________________________

3. 8% commission on \$3575

## 4. 12% commission on \$12,750

_______________________________________

________________________________________

## 5. 5.5% commission on \$60,000

6. 6

_______________________________________

1
% commission on \$85,900
4

________________________________________

## Write a proportion to represent the following. Do not solve.

7. What percent of 14 is 7?

## 8. 7 is what percent of 25?

_______________________________________

________________________________________

## 10. 21 is 35% of what number?

_______________________________________

________________________________________

Solve.
11. 45 is 25% of what number?

## 12. What percent of 288 is 36?

_______________________________________

________________________________________

## 13. A financial investment broker earns 4% on each customer

dollar invested. If the broker invests \$50,000, what is
the commission on the investment?

______________

14. Sharlene bought 4 CDs at the music store. Each cost \$14.95.
She was charged 5% sales tax on her purchase. What was
the total cost of her purchase?

______________

15. Isaac earned \$1,800 last month. He put \$270 into savings.
What percent of his earnings did Isaac put in savings?

______________

## 16. Edel works for a company that pays a 15% commission on

her total sales. If she wants to earn \$450 in commissions,
how much do her total sales have to be?

______________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

371

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

6-6

Focus On Vocabulary

## A commission is a percent of money a person is paid for making a

sale. Many salespeople receive a commission on the amount
they sell.
The commission rate is the percent paid on a sale. A salesperson
commission rate is 5%.
The formula for finding out how much a salesperson earns based on
the commission rate and the amount of sales is:
commission rate sales = amount of commission
Sales tax is added to the price of an item or service. Sales tax is a
percent of the purchase price. A sales tax of 6.5% means that all
taxable items will have an additional 6.5% added to the total cost.
sales tax rate sale price = sales tax
sale price + sales tax = total sale
The total sale price is computed by adding the sales tax to the cost
of all the items purchased.
Write commission, commission rate, sales tax, or total sale to
describe each situation.
1. \$5.45 was added to the price of the shoes Jill bought.
________________________________________________________________________________________

2. The man who sold your family a car receives \$500 for the sale.
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 3. Mr. Adams makes a 4% commission on each house he sells.

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 4. Caroline spent \$37.43 for two shirts plus tax.

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

378

LESSON

6-6

## Review for Mastery

Applications of Percents

## Salespeople often earn a commission, a percent of their total sales.

Find the commission on a real-estate sale of \$125,000
if the commission rate is 4%.
Write the percent as a decimal and multiply.
commission rate  amount of sale = amount of commission
0.04  \$125,000
= \$5000
If, in addition to the commission, the salesperson earns a
salary of \$1000, what is the total pay?
commission + salary = total pay
\$5000 + \$1000 = \$6000
Complete to find each total monthly pay.
1. total monthly sales = \$170,000; commission rate = 3%; salary = \$1500
amount of commission = 0.03  \$________________ = \$________________
total pay = \$________________ + \$1500 = \$________________
2. total monthly sales = \$16,000; commission rate = 5.5%; salary = \$1750
amount of commission = ________________  \$________________ = \$________________
total pay = \$________________ + \$________________ = \$________________
A tax is a charge, usually a percentage, generally imposed by a government.
If the sales tax rate is 7%, find the tax on a sale of \$9.49.
Write the tax rate as a decimal and multiply.
tax rate  amount of sale = amount of tax
0.07
 \$9.49
= \$0.6643  \$0.66
Complete to find each amount of sales tax.
3. item price = \$5.19; sales tax rate = 6%
amount of sales tax = 0.06  \$_____________ = \$_____________  \$_____________
4. item price = \$250; sales tax rate = 6.75%
amount of sales tax = _____________  \$_____________ = \$_____________  \$_____________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

374

LESSON

6-6

## Review for Mastery

Applications of Percents (continued)

## Use a proportion to find what percent of a persons income

goes to a specific expense.
Heather earned \$3,200 last month. She paid \$448 for
transportation. To find the percent of her earnings that she
put towards transportation, write a proportion.
Think: What percent of 3200 is 448?
n
100

448
3200

Set up a proportion.
Think:

part
part
=
whole
whole

3200n = 44,800

Simplify.

3200n
3200 =

44,800
3200

n = 14

Simplify.

## Heather put 14% of her earnings towards transportation.

Complete each proportion to find the percent of earnings.
6. Leah earned \$1,900 last month.
She paid \$304 for utilities. What
percent of her earnings went to
utilities?

## 5. Wayne earned \$3,100 last month.

He paid \$837 for food. What percent
of his earnings went to food?
n
=
3100
100

n
304
=
100

## 3100n = ________  100

________  n

3100n = ________
3100n
= ________
3100

________

= ________

________

= ________

n = ________

n = ________
________

= ________  100

of Wayne's earnings
went to food.

________

## of Leahs earnings went to

utilities.

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

375

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

## 6-6 Applications of Percents

Problem 1
Just to inform you, I get
a 4% commission if I sell
a car.

Commission

is

Commission Rate

of

Total Sales

4%

\$39,500

c  4% \$39,500
c  0.04 39,500
c  1580

## Write the equation.

Change the percent to a decimal.
Multiply.
Julie will be paid an additional
\$1580 for selling the car.

Problem 2
Find the tax on the sale.

1@ 145.80
2@ 15.99

\$145.80
\$31.98

Subtotal

\$177.78

Tax (7.75%)

t  7.75% \$177.78
t  0.0775 177.78
t  13.78

total purchases
to get a subtotal.

by the tax rate.

\$13.78

## So, Meka would pay \$13.78 in tax

for her DVD player and DVDs.

## Think and Discuss

1. How do you determine how much money Meka had to pay in
total for her DVD player and DVDs in Problem 2?

86

LESSON

6-7

Practice A
Simple Interest

## Write the formula to compute the missing value. Do not solve.

1. principal = \$100

2. principal = \$150

rate = 4%

rate = ?

time = 2 years

time = 2 years

interest = ?

interest = \$9

_______________________________________

________________________________________

3. principal = \$200

4. principal = ?

rate = 5%

rate = 3%

time = ?

time = 4 years

interest = \$10

interest = 30

_______________________________________

________________________________________

## 5. Jules borrowed \$500 for 3 years at a simple interest rate of 6%.

How much interest will be due at the end of 3 years? How much
will Jules have to repay?
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 6. Karin maintained a balance of \$250 in her savings account for

8 years. The financial institution paid simple interest of 4%. What
was the amount of interest earned?
________________________________________________________________________________________

## Complete the table.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Principal
\$300
\$450
\$500
\$700
\$750
\$800

Rate
3%
4.5%
8%
4%

Time
4 years
3 years
2 years
3 years
2 years

2.5%

Interest
\$67.50
\$112.50
\$108
\$90
\$100

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

380

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

6-7

Focus on Vocabulary

Interest is the amount of money the bank pays you to use your
money, or the amount of money you pay the bank to borrow its
money.
Principal is the amount of money you save or borrow from the bank.
Rate of interest is the percent rate on money you save or borrow.
Time is the number of years the money is saved or borrowed.
Use this information to answer Exercises 13:
You put \$800 in a savings account at 4% interest and leave it
there for five years.
1. What is the principal?
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 2. What is the interest rate?

________________________________________________________________________________________

3. What is the amount of time the money will stay in the account?
________________________________________________________________________________________

You can find out how much interest you would earn on that money
by using this formula:
Interest = principal rate time
words
I
=
p

r
t
symbols
I
=
\$800
4% 5
I
=
\$800
0.04 5
Change % to decimal.
I
=
\$160
Multiply to solve.
4. To find out how much interest you will earn by keeping your
money in a bank, what three things do you need to know?
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

387

LESSON

6-7

Simple Interest

## Interest is money paid on an investment.

A borrower pays the interest. An investor earns the interest.
Simple interest, I, is earned when
an amount of money, the principal P,
is borrowed or invested at a rate of interest r
for a period of time t.

I= Prt

## Situation 1: Find I given P, r, and t.

Calculate the simple interest on a loan of \$3500
for a period of 6 months at a yearly rate of 5%.
5% = 0.05
6 months = 0.5 year

## Write the interest rate as a decimal.

Write the time period in terms of years.
I=Prt
I = 3500 0.05 0.5 = \$87.50

interest earned

## Find the interest in each case.

1. principal P = \$5000; time t = 2 years; interest rate r = 6%
I = P r t = ____________ 0.06 _______ = \$ _______
2. principal P = \$2500; time t = 3 months; interest rate r = 8%
I = P r t = ____________ ____________ ____________ = \$ _______
Situation 2: Find t given I, P, and r.

I=Prt
390 = 3000 0.065 t
390 = 195t
390 195t
=
195
195
2=t

## An investment of \$3000 at a yearly rate

of 6.5% earned \$390 in interest. Find
the period of time for which the money
was invested.
The investment was for 2 years.

## Find the time in each case.

3. I = \$1120; P = \$4000; r = 7%

## 4. I = \$812.50; P = \$5000; r = 6.5%

I=Prt
1120 = _______ 0.07 t

## 812.50 = _______ _______ t

1120 = _______ t

812.50 = _______ t

=
______________
_______

I=Prt

______________

______________

years = t

_______

______________

years = t

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

383

LESSON

6-7

## Review for Mastery

Simple Interest (continued)

## Situation 3: Find r given I, P, and t.

\$2500 was invested for 3 years
and earned \$450 in interest.
Find the rate of interest.

I=Prt
450 = 2500 r 3
450 = 7500r
450
7500r
=
7500
7500
0.06 = r

## Find the interest rate in each case.

5. I = \$1200; P = \$6000; t = 4 years

## 6. I = \$325; P = \$2000; t = 2.5 years

I=Prt

I=Prt

1200 = _______ r 4

1200 = _______ r

325 = _______ r

_______

=r

__________

=r

## The total amount A of money in an account

after interest has been earned, is the sum
of the principal P and the interest I.

_______

%.

