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You are on page 1of 96

Intensive Math

th

LESSON

6-5

Practice A

Percent of Increase and Decrease

1. from 10 to 15

_______________________

2. from 16 to