A= P+ I

## Find the amount of money in the account after \$3500

has been invested for 3 years at a yearly rate of 6%.
First, find the interest earned.
I=Prt
I = 3500 0.06 3 = \$630

interest earned

## Then, add the interest to the principal.

3500 + 630 = 4130
So, the total amount in the account after 3 years is \$4130.
Find the total amount in the account.
7. principal P = \$4500; time t = 2.5 years; interest rate r = 5.5%
I = P r t = ____________ ____________ ____________ = \$ __________
Total Amount = P + I = 4500 + ____________ = ____________
So, after 2.5 years, the total amount in the account was \$ _________________.

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

384

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name

Date

LESSON

Class

Student Worksheet

## 6-7 Simple Interest

Problem 1
Use this diagram to help you to set up an equation to find a percent.
Simple Interest

THE
THEUNITED
UNITEDSTATES
STATESOF
OFAMERICA
AMERICA
THE
THEUNITED
UNITEDSTATES
STATESOF
OFAMERICA
AMERICA
THE
THEUNITED
UNITEDSTATES
STATESOF
OFAMERICA
AMERICA
THE
THEUNITED
UNITEDSTATES
STATESOF
OFAMERICA
AMERICA

Principal

Rate

Time

Amount of
money
borrowed or
invested

Interest rate
written as a
percent

Number of
years money
in borrowed or
invested

## FOR ALL DEBTS, PUBLIC AND

THISPRIVATE
NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER

## FOR ALL DEBTS, PUBLIC AND

THISPRIVATE
NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER
FOR ALL DEBTS, PUBLIC AND
THISPRIVATE
NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER

12

12
12

A
12

12

12

12

12
12

WASHINGTON, D.C.

12

WASHINGTON, D.C.

H 293

L70744629F
L70744629F
L70744629F
L70744629F

12

L70744629F
L70744629F
L70744629F 12
L70744629F

WASHINGTON, D.C.

WASHINGTON, D.C.

H 293
H 293
SERIES
1985

H 293

12
SERIES
1985

ONE DOLLAR
ONE DOLLAR
ONE DOLLAR
ONE DOLLAR

12
SERIES
1985

12
SERIES
1985

12

Interest for
Tristans
loan

\$14,500

7%

## Divide rate by 100

to get decimal.

I  14,500 0.07 5
I  5075

5 years

## So, Tristan will pay \$5075 in

simple interest for his loan.

## 1. In Problem 1, would Tristan pay less simple interest if he paid off

the loan in 4 years? Explain.

## 2. Would it be in Tristans best interest to pay off the loan in

4 years instead of 5 years? Explain.

88

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

4-2

Practice A
Integer Exponents

1. 101
_______________

5. 100
_______________

9. 107
_______________

2. 106

3. 102

_______________

4. 101

_______________

________________

7. 105

6. 103
_______________

8. 106

_______________

11. 103

10. 104
_______________

________________

12. 105

_______________

________________

Simplify.
13. (2)3
_______________

17. 52
_______________

14. 34

15. (4)2

_______________

16. 24

_______________

18. 63

19. (9)2

_______________

________________

20. (3)3

_______________

21. 8  30 + 21

________________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

## 25. One centimeter equals 102 meter. Simplify 102.

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 26. The area of a square is 104 square feet. Simplify 104.

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

189

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

4-2

Using Patterns

evaluate powers with exponents.

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

23 = 8

33 = 27

43 = 64

22 = 4

32 = 9

42 = 16

21 = 2

31 = 3

41 = 4

20 = 1

30 = 1

40 = 1

1
3
1
3 2 =
9

1
4
1
4 2 =
16

## Look at the pattern of the products in

the first column. You see that as you
move down the column the products
are getting smaller. That is because
there is one less factor. Each product
is divided by 2 to get the next product.

1
2
1
2 2 =
4
2 1 =

3 1 =

4 1 =

## 1. What is the base in Column 2? ______________________

2. What is the product divided by
each time to get the next product? ______________________
3. What is 1 3? ______________________
4. What is the base in Column 3? ______________________
5. What number is the product divided
by each time to get the next product? ______________________
6. What is

1
4? ______________________
4

## Complete the table using the

table above as a guide.

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

53 = 125

63 = 216

103 = 1000

52 =

62 =

102 = 100

=5

=6

= 10

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

195

LESSON

4-2

## Review for Mastery

Integer Exponents

## To rewrite a negative exponent,

move the power to the denominator
of a unit fraction.

5 2 = 1
52

1. 73 =

2. 95 =

3. 134 =

## Complete each pattern.

4. 101 =
102 =

1
= 0.1
10
1
102

1
= 0.01
100

103 = _______________________________
6. 31 =

1
3

3 2 =

1
3

5. 51 =

1
5

5 2 =

1
52

1
1
=
55
25

53 = _______________________________
7. (4)1 = ______

1
1
=
33
9

(4)2 = _____________________________

33 = _______________________________

(4)3 = ________________________________

Simplify.
8. 23 =

= ____________

9. (6)2 =

= ____________

10. 42 =

= ____________

11. (3)3 =

= ____________

## 17. (9)1 = ____________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

192

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

## 4-2 Integer Exponents

Problem 1

3

(2)

CAUTION

(2)3
1

1
(2)3

1
1

(2) (2) (2) 8


p!
Hel
When you flip, the  sign falls off, the exponent!
Try it on a calculator

( (

or

Problem 2
Which operation is done first?
Think: start inside parentheses
2  (7)0  (4  2)2  2  (7)0  (6)2
1

Think: (7)0  1


21
36

1
and 62  2
6

## Think and Discuss

1. What clue in Problem 1 tells you that you need to find the
reciprocal?

44

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

4-3

Practice A
Scientific Notation

1. 1.76  101

2. 8.9  103

_______________

5. 5.8  10

_______________

6. 8.1  10

_______________

9. 5.0  10

3. 6.2  102
_______________

7. 3.8  10

_______________

10. 3.12  10

_______________

4. 1.01  102
________________

4

8. 2.03  103

_______________

11. 7.6  10

_______________

________________

2

_______________

________________

## Write each number in scientific notation.

13. 376,000
_______________________

16. 1006
_______________________

19. 0.0107
_______________________

22. 250,800
_______________________

14. 9,580,000

15. 650

________________________

17. 29

________________________

18. 0.0061

________________________

20. 0.0002008

________________________

21. 0.00053

________________________

23. 0.000094

________________________

24. 0.00086

________________________

________________________

25. Earth is about 93,000,000 miles from the Sun. Write this number
in scientific notation.
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 26. The diameter of Earth is about 1.276  104 kilometers.

The diameter of Venus is about 1.21  104 kilometers. Which
planet has the greater diameter, Earth or Venus?
________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

197

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

4-3

Organization Patterns

You can use powers of 10 to write very large or very small numbers
in a shortened form. This efficient method is called scientific
notation. It is also useful in performing multiplication and division of
very large and very small numbers.
Standard form

348,000,000

Scientific notation
=

3.48  108

8 places left

## Move the decimal point to

create a number between
1 and 10.

## The number of places the

decimal point is moved to the
left is the positive exponent.

Standard form

0.00035

Scientific notation
=

3.5  104

4 places right

## Move the decimal point to

create a number between
1 and 10.

## The number of places the

decimal point is moved to the
right is the negative exponent.

## Use 0.000078 to answer Exercises 14.

1. How many places must you move the decimal
point to create a number between 1 and 10? _________________________________________
2. Which direction will you move the decimal point? _____________________________________
3. Will the exponent be negative or positive? ____________________________________________
4. Write the number in scientific notation. _______________________________________________
Use 312,000,000 to answer Exercises 57.
5. How many places must you move the decimal
point to create a number between 1 and 10? _________________________________________
6. Which direction will you move the decimal point? _____________________________________
7. Will the exponent be negative or positive? ____________________________________________
Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

203

LESSON

4-3

## Review for Mastery

Scientific Notation
Standard Notation

430,000
0.0000057

Scientific Notation
1st factor is
between 1 and 10.

2nd factor is an
integer power of 10.

4.3  105
5.7  106

## positive integer for large number

negative integer for small number

)(

## To convert from scientific notation, look at the power of 10 to tell

how many places and which way to move the decimal point.
Complete to write each in standard notation.
1. 4.12  106

2. 3.4  105

_______________

_______________

How many places?

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

## Write each number in standard notation.

3. 8  105
____________________________________

4. 7.1  104

5. 3.14  108

____________________________________

___________________________________

## To convert to scientific notation, determine the factor between 1 and

10. Then determine the power of 10 by counting from the decimal
point in the first factor to the decimal point in the given number.
Complete to write each in scientific notation.
6. 32,000,000

7. 0.0000000712

_______________

________________

## From its location in the first factor, which

way must the decimal move to its location
in the given number? How many places?

_______________

________________

_______________

________________

## Write each number in scientific notation.

8. 41,000,000
____________________________________

9. 0.0000000643
____________________________________

10. 1,370,000,000
___________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

200

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

## 4-3 Scientific Notation

Problem 1

3.12  109
Which direction should you
move the decimal point?


2

1


0

To the left

To the right

## 9 is  so move the decimal point to the right.

Problem 2
Write 0.0000003 in scientific notation.
0.0000003.

## Is the absolute value of the number  1 or  1?

If  1, then 3  107

If  1, then 3  107

|0.0000003|  1
So 0.0000003  3  107.

## Think and Discuss

1. If a number is extremely large will the exponent be positive or
negative if you write the number in scientific notation?
2. Write 3  107 in decimal form.
3. Is 3  107 grams more likely to be the weight of a car or the
weight of an eyelash? Explain.

46

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class__________________

LESSON

4-4

Practice A
Laws of Exponents

1. 22 23

2. 35 32

_______________
1

5. 8 8

3. 13 15

________________
4

6. 7 7

_______________

4. 54 53

________________

7. 12 12

________________

________________

8. n3 n8

________________

________________

## Divide. Write the quotient as one power.

9.

25
22

10.

_______________

13.

58
56
_______________

10 4

11.

103
________________

14.

46

12.

43
________________

249

15.

243
________________

(6)8

________________

(3)4
________________

16.

(6)5

(3)6

b7
b5
________________

Simplify.
17. (32)4
_______________
2 3

21. (5 )

_______________

18. (63)1

19. (45)0

________________

20. (82)3

________________

0 4

4 2

22. (7 )

24. (s5)2

23. (9 )

________________

________________

________________

________________

25. The mass of a male African elephant is about 7  10 kg. What is the combined
mass of a herd of 80 male African elephants? Write your answer in scientific
notation.
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 26. The Haywood Paper Company has 52 warehouses. Each

warehouse holds 55 boxes of paper. How many boxes of paper
are stored in all the warehouses? Write the answer as one
power.
________________________________________________________________________________________

27. Write the expression for 5 used as a factor eight times being
divided by 5 used as a factor six times. Simplify the expression
as one power.
________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

205

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

4-4

Organization Patterns

## There are some rules that make multiplying or dividing exponents

with the same base easier.
To multiply powers with the same base, add exponents.
(4 4)

(4 4 4)

44444

42

43

45

## The base of 4 is the same, so: 42 43 = 42 + 3 = 45.

To divide powers with the same base, subtract the exponents.

666666
666

666666
6 66

66
63
63

## The base of 6 is the same, so:

66
6

= 66  3 = 63

1. What is the base for 32?

______________________________________________________________

## 2. What is the base for 34 ?

______________________________________________________________

## 3. Are the bases the same for these powers?

4. Write all the factors for 32 34.

___________________________________________

________________________________________________________

## 5. Add the exponents for 32 and 34 and

rewrite the number using the same base.

____________________________________________

## 6. Are the answers for Exercise 4 and Exercise 5 the same?

7. Are the bases the same for 55 52?

___________________________

__________________________________________________

## 8. Subtract the exponents and rewrite the problem. _____________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

211

LESSON

4-4

## Review for Mastery

Laws of Exponents

To multiply powers
with the same base,
exponents.

## To divide powers with

the same base,
keep the base and
subtract exponents.

To raise a power
to a power,
keep the base and
multiply exponents.

xa xb = xa+b

xa xb = xab

(xa)b = xab

45 42 = 45 + 2 = 47

45 42 = 45  2 = 43

## (45)2 = 45(2) = 410

83 8 = 83 + 1 = 84

83 8 = 831 = 82

## Complete to see why the rules for exponents work.

1. 45 42 = ( _____ ) ( _____ ) ( _____ ) ( _____ )( _____ ) ( _____ )( _____ ) = 4_____
2. 83 8 = ( _____ ) ( _____ ) (_____ ) (_____ ) = 8_____
3. 45 42 =
4. 83 8 =

45
4

4 4444
= 4_____
4 4

8 88
83
=
= 8_____
8
8
+2+ 2

5. (42)3 = 42 42 42 = 42

= 42(3) = 4________

+

## 6. 123 122 = 123 2 = 12_____

8.

76
7

7. 94 93 = 9________ = 9_____

= 762 = 7_____

9.

126
12

= 12________ = 12_____

## Write each product or quotient as one power.

10. 104 106 = _________
13.

15 6
15 2

= _________

11. 55 5 = _________
14.

95
= _________
9

12. 45 4 43 = _________
15.

210
22

= _________

Simplify.
16. (53)4 = 53(4) = _________

## 18. (25)2 = _________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

208

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

## 4-4 Laws of Exponents

Problem 1
Can you see a relationship?
72 72  74
49 49  74
2401  74
2401  2401

Problem 2
Can you see a relationship?
(75)3  715
(75) (75) (75)  715
(75  5  5)  715
715  715

to
Yes!
power
a
e
is
To ra
ly
r, multip
a powe ents!
on
the exp

## Think and Discuss

1. Does x m y n  xy m  n? Explain.

48

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

4-5

Practice A
Squares and Square Roots

1. 16

2. 49

_______________

3. 1

_______________

5. 100

_______________

6. 4

_______________

4. 25

7. 81

_______________

________________

8. 64

_______________

________________

9.

8 +1
_______________

13.

36 + 10

64
16

11.

_______________

15.

_______________

12.

49  4

19.

_______________

100
4
_______________

31 + 5
________________

16.

_______________

18. 5 9

_______________

18  2
_______________

14. 15  25

_______________

17.

76

10.

16 + 9
________________

20.

 3 81
________________

## Switzerlands flag is a square, unlike

other flags that are rectangular.
21. If the flag of Switzerland has an area
of 81 ft2, what is the length of each of
its sides? (Hint: s =

A)

_______________________________________

## 22. If the lengths of the sides of a

Switzerland flag are 10 ft, what is the
area of the flag? (Hint: A = s 2)
_______________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

213

LESSON

4-5

## A square root produces a given number when multiplied by itself.

The large square shown below is 4 squares long on each side and
has 16 squares. 4 times 4 equals 16. 4 is the square root of 16.

Symbols

Symbols

Words

4 4 = 16

42 = 16

16 = 4

25 = 5

## Compare the symbols for squared and square root.

42 = 16 and
2

5 = 25 and

16 = 4
25 = 5

Write in words.
1. 62
2.

____________________________________________

36

_______________________________________________

3. What is the square root of 36?
4. What is the square root of 100?
5. What is 72?

_______________________________
________________________________

_____________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

219

LESSON

4-5

## Review for Mastery

Squares and Square Roots

## A perfect square has two identical factors.

25 = 5  5 = 52 or 25 = (5)  (5) = (5)2

## Tell if the number is a perfect square.

If yes, write its identical factors.
1. 121 ___________________________

2. 200 ___________________________

3. 400 ___________________________
Since 52 = 25 and also (5)2 = 25,
both 5 and 5 are square roots of 25.
The principal square root of 25 is 5:

25 = 5 and  25 = 5
25 = 5

## Write the two square roots of each number.

4.

81 = _____________

625 = _____________

5.

 81 = __________

6.

 625 = __________

169 = ______________

 169 = __________

## Write the principal square root of each number.

7.

144 = ___________

8.

6400 = ___________

9.

10,000 = ____________

5 100  3
5(10)  3
50  3
47

## Use the principal square root when

evaluating an expression. For the
order of operations, do square root
first, as you would an exponent.
Complete to simplify each expression.
10. 3 144  20
3  ________  20
________

 20

________

11.

25 + 144 + 13
__________

__________

+ 13

+ 13

________

12.

1
100
+
25
2
100
25

1
2

1
5
2
1
__________ +
2
+

_________
Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

216

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

## Think: What number

times itself equals 81?

81

81



81

9

4  4 16
5  5  25
6  6  36
7  7  49
8  8  64
9  9  81

4  4 16
5  5  25
6  6  36
7  7  49
8  8  64
9  9  81

Problem 2

Order of Operations:
1. Parentheses
2. Exponents and roots
3. Multiply and divide from left to right.
4. Add and subtract from left to right.

325
4
35 4
 15
4
 19

Multiply.

## Think and Discuss

1. Why is 52 read as five squared?

## 2. You know that the product of two positive numbers is positive

() and the product of two negative numbers is positive
(3 3  9). Use these rules to explain why 9
 is
undefined.

50

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class__________________

LESSON

4-5

Problem Solving
Squares and Square Roots

1. For college wrestling competitions,
the wrestling mat must be a square
with an area of 1,764 square feet.
What is the length of each side of the
wrestling mat?

## 2. For high school wrestling

competitions, the wrestling mat must
be a square with an area of 1,444
square feet. What is the length of
each side of the wrestling mat?
(Hint: A = s2)

Solution:

1,444 = ___________

1,764 = 42 feet

___________ feet

## 3. Elena has a large sheet of square

paper that is 169 square inches. How
many squares can she cut out of the
paper that are 4 inches on each side?

## 4. James has a square area rug that is

132 square feet. In his new house,
there are three rooms. Room one is
11 feet by 11 feet. Room two is 10
feet by 12 feet and room three is 13
feet by 13 feet. In which room will the
rug fit?

________________________________________

________________________________________

## Choose the letter for the best answer.

6. To create a square patchwork quilt,
square pieces of material are sewn
together to form a larger square.
Which number of smaller squares
can be used to create a square
patchwork quilt?

## 5. A square picture frame measures

36 inches on each side. The actual
wood trim is 2 inches wide. The
photograph in the frame is surrounded
by a bronze mat that measures
5 inches. What is the maximum area
of the photograph?

A 35 squares

C 64 squares

B 84 squares

## B 961 sq. inches

C 484 sq. inches
8. A box of tile contains 12 square tiles.
If you tile the largest possible square
area using whole tiles, how many tiles
will you have left from the box?

## 7. A can of paint claims that one can will

cover 400 square feet. If you painted a
square with the can of paint, how long
would it be on each side?
A 200 feet

C 20 feet

A 9

C 6

B 3

B 25 feet

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

62

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

4-6

Practice A
Estimating Square Roots

## Each square root is between two consecutive integers. Name

1.

2.

10
_______________________________________

3.

________________________________________

4.

19
_______________________________________

5.

33
________________________________________

6.

15
_______________________________________

39
________________________________________

7.

32

8.

_______________

11.

22

9.

59
_______________

12.

_______________

10.

118
_______________

13.

155
_______________

230
________________

14.

43
_______________

181
________________

## Use a calculator to find each value. Round to the nearest tenth.

15.

12

16.

_______________

19.

38

_______________

20.

_______________

23.

54
_______________

17.

18

18.

_______________

21.

45
_______________

24.

________________

22.

_______________

25.

27
_______________

40
_______________

24

22
________________

26.

48
________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

221

LESSON

4-6

## The numbers 16 and 25 are called perfect squares. Each has an

integer as its square root. To find the square root of a perfect
square, ask yourself what number multiplied by itself equals the
perfect square.
Some Perfect Squares
1

16

36

49

64

81

100

121

144

169

25

## 1. What number times itself equals 16? ___________________________

2. What is the square root of 16? ___________________________
3. What number times itself equals 25? ___________________________
4. What is the square root of 25? ___________________________

Use these steps to estimate the square root of a number that is not a
perfect square.
What is

45 ?

Step 1
Identify a perfect square that is a little more than 45.
The square root of 49 = 7.
Step 2
Identify a perfect square that is a little less than 45.
The square root of 36 = 6.

49

36

Step 3
The estimate of

45 is between 6 and 7.

Use the steps above to help you estimate the square root of 90.
5. Which perfect square is a little more than 90? _________________
6. What is the square root of 100? _________________
7. Which perfect square is a little less than 90? _________________
8. What is the square root of 81? _________________
9. What is your estimate of the square root of 90?
________________________________________________________________________________________
Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

227

LESSON

4-6

## Estimating Square Roots

To locate a square root between two consecutive integers, refer to the table.
Number
Square

1
1

2
4

3
9

4
16

5
25

6
36

7
49

8
64

9
81

10
100

Number
Square

11
121

12
144

13
169

14
196

15
225

16
256

17
289

18
324

19
361

20
400

256

< 260

## Locate 260 between two integers.

260 is between the perfect squares 256 and 289:

256 <

So:
And:

16

< 289

260 <

<

289

260 < 17

1.

______

< 39

______

<

______

<

< ______

______

39 < ______

______

39 < ______

______

## < 130 < ______

2.

After locating a square root between two consecutive integers, you can
determine which of the two integers the square root is closer to.
27 is between the perfect squares 25 and 36:
25 < 27
< 36
25 <

So:
And:
The difference between 27 and 25 is 2;
the difference between 36 and 27 is 9.
So,

<

27 <

36

27 < 6

25 < 27 < 36

27, is closer to 5.

3. 100

< 106

< 121

4.

_______ <

250

< _______

_______

_______

<

_______

_______

<

_______ 

## 121  106 = _______

106 is closer to ______ than ______

250 = _______

## 250 is closer to _______ than _______

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

224

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name

Date

LESSON

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1
52  25 and
62  36

Is 5   30  6?

 30 
5.47722

Yes, 30 is
between
5 and 6.

Problem 2

700

26.5
square root of
26.5."

What
is this?

## Think and Discuss

1. The square root of 5 is between 2 and 3. Which is a more
precise statement 2  5
  3 or 5
  2.2? Why?

Problem 2?

52

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class__________________

LESSON

4-7

Practice A
Operations with Square Roots

Simplify.
1. 8 2 + 3 2

2. 10 5  6 5

________________________

4.

7.

10.

3. 6 7 + 7 + 2 7

________________________

________________________

8  2

5. 3 10  10

6. 5 3  27

____

3 ______

___ ___

_____

3  ______

___  ___

________

_______

8.

45

9.

32

___  5

___  2

____ 5

____ 2

________

_______

27 + 48

11.

___ 3 + ___ 3

50  18
________

300
______

27 + 6 3

12.

________

___ 3 + ___ 3
___ 3

## 242 feet. Simplify the length.

________________________________________________________________________________________

14. Pipe A has a width of 125 centimeters, and Pipe B has a width
of 80 centimeters. Write the difference in the two widths in
simplified form.
________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

229

LESSON

4-7

## Use the following procedure to simplify square roots.

Step 1: List all the factors of the number.
Step 2: Ask yourself: Are any of the factors perfect squares?
If yes, circle the greatest perfect square factor.
If no, stop, the expression is already simplified.
Step 3: Write the number under the square root symbol as a product of two numbers,
where one of the numbers is the number you circled in Step 2.
Step 4: Use the Multiplication Property of Square Roots to write the expression as two
separate square roots.
Step 5: Take the square root of the perfect square.

24 .

Step 3:

____  ____

Step 4:

____  ____

54 .

## Steps 1 and 2: ________________________________________

Step 3: ______________________
Step 4: ______________________
Step 5: ______________________

Simplify.
3.

12

_______________

4.

5.

27

_______________

21

_______________

6.

63

_________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

235

LESSON

4-7

## Operations with Square Roots

When the numbers under the square root symbols are the same, you can add or
subtract them.

4 7 +9 7

outside the square
root symbol.

13 7

Simplify.
1. 3 2 + 8 2

2. 9 6  2 6

___________________

3.

_______________

5 +7 5
_______________

4. 13 10  4 10
_________________

The numbers under the square root symbols do not have to be the same in order to
multiply them.
5  20

3  7

Simplify when
needed.

100

21

10

Simplify.
5.

2  2

6. 4 5  5

_______________

7.

_______________

8 3 2
_______________

8. 8 3  3
_________________

To simplify square roots, write the number under the square root symbol as a product.
Make one of the factors a perfect square.
90

## 9 is a perfect square. The

square root of 9 is 3.

## Leave the factor that is not

a perfect square under the
square root symbol.

9 10
3 10

Simplify.
9.

45
_______________

10.

11.

12
_______________

600
_______________

12. 3 50
_________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

232

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

## 4-7 Operations with Square Roots

Problem 1

No!

2 10  5 10  ?

2 10

7 square roots of 10

5 10

( 10  10 )  ( 10  10  10  10  10 )
So, 2 10  5 10  7 10

Easier: 2 10  5 10  (2  5) 10

 7 10

Problem 2

Yes!
12

3 ?
12

## 12 and 3 are the

3  12 3
 36
6

6  36 because 6 6  36.

## Think and Discuss

1. Tami said that 9
  16

Was she right? Explain.

25 because 9  16  25.


## 2. Show how you can simplify the expression

11
7  35
  57  45 .

54

LESSON

4-8

Practice A
The Real Numbers

## Write all names that apply to each number.

1. 3.2

2.

2
5

3.  12

_______________________

________________________

________________________

_______________________

________________________

________________________

4
2

4.

5. 20

6.

16

_______________________

________________________

________________________

_______________________

________________________

________________________

7. 0

8.

_______________

11.

3
4

_______________

12.

_______________

4

9.

10.

_______________

________________

13.  49

25
_______________

9
0

14.

_______________

11
________________

## Find a real number between each pair of numbers.

15. 3

1
2
and 3
3
3

_______________________

## 16. 2.16 and

11
5

17.

________________________

1
1
and
8
5
________________________

## 18. Give an example of an irrational number that is greater than 0.

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 19. Give an example of a number that is not real.

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 20. Give an example of a rational number between

1
and
2

1.

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

237

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

4-8

Use a Venn Diagram

## You know that rational numbers can be written in fraction form as

an

integer
. Rational numbers include:
integer

Decimals

Fractions

Integers

Whole Numbers

## This diagram of rational numbers expressed in different forms helps

you see how they are related.

## From this picture you can say:

1. 0.4 is a rational number, but it is not an integer or
___________________________

2.

## 100 = 10. It is a rational number, it is ___________________________,

and it is a whole number.

## 3. 3 is a rational number and an integer, but it is not

___________________________.
4. 2.6 is a rational number, but it is not ___________________________ or a
whole number.
Numbers that are not rational are called irrational numbers. For
example,

## 3 is an irrational number. It is a decimal that does not

terminate or repeat.

3 = 1.7320508

## Write all names that apply to each number: rational, irrational,

integer, or whole number.
5. 2.236068

_____________________________________________.

6. 7

_______________________________________________________.

7. 328

_______________________________________________________.

8. 2

2
3

_______________________________________________________.

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

243

LESSON

4-8

The Real Numbers

## The set of rational numbers contains

all integers, all fractions, and decimals
that end or repeat.
Irrational numbers can only be written
as decimals that do not end or repeat.

Real Numbers

Rational Numbers

Irrational Numbers

## Together, the rational numbers and the

irrational numbers form the set of real numbers.
Square roots of numbers that are Square roots of numbers that are
perfect squares are rational.
not perfect squares are irrational.
25 = 5

3 = 1.732050807. . .

1.

7
_______________

2.

3.

81
_______________

4.

169
_______________

101
________________

## The square of a nonzero number is positive. 3 = 9 and (3) = 9

So, the square root of a negative number is not a real number.
9 is not a real number.

## Tell if each number is real or not real.

5. 8
_______________

6.  8

7.

_______________

8

25

8.

_______________

________________

Between any two real numbers, there is always another real number.
One way to find a number between is to find the number halfway
between.
1
2
To find a real number between 7 and 7 ,
5
5


3
1
2
3
divide their sum by 2: 7 + 7 = 14  2 = 7
10
5
5  5
Find a real number between each pair.
9. 8

4
3
and 8
7
7

_______________

## 10. 1.6 and 1.7

11. 3

_______________

7
2
and 3
9
9

_______________

12. 6

1
3
and 6
2
4

________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

240

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

## 4-8 The Real Numbers

Problem 1
Before you classify the numbers, look closely at each number.

15

## The square root of a negative

number is undefined.

CAUTION

13

## Always look for undefined

expressions. They look obvious!

Problem 2
1  1
2 )2
(1
3
3
Hmm, Where have
I seen this concept before?
It is the average, or
mean.

## Think and Discuss

1. What is the only set of numbers that irrational numbers can belong to?
2. How many sets of numbers does a whole number belong to?

56

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

4-8

Problem Solving
The Real Numbers

1. Twin primes are prime numbers that
differ by 2. Find an irrational number
between twin primes 5 and 7.

## 2. Rounded to the nearest

ten-thousandth,  = 3.1416 . Find a
rational number between 3 and .

Solution:

## You need to find an irrational number

between 5 and 7.
Since 52 = 25, 72 = 49, and 62 = 36,
try the square root of a number
between 25 and 49 that is not 36.

31

## 3. One famous irrational number is e.

Rounded to the nearest
ten-thousandth e  2.7823 . Find a
rational number that is between 2
and e.

## 4. Perfect numbers are those for which

the divisors of the number sum to the
number itself. The number 6 is a
perfect number because
1 + 2 + 3 = 6. The number 28 is
also a perfect number. Find an
irrational number between 6 and 28.
________________________________________

_______________________________________

## Choose the letter for the best answer.

6. Which is an irrational number?

5. Which is an integer?
A the number half-way between 6
and 7

as a fraction

## B the money in an account if the

balance was \$213.00 and \$21.87
was deposited

## B the length of a side of a square

with area 2 cm2
C the square root of a negative
number

## C the net yardage after plays that

resulted in a 15 yard loss, 10 yard
gain, 6 yard gain and 5 yard loss

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

68

LESSON

2-3

Practice A

Do not solve.
1.

1
3
+
2
4

2.

_______________

5. A statue 8
that is 1

1
4
+
3
9

3.

_______________

2
3

3
8

4.

_______________

1
1

2
6
________________

## 6. During the 19th Olympic Winter

Games in 2002, the United States
4-man bobsled teams won silver and
bronze medals. USA-1 sled had a
total time of 3 min 7.81 sec. The
USA-2 sled had a total time of 3 min
7.86 sec. What is the difference in the
time of the two runs?

5
in. high rests on a stand
16

3
in. high. What is the total
16

height?

_______________________________________

________________________________________

7.

2
4
+
9
9
_______________

11.

2
1

5
2
_______________

8.

5
3
+
12
12

9.

_______________

12. 2

9
7

10
10

10.

_______________

1
1
+1
3
2

13. 3

_______________

1  5
+ 1
4  6 

_______________

8
11

15
15
________________

14.

3
11

4 12
________________

15. Mr. Martanarie bought a new lamp and lamppost for his home.
5
1
The pole was 6 ft tall and the lamp was 1 ft in height. How
8
4
tall were the lamp and post together?
________________________________________________________________________________________

## Simplify each expression.

16. 1

1 1
+
2 2

_______________

17. 1

1
1
+ 
2
2

18. 5

_______________

1
1
2
6
3

_______________

19. 12

3
3
 5
4
12

________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

98

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

2-3

Use a Graphic Aid

## It is easy to add and subtract fractions with common denominators.

3 eighths + 4 eighths = 7 eighths
3
8

4
8

8
9

7
8

3
9

5
9

## Adding fractions with unlike denominators requires more steps. The

1 1
denominators. + = ?
2 4

1 1
+ , you must find a common denominator.
2 4

## 1. What are the denominators in this problem?

_________________

## 2. To find a common denominator, one-half can be changed

into fourths. How many fourths are there in one-half?

_________________

1
to fourths.
2
4. You can now add, because you have a common denominator.

3. Change

_________________
_________________

## To subtract fractions with unlike denominators, you must find a

5 1
finding a common denominator.  = ?
6 3

## 5. What are the denominators in this problem?

_________________

## To find a common denominator, you will change to sixths.

6. How many sixths are in one-third? Write the fraction.

_________________

## 7. You can now subtract the fractions.

_________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

105

LESSON

2-3

## To add fractions that have the same denominator:

Use the common denominator for the sum.
Add the numerators to get the numerator of the sum.
Write the sum in simplest form.

3 1+ 3 4
1
1
+
=
=
=
8
8
8
8
2

## To subtract fractions that have the same denominator:

Use the common denominator for the difference.
Subtract the numerators.
Subtraction is addition of an opposite.
Write the difference in simplest form.

3  1 3 +1 4
2
   =
=
=
6  6
6
6
3

## Complete to add the fractions.

1.

3
4
+
= _____ = _____
14
14

3. 

2.

 4
2
+   = _____ = _____
10  10 

5.

 3
9
   = _____ = _____
15  15 

 3
5
+   = _____ = _____
12  12 

## Complete to subtract the fractions.

4.

8 2
 = _____ = _____
9 9

10  2 
   = _____ = _____
24  24 
To add or subtract decimals, line up the decimal points and then add or subtract from
right to left as usual.

6. 

12.83
+ 24.17

35.78
14.55

37.00

21.23

## Complete to add the decimals.

7. 14.23 + 3.56 = _________________

## 9. 1.39 + 13.6 = _________________

Complete to subtract the decimals.
10. 124.33  13.16 = _________________

## 12. 25.15  25.06 = _________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

101

LESSON

2-3

## Review for Mastery

Adding and Subtracting Rational Numbers (continued)

## To add fractions with different denominators, first write the fractions

with common denominators. To find the LCD of denominators 5 and
6, list the multiples of each.
Multiples of 5: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30
Multiples of 6: 12, 18, 24, 30
So, the LCD of 5 and 6 is 30.
Complete to find the LCD for each set of denominators.
13. The LCD of 6 and 4 is: ___________________________
Multiples of 6: ___________________________
Multiples of 4: ___________________________
14. The LCD of 3 and 7 is: ___________________________
Multiples of 3: ___________________________
Multiples of 7: ___________________________
To add fractions with different denominators:

1 1 1 3 3
+ =
=
2 3 23 6
1 2 2
=
32 6
5
=
6

## Complete to add fractions. Simplify.

15.
+

1
=
4 20

16.

3
=
4 16

17. 5

1
=5
3
24

3
=
5 20

5
=
16 16

+2

5
=2
8
24

= ________

= ________ = ________

= ________

## Add or subtract fractions. Simplify.

18.

1 7
+
=
4 20

19.

4 1
 =
9 5

20.

8 1
 =
15 4

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

102

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

## 2-3 Adding and Subtracting Rational Numbers

Problem 1
7
13

11
13

There are a total of 18

Problem 2
Write a mixed number as an improper fraction.

7 1(8)  7

8
8

## Multiply the whole

number and the denominator.

Keep the
denominator.

Mixed Number

7
15
1  
8
8

Improper Fraction

## Think and Discuss

1. Explain how to add rational numbers that have the same
denominator.

24

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

2-4

Practice A
Multiplying Rational Numbers

## Multiply. Write each answer in simplest form.

 1
1. 5  
3

2
2. 2  
5

_______________

5 2
5.   
7 5

_______________

6.

_______________

9.

1  10 
 
2 7 

10.

3  1
 
4 3

1  1
7.   
4 3

_______________

________________

1  2
8.   
6  3

_______________

3  5
 
10  18 

11.

_______________

14.

2
4. 3  
9

_______________

_______________

_______________

 1
13. 4 1 
 2

 1
3. 4  
6

4  12 
 
5  16 

________________

12.

_______________

3 5
 
4 8

2  1
15.  3 
5  4

_______________

4  24 
 
3  16 
________________

5 3 
16.   
6  10 

_______________

________________

Multiply.
17.

3.2
 5

18.

_______________

21.

 3.14
0.007
_______________

0.34
0.06

19.

_______________

22.

8.12
 9

20.

_______________

 6.7
 0.8

23.

_______________

 0.25
  2.4
_______________

4.24
 3.5
________________

24.

7.9
2
________________

1
hours for the Lenox family. She was paid \$5 an hour. How much
2
did she receive for this babysitting job?

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

107

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class__________________

LESSON

2-4

Use a Visual Model

1 1
1
product of
. First,
of the rectangle was shaded. Then,
2 3
2
1
the rectangle was divided horizontally into thirds. Then,
was
3
1 1
.
2 3

## 1. Into how many parts is the rectangle divided? What fractional

part of the rectangle is each of these parts?

_____________

_____________

fractions.

_____________

1 1
.
4 2

## 4. Draw lines from top to bottom to divide the rectangle into

fourths. Shade one-fourth of the rectangle.
5. Draw a line across the rectangle to divide it into halves.
Into how many parts is the rectangle now divided?

_____________

## 6. Shade one of the halves.

7. What fractional part of the rectangle was shaded twice?

_____________

## 8. Multiply the numerators and denominators.

_____________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

113

LESSON

2-4

## Review for Mastery

Multiplying Rational Numbers

3
1
 .
4
3
Divide a square into
4 equal parts. Lightly

To model

Darken 1 of the

Compare the
1 darkened part to
the original 4.

1
3
1

=
3
4
4

## Model each multiplication. Write the result.

1.

2.

1
2

= __________
2
4

3.

3
4

= __________
4
6

2
3

= __________
3
9

To multiply fractions:

## Cancel common factors, one in a numerator

and the other in a denominator.
Multiply the remaining factors in the
numerator and in the denominator.
If the signs of the factors are the same, the product is positive.
If the signs of the factors are different, the product is negative.

3
8
1 2
2

=
=
1 3
3
4
9
1

## Multiply. Answer in simplest form.

1
4

= _______
2
9
2  9
   = _______
7.
3  10 

4.

6
2

= _______
7
3
 2  27
8.   
= _______
 9  40

5.

3 15

5 17
 4
9.   
 7

6.

= _______
 21
  = _______
 8

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

110

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

LESSON

Problem 1
Multiply.

5 12
 
5
12

5 12
  
5
12

1 1
 1 
1

## Cancel the common factors.

 

1
 
1
 1

Multiply.

Problem 2

0.07(4.6)  0.322

21 

## Think and Discuss

1. Ming multiplies two fractions. The product simplifies to 1. What
do you know about the two fractions?

## 2. If you multiply 462.0125 and 50.375, how many decimal places

will the product have? How do you know?

26

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

2-5

Practice A
Dividing Rational Numbers

1.

1 3

8
4

2. 

_______________

5.

1
1

9
3

2
1
1
5
2

3.

_______________

6.

_______________

9. 1

5
2

9
3

7. 

_______________

_______________

4.

_______________

2
4

5
7

10. 

1
1

6
3

________________

3
6

5
7

8. 

_______________

3
9
4

11. 2

_______________

3  1

4  8 

1
1

3
4

3  5

8  6 

________________

12. 

_______________

5
5
8

________________

13. 1.53 0.3

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

________________

_______________

________________

## Evaluate each expression for the given value of the variable.

21.

10
for x = 0.05
x
_______________________

22.

9.12
for x = 0.2
x

23.

________________________

24. Mr. Chen has a 76-in. space to stack books. Each book is 6

42.42
for x = 1.4
x
________________________

1
in.
3

## tall. How many books can he stack in the space?

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

115

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

2-5

Focus on Vocabulary

## The word reciprocal means an exchange. When two friends

In the reciprocal of a fraction, the numerator and denominator
exchange places.
Fraction Reciprocal
2
3
3
2
4
5
5
4
8
1
1
8
1. What does the word reciprocal mean? _________________
2. What is the reciprocal of

7
? _________________
8

## 3. What is the reciprocal of

6
? _________________
5

## The product of a fraction and its reciprocal is always 1.

Fraction Reciprocal = Product
2 3
6

=
=1
3 2
6
4 5
20

=
=1
5 4
20
1 8
8

=
=1
8 1
8
4. What is the product of

1 7
? _________________
7 1

## 5. What is the product of

2
and its reciprocal? _________________
6

## 7. What is the product of

1
? _________________
2

1
 2? _________________
2

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

121

LESSON

2-5

## Review for Mastery

Dividing Rational Numbers

## To write the reciprocal of a fraction,

interchange the numerator and denominator.
The product of a number and its reciprocal is 1.

2
3
Fraction

3
2
Reciprocal

2
3

=1
3
2

## Write the reciprocal of each rational number.

1. The reciprocal of

3
is:
5

## 2. The reciprocal of 6 is:

_______________________

________________________

3. The reciprocal of 2

1
is:
3

________________________

2
6
3

3
9

5 10

2
1

3
6

3 10

5
9

1
2/  1
=
3  6/ 3 9

3  10
2
=
3
5 9

## Complete to divide and simplify.

4
4
16 =
_________ = __________
3
3
5
20
5
3 9
3
6.

=
 _______ = __________
7.    =   _______ = _______
7
21 7
4 8
4
6.2
Change a decimal divisor to a whole number.
0.7 4.34
0.7. 4.3.4
7 43.4
Using the number of places in the divisor,

4.

3
3
12 =
 _______ = ___________
8
8

5.

## move the decimal point to the right in both

the divisor and the dividend.
Rewrite each division with a whole-number divisor.
Then, do the division.
8. 0.6 1.14
10. 0.02 7.12

__________ = _______

9. 0.3 4.56

__________ = _______

## 11. 0.08 57.28

__________ = _______
__________ = _______

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

118

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

3
4
 FLIP 
4
3

## What is the reciprocal of 4?

3 4 3 4
   =    1
4 3 4 3
1

## Wow! The product is 1.

Problem 2
How do you make 0.4
a whole number?

74.8
7.48 10
   
4
0.4 10

 

0.4 (x)  4
x  10
Multiply by 10.

## Think and Discuss

4
1
4
1. Given 5  8, explain what you will multiply 5 by to find the
quotient.

## 2. By what do you multiply the numerator and denominator of

12.62
 in order to divide?
3

28

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

2-6

Practice A
Solving Equations with Rational Numbers

Solve.
1. x + 1.2 = 4.6

2. a  3.4 = 5

_______________________

4.

x
=2
1.3

________________________

5. 6.7 + w = 1.1

_______________________

7. 7.2 = 0.9y

2
2
+x=
5
5

_______________________

13. x 

3
1
=
2
5

_______________________

________________________

6.

________________________

8. k  4.05 = 6.2

_______________________

10. 

3. 2.2m = 4.4

________________________

9.

________________________

11.

1
1
x=
4
2

12.

3
5
=
7
7

d
= 3.75
3.2
________________________

________________________

14. x 

n
= 3.8
1.9

1
3
a =
3
4
________________________

5
5
15.  a =
6
8

________________________

________________________

3
1
in. high. The ceiling is 90 in. high.
4
2
How much higher is the ceiling than Elisas highest reach?

## 16. Elisa can reach 77

________________________________________________________________________________________

17. Nolan Makes \$10.60 an hour at his after-school job. Last week
he worked 11.25 hr. How much was Nolan paid for the week?
________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

123

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

2-6

The rules for solving equations with rational numbers are the same
as equations with whole numbers.
Get the variable
by itself.

## Perform the same

operation on both
sides to keep the
equation balanced.

## Use the rules for

computing rational
numbers.

3
1
+y= .
4
4

## 1. What is the first step to solve this equation?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 2. What operation should you use?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 3. Write an equation to show the subtraction of

1
on both sides.
4

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 4. What is the value of y?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## Follow the steps above to solve x 4.5 = 13.

5. What is the first step to solve this equation?
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 6. What operation should you use?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 7. Write an equation to show the addition of 4.5 to both sides.

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 8. Find the value of x.

________________________________________________________________________________________

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129

LESSON

2-6

## Solving equations with rational numbers is basically the same as

solving equations with integers or whole numbers:
Use inverse operations to isolate the variable.
1
z = 16
4
1
4 z = 16 4
4

 3.5
x

 3.5
= 20.92

3
7
=
8
8

3
3
+
8
8

Multiply
each side
by 4.

z = 64

x + 3.5 = 17.42

y

3
to
8
each side.

10
2
1
=1 =1
8
8
4

26t = 317.2

Subtract 3.5
from each side.

Divide each
side by 26.

26t = 317.2
26
26
t = 12.2

## Tell what you would do to isolate the variable.

1. x  1.4 = 7.82

2.

________________________

1
7
+y=
4
4
________________________

3. 3z = 5
________________________

## Solve each equation.

4. 14x = 129.5
________________________

7. x + 53.8 = 1.2
________________________

5.

1
y = 27
3
________________________

8. 25 =

1
k
5

________________________

6. 265.2 =

z
22.1

________________________

9. m 

3
2
=
5
3

________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

126

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1
A.

4.2p  12.6
12.6
4.2p
   
4.2
4.2

B.

x  9  9
1

by itself

## x  9  9  9  9

Why do you do this step?

Problem 2

2
 house
5

3 houses

1 day

d days s

2
5
2 5
5
d    3 
5 2
2
15
d  
2
1
d  7
2

d   3

## Think and Discuss

fractions than solving an addition equation with integers?

## 2. What must you be careful of when solving a multiplication or

division equation with decimals?

30

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

2-6

Problem Solving
Solving Equations with Rational Numbers

1. In the last 150 years, the average
height of men in America has
1
increased by
foot. Today,
3
American men have an average
7
feet. What was the
height of 5
12
average height of American men 150
years ago?

## 2. Jaime has a ribbon that is

1
in. long. If she cuts the ribbon
2
3
into pieces that are
in. long, into
4
how many pieces can she cut?
23

Solution:
Todays height:

Ribbon length:

____________________

Piece length:

____________________

Number of pieces:

7
ft
12

23

1
Increase:
ft
3
7
1

or
Height 150 years ago: 5
12
3
7
4
3
1
5

=5
or 5
12 12
12
4
The average height of American men
1
150 years ago was 5 ft.
4

1
2

47
3
3
=

4
4

47

4
47


3
2
1

1
94
= 31
3
3

## Choose the letter for the best answer.

4. The balance in Susans checking
account was \$245.35. After the bank
deposited interest into the account,
her balance was \$248.02. How much
interest did the bank pay?

## 3. Justin Gatlin won the Olympic 100-m

dash in 2004 with a time of 9.85
seconds. His time was 0.95 seconds
faster than Francis Jarvis who won
the 100-m dash in 1900. What was
Jarvis time?

A \$1.01

A 8.95 seconds

B \$2.67

B 10.65 seconds

C \$3.95

C 10.80 seconds

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

34

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-1

Practice A
Solving Two-Step Equations

## Describe the operation performed on both sides of the equation

in steps 2 and 4.
3x + 2 = 11

1.

2.

x
 1 + 1 = 2 + 1 _________________
4
x
= 1
4
x
4   = 4(1) _________________
4

3x + 2  2 = 11  2 _________________
3x = 9
3x
9
=
3
3

x
 1 = 2
4

_________________

x=3

x = 4

Solve.
3. 2x + 3 = 9
_______________

7. 5y  2 = 28
_______________

4.

x
1=5
3

5. 3a + 4 = 7

_______________

6.

_______________

8. 2x  7 = 7

9.

_______________

w2
= 1
5

x+2
= 3
2
________________

10. 2r + 1 = 1

_______________

________________

## Write and solve a two-step equation to answer the question.

11. Pearson rented a moving van for 1 day. The total rental charge is
\$66.00. A daily rental costs \$45.00 plus \$0.25 per mile. How
many miles did he drive the van?
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

393

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-1

Analyze Information

## Break a problem into parts and analyze the information.

Jill has \$8 in her pocket now. She had \$20 when she left for
the movies. How much money did she spend?
Answer the questions in Exercises 14 to solve this problem.
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 2. How much money does Jill have left?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 3. What is the difference between these two amounts?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 4. How much money did Jill spend?

________________________________________________________________________________________

Mark paid \$45 at the music store for 3 CDs and a pack of
batteries, before tax. The batteries cost \$6. How much did
Mark pay for each of the CDs?
Answer the questions in Exercises 59 to solve this problem.
5. How much did Mark spend at the music store?
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 6. How much did Mark spend on batteries?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 7. What is the difference between these two amounts?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 8. Since Mark paid \$39 for CDs, divide \$39 by 3.

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 9. How much did Mark pay for each CD?

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

400

LESSON

7-1

## Review for Mastery

Solving Two-Step Equations

## To solve an equation, it is important to first note how it is formed.

Then, work backward to undo each operation.
4z + 3 = 15

z
3=7
4

z+3
=7
4

The variable is
multiplied by 4 and

## The variable is divided

by 4 and then 3 is
subtracted.

variable and then the
result is divided by 4.

To solve, first
subtract 3 and
then divide by 4.

## To solve, first add 3

and then multiply by 4.

To solve, multiply
by 4 and then
subtract 3.

## Describe how each equation is formed.

Then, tell the steps needed to solve.
1. 3x  5 = 7
The variable is ___________________________ and then ___________________________.
To solve, first ___________________________ and then ___________________________.
2.

x
+5=7
3

## The variable is ___________________________ and then ___________________________.

To solve, first ___________________________ and then ___________________________.
3.

x+5
=7
3

## 5 is ___________________________ and then the result is ___________________________.

To solve, first ___________________________ and then ___________________________.
4. 10 = 3x  2
The variable is ___________________________ and then ___________________________.
To solve, first ___________________________ and then ___________________________.
5. 10 =

x2
5

## 2 is ___________________________ the variable and then the result is ____________________.

To solve, first ___________________________ and then ___________________________.

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

396

LESSON

7-1

## To isolate the variable, work backward using inverse operations.

The variable is multiplied by 2 and
2x + 3 = 11 To undo addition,
3

3

subtract 3.

2x

=8

2x
2

To undo multiplication,

8
divide by 2.
2
x=4
Check: Substitute 4 for x.
?
2(4) + 3 =
11
?
8+3=
11

## The variable is divided by 2 and

then 3 is subtracted.
x
 3 = 11
To undo subtraction,
2
+3 +3
x
= 14
To undo division,
2
x
2
= 2 14 multiply by 2.
2
x = 28
Check: Substitute 28 for x.
28
?
3=
11
2
?
14  3 =
11

11 = 11 

11 = 11 

## Complete to solve and check each equation.

6. 3t + 7 = 19
_____
____
subtract.
To undo multiplication,
3t
= ____
3t ____ = ____ ____ divide.
t
= ____
w
7=5
To undo subtraction,
7.
3
_____

w
3

____

= ____

_________________

Check:

To undo division,

_____

z  3 = ____
_____

= ____

w
7=5
3
3

w
= ____ 12
multiply.
3
w = ____
z3
8.
=8
To undo division,
2
z3
_____
= ____ 8 multiply.
2
____

Check: 3t + 7 = 19
?
3(_____) + 7 =
19 Substitute for t.
?
_____ + 7 = 19

To undo subtraction,

?
7=
5

Substitute.

?
7=
5
_________________

Check:

z3
=8
2
3 ?
=8
2
2

Substitute.

?
=
8

_____________

z = ____
Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

397

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

## 7-1 Solving Two-Step Equations

Problem 1
How many tickets did the family buy?
That's \$3.25,

\$52.00

52.00 
3.25

9.75t

48.75 

9.75t

48.75
 
9.75

9.75
t
9.75

5 

3.25
3.25

Step 1 Subtract
3.25 from both
sides.

Step 2 Divide
both sides by
9.75.

## Think and Discuss

1. What would the total cost have been in Problem 1 if the family

90

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-3

Practice A
Solving Literal Equations for a Variable

## Solve each equation for the given variable.

1. P = 3s for s

2. S = 2V for V

______________________________________

________________________________________

3. F = ma for m

4. I = Prt for r

______________________________________

________________________________________

5. a = b + c for b

6. h = 5k + 6 for k

______________________________________

7. A =

________________________________________

bh
for h
2

8. 2c + 3d = e + 5 for e

______________________________________

________________________________________

9. 2c + 3d = e + 5 for d

10. 2c + 3d = e + 5 for c

______________________________________

________________________________________

11. What would be the width of a rectangular poster if the area was
390 square inches and the length was 26 inches?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 12. The formula S = 2B + 2 rh gives the surface area S of a cylinder,

where r is the radius and h is the height. Solve this equation for r.

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 13. The formula A = P + Prt gives the amount A in an account earning

simple interest, where P is the principal, r is the rate, and t is the
time in years. If the amount is \$484 on a principal amount of \$400 at
a rate of 0.07, then for how long was the money saved?

________________________________________________________________________________________
Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

410

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-3

Use a Concept Map

Examples

Definition

P = 4s
2w 3 + x = 4z

## An equation with two or more variables

A=

How to rearrange

Literal Equation

1
bh
2

When to rearrange

## When using a formula to find the value of a

Use inverse operations
variable that is not isolated
--addition and subtraction undo each other
--multiplication and division undo each other

1. Is the equation b + 3b = 15 a literal equation? Why or why not?
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 2. The formula P = 4s gives the perimeter P of a square where s is the

length of a side.
Luis knows the side length and wants to know the perimeter of the square.
Faye knows the perimeter and wants to know the length of each side.
Who should rearrange the formula to find what they need? ___________________
3. Which operation will isolate s in P = 4s? __________________________________
4. Solve P = 4s for s. ___________________________________________________
5. Consider the equation 2w 3 + x = 4z. Locate the variable x.
What other terms are on the same side of the equation as x?
How can you isolate x?

_______________________

_______________________________________________________________

## 6. Solve 2w 3 + x = 4z for x. ____________________________________________

1
7. Tell how you would solve A = bh for h. _________________________________
2
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 8. The area of a triangle is 80 sq cm and the base is 10 cm.

1
Solve A = bh for h. ___________ Find the height of the triangle. _____________
2

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

416

LESSON

7-3

## Solving Literal Equations for a Variable

A literal equation has more than one variable. Solve literal equations the same way
you solve other equationsby using inverse operations.
Compare solving a = 3b + c for b as is, to solving it when a = 17 and c = 5.
a = 3b + c
a = 3b + c
a

= 3b + c
c
c

Step

17 = 3b + 5

Locate b.

17 = 3b + 5

Isolate 3b by subtracting.

a  c = 3b

a  c 3b
=
3
3
ac
=b
3

17 = 3b + 5
5
5
12 = 3b

12 3b
=
3
3
4=b

Isolate b by dividing.

ac
= b for a. Multiply each side by 3:
3
a c = 3b. Then add c to each side: a = 3b + c. It is the original equation.

## You can check your work by solving

Fill in the blanks to solve each equation for the given variable.
1. R = mt 2 for t

2. k + 4m g = p + 9m for k

## __________ 4m from both sides.

R + _____ = ______

k g = p + ______

R+

## Add ____ to both sides.

=t

k = p + _____ + ____
4. z + 1 = 5 + y  x for y

3. d + 2p = m for p
______________________________________

5. A =

________________________________________

m+n
for m
2

## 6. 15t = 12t + rs for s

______________________________________

________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

413

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name

Date

LESSON

Class

Student Worksheet

## 7-3 Solving Literal Equations for a Variable

When you solve a literal equation, think how you would solve a
normal equation that looks like the literal equation.

Problem 1
Solve d  r t for r.
Id solve
30  r 6 by dividing
both sides by 6.

## The equation looks like

this one: 30  r 6
Solving 30  r 6 for r
30  r 6
30 r 6

6
6

Solving d  r t for r

## Here you divide

both sides by 6...

5r

drt
d r t

t
t
d
r
t

## ...so here, divide

both sides by t.

Problem 2
Solve y  3x  b for b.

Id solve
12  9  b by subtracting
9 from both sides.

## The equation looks like

this one: 12  9  b.
Solving 12  9  b for b

## Here you subtract

9 both sides...

Solving y  3x  b for b

12  9  b
12  9  9  b  9
3b

y  3x  b
...so here, subtract 3x
from both sides.

y  3x  3x  b  3x
y  3x  b

## Think and Discuss

1. Why might you want to solve the formula d  rt for r?
2. Show how you would solve the circumference formula C  2r
for r. Explain each step.

94

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-3

Problem Solving
Solving Literal Equations for a Variable

1. The formula 3F  24 = s is used to
find the shoe size of an adult whose
foot is F inches long. Solve the
equation for F. How long is an adults
foot if their shoe size is 6?

## 2. The formula 4t 148 = c gives the

number of times a cricket chirps c, in
one minute, when the temperature is t
(in F). Solve the equation for t. Find
the temperature when a cricket chirps
100 times per minute.

Solution:

Solution:

Solve for F.
3F  24 = s
3F  24 + 24 = s + 24
3F = s + 24
3F
s + 24
=
3
3
s + 24
F=
3
Find the length of a size 6 foot.
6 + 24
F=
3
30
F=
3
F = 10 inches

4t  148 = c
4t  148 + ___ = c + ___
4t = c + ___
___ = c + ___
t = c + ___
Find the temperature when a cricket
chirps 100 times per minute.
t = ___ + ___
t = ___
t = ___
4. Eulers formula states that the number
of vertices V in a polyhedron is equal
to 2 plus the number of edges E
minus the number of faces F. This is
written as V = 2 + E  F. Solve the
formula for E. How many edges does
a polyhedron have if it has 6 vertices
and 5 faces?

 r 2h
gives the
3
volume V of a cone with radius r and
height h. Solve the equation for h.
Find the height of an ice cream cone if
its volume is 19.2325 cubic inches
and its radius is 1.75 inches.
Use 3.14 for .

3. The formula V =

________________________________________

_______________________________________

## Choose the letter of the best answer.

5. The formula v = 1053.52 + 1.14t
gives the speed v at which sound
travels in feet per second when the
air temperature is t (in F). What is
the air temperature when sound
travels at 1139.02 ft/sec?
A 54F

## 6. The formula V = lwh gives the

volume V of a rectangular prism,
with length l, width w, and height h.
Find the length of a crate with a
volume of 87.75 cubic feet, width of
4.5 feet, and height of 3 feet.
A 6.5 ft

C 75F

C 7.3 ft

B 11.7 ft

B 61F

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

118

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-4

Practice A
Solving Inequalities by Adding or Subtracting

## Compare. Write < or >.

1. 3 + 8 ___ 12

2. 5(3) ___ 14

3. 15  7 ___ 7

4. 3(7) ___ 28

5. 9 + (9) ___ 16

## 6. 10(6) ___ 65

7. 4  9 ___ 12

8. 3 + 6 ___ 8

## Solve and graph each inequality.

10. a + 3 < 7

_______________________

13. 3 + s > 1

_______________________

16. g + 2  2

_______________________

19. t  4 < 7

_______________________

22. x + 2 > 1

_______________________

11. 4 + m  1

________________________

14. z  5  5

________________________

17. 4 + w  3

________________________

20. 6 + r  5

12. n  1 < 2

________________________

15. 9 + p < 14

________________________

18. k  1 < 5

________________________

21. y + 14 > 22

________________________

23. 4 + a < 6

________________________

________________________

24. c  2  3

________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

418

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-4

The word inequality means not equal. Inequality symbols are used
to compare values that are not equal. The table shows the inequality
symbols and their meanings.
Inequality Symbols
Symbol
>
<



Meaning
Greater than
Less than
Greater than or equal to
Less than or equal to

1. Write the symbol you use to show that
one number is greater than another.

## 2. Write the symbol you use to show that

a number is less than or equal to
another number.

_______________________________________

________________________________________

## 3. Write the symbol you use to show that

one number is greater than or equal
to another

## 4. Write the symbol you use to show that

one number is less than another.
________________________________________

_______________________________________

## An inequality that includes a variable is called an algebraic

inequality.
Study the word phrases and symbols for algebraic inequalities.
Word Phase
z is less than negative five
y is less than or equal to twelve
m is greater than twenty-three
t is greater than or equal to ten

Symbols
z < 5
y  12
m > 23
t  10

## 5. Write the symbols for n is less than 12.

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 6. Write the word phrase for v  8.

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

424

LESSON

7-4

## A solution of an inequality is a number that makes the inequality

true. An inequality usually has more than one solution. All the
solutions are contained in the solution set.
As with equations, solve a simple inequality by using inverse
operations to isolate the variable.
Solve and graph x + 4 > 9.
x+4>9
 4 4
x>5

## Draw an open circle at 5 to

show that 5 is not included in
the solution set.
Draw an arrow to the right
of 5 to show that all
numbers greater than 5 are
included in the solutions.

Subtract 4.

## According to the graph, 6 should be a

solution and 4 should not be a solution.
Check:
x+4>9
x+4>9
?

6+4 > 9
10 > 9

4+4 > 9
8 >/ 9

## So, 6 is in the solution set and 4 is not in the solution set.

Thus, the solution set for the inequality x + 4 > 9 is x > 5.
Write true or false.
1. 7 < 4

3. 3 > 4

2. 0  9

_______________________

________________________

________________________

## Using the variable n, write the inequality shown by each graph.

4.

5.
_________________

_________________

## Complete. Is the given value in the solution set? Answer is or is not.

6. 3 ___ in the solution
7. 0 ___ in the solution
8. 14 __ in the solution
set of x  1 > 5.
x1>5
____

1 > 5

__________

## set of z + (4)  4.

z + (4)  4
____

+ (4)  4

>5

____

 4

set of w + 10  25.
w + 10  25
____

+ 10  25
____

 25

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

421

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

## 7-4 Solving Inequalities by Adding or Subtracting

8

ab
a is greater than b.

ab
a is less than b.

Problem 1

Completing an Inequality
Look for operations

Simplify

## Then complete the inequality

13  9 ? 6

4 ? 6

4  6

This is an operation.

Problem 2
19

18

17

18

16

15

17

## Think of an open circle as a hole in the graph. Because of the hole,

the graph does not touch 17. So 17 is not a solution.

## Think and Discuss

1. How would you complete the inequality in Problem 1 if the left
side were 12  7?
2. Write in words what the graph in Problem 2 shows.

Is 18.9?

that mean?

96

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-5

Practice A
Solving Inequalities by Multiplying or Dividing

2. 3 

1. 4x > 20
_______________

3. 

_______________

b
3
8

4. 6d < 18
_______________

_______________

6. 

5. 63  7f

g
2
4

_______________

_______________

7. 13 <

y
5

h
3

## 8. 7j > 14

_______________

_______________

9. Cheryl wants to buy a bicycle that costs \$160. If she saves \$12 each week, what is
the fewest number of weeks she must save in order to buy the bicycle?
________________________________________________________________________________________

1
the amount of time that his brother
3
did. If Mark spent 25 minutes on his math homework, how much time did his
brother spend on his math homework?

## 10. Mark worked on math homework less than

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

426

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-5

Understand Symbols

If you know the meanings of the inequality symbols, you can read
and write inequalities as word sentences, and you can write word
sentences as inequalities.
< less than
> greater than, or more than
 less than or equal to, or no more than
 greater than or equal to, or at least
Inequality
6<x
y > 14
15  z
b5

Word Sentence
Six is less than x.
y is greater than fourteen, or y is
more than fourteen.
Fifteen is less than or equal to z, or fifteen
is no more than z.
b is greater than or equal to five, or b is at least 5.

## Many inequalities include multiplication or division.

Inequality
Word Sentence
21 < 3x
Twenty-one is less than three times x.
y
>8
y divided by three is greater than eight.
3
4  2z
Four is less than or equal to two times z,
or four is no more than 2z.
b
 10
b divided by four is greater than or equal to ten,
4
or b divided by four is at least ten.
Write the inequality as a word sentence.
1. 5d > 40
________________________________________________________________________________________

2.

f
 3 _________________________________________________________________________________
6
________________________________________________________________________________________

3. 11 <

g
2

________________________________________________________________________________

4. 16  4h ________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________

## Write an inequality that you could use to solve the problem.

5. A tree is more than five times as tall as a math student. The tree is 28 feet tall.
________________________________________________________________________________________
Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

432

LESSON

7-5

## Review for Mastery

Solving Inequalities by Multiplying or Dividing

To solve an inequality, multiply and divide the same way you would
solve an equation. But, if you multiply or divide by a negative
number, you must reverse the inequality sign.
Divide by a Positive Number
2x < 14
2x 14
<
2
2
x<7

## Divide by a Negative Number

2x < 14
2x 14
>
Reverse the inequality sign.
2
2
x > 7

## To check your solution, choose two

numbers from the graph and substitute
them into the original equation.
Choose a number that should be a solution
and a number that should not be a solution.

Check
According to the graph, 6 should
be a solution, but 8 should not be.

2x < 14
?

2 i  8 < 14
16 </ 14
Complete to solve. Then graph the equation and check.
s
1. 3y  24
2.
<4
9
s
24
3y
_____
_____
9
3
y ________

s ________

________

 2x < 14
?

2 i  6 < 14
12 < 14

_____ _____

________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

429

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

Problem 2

Remember

Remember

## An open circle means the point on

the graph is not part of the solution.
Use the symbols  or .

## A closed circle means the point on

the graph is part of the solution. Use
the symbols  or .

h
24  5

7x  42
h

## 5 24 is 120 and 5 5 is h

Think:
The number 7 is negative,
reverse  to .

7x
  x
7
42
  6
7

120  h, or h  120

Divide.
Divide.

x  6

## The circle is open because h cannot be

120. It is not part of the solution.

the solution.

the solution.

## The number 6 and the negative

numbers less than 6 are part of the
solution.

## Think and Discuss

1. What does the symbol  represent? What does the symbol 
represent?
2. When graphing the solution of an inequality, when do you use an
open circle? When do you use a closed circle?

98

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-6

Practice A
Solving Two-Step Inequalities

## Write yes or no to tell whether the inequality symbol would be

reversed in the solution. Do not solve.
1. 2x 4 < 20

2. 4  3y  21

_______________

3. 6x + 17 > 3

_______________

4. 

_______________

a
 4  2
5

________________

Solve.
5. 2x 17  29

6. 8 

_______________

9. 10  10  2d  5
_______________

k
< 12
2

7. 23  3w < 34

_______________

10.

8. 24  0.6x < 60

_______________

2x
+ 5  14
3

11.

_______________

2
y
1


3
6
2
_______________

________________

12.

a
1
1
+
>
7
7
14
________________

## Solve and graph.

13. 2x  1 < 3

14. 16  1 3a

_______________________________________

15.

________________________________________

y
3
1


2
4
2

16.

_______________________________________

d
5
1
+
>
3
12
4
________________________________________

## 17. Mrs. Ocosta is paid a 5% commission on her sales each week.

the amount of her sales be for the week if she hopes to make
at least \$600 this week?
________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

434

## Name _______________________________________ Date __________________ Class __________________

LESSON

7-6

You can use these steps to help you solve a two-step inequality.
Solve 8 < 4x + 4.
Step 1: Get the variable
by itself on one

8

 4 < 4x + 4  4

## side of the inequality. 12 < 4x

Step 2: Solve.

4x
12
<
4
4

3
Step 3: Rewrite the solution
so the variable
comes first.

<x

x > 3

## Use the procedure to answer each question.

1. What did the procedure tell you to do first?
________________________________________________________________________________________

## 2. How did you get the variable by itself in this problem?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 3. What is the second step given?

________________________________________________________________________________________

## 4. How did you solve this inequality?

________________________________________________________________________________________

5. How would the graph for x  3 be different than the above graph?
________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

441

LESSON

7-6

## To solve an inequality, undo operations the same way you would

with an equation. But, when multiplying or dividing by a negative
number, reverse the inequality symbol.
3x + 2 > 11 To undo addition,
2
3x

2 subtract 2.

2 2
3x

## > 9 To undo multiplication,

subtract 2.

>9

To undo multiplication,

3x
9
<
3
3

3x
9
>
divide by 3.
3
3

divide by 3 and

## x < 3 change > to <.

x >3
The solution set contains all real
numbers greater than 3.

## The solution set contains all real

numbers less than 3.

## Complete to solve and graph.

1. 2t + 1  9
______

2t

___

 _____

2t

____

2. 2t + 1  9

subtract.

______

To undo multiplication.

2t

8

divide.

2t

___

3. 3z  2 > 1
________

3z
3z
z

>

_______

3z >

________

3z

_____

To undo multiplication.
divide by 2 and

________

4. 3z  2 >

________

subtract.

___

________

change  to .

1
________
________
_____

z __________

_________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

437

LESSON

7-6

## To solve multistep inequalities, you may need to clear fractions.

Multiply both sides by the LCD.
v
1
1
+
>
The LCD is 4.
4
4
2
v
1
1
4
+4
>4
Multiply by the LCD.
4
4
2
v + 1 > 2
1
1
Subtract from both sides.
v > 3



5.
________

b
7
2


4 12
3

b
7
2
 ________
 ________
4
12
3
________

## Multiply by the LCD.

b  ________  ________
________
________

________

b  ________

## Divide and change symbol.

__

b ________

y
2
1
+

7 14
2

6.
_____

Check direction.

7.

y
2
1
+ _____
 _____ 
14
7
2

_____

x
1
2
>
+
9
3
3
x
1
2
> _____
+ _____
9
3
3

________

+ ________  ________

________

> x + ________

________

________

________

________

 ________

________

________

>x

x _____ _________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

438

## Holt McDougal Mathematics

Name
LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1
Solve and graph.

7y  4 . 24
4

y is multiplied
by 7. Divide
to undo.

4

7y . 28

4 is subtracted
undo.

7y
28
.
7
7

## y can be any number

to the right of 4 on
the number line.

y .4

2

Problem 2
To break even, ticket sales plus money in budget must be greater
than cost of production.
REVENUE

COST

Price of the
ticket (\$4.75).

This is money
the club must
spend.

R C

## This is money club

has in budget and
earns from ticket
sales.

Number of
tickets sold (t).

4.75t 610.75

Amount from
fundraising (\$610.75)

Cost of entire
production

1100.00

## Think and Discuss

1. List 3 values that are solutions to the inequality in Problem 1.
2. What can the drama club do in Problem 2 to make sure that
they earn money on their musical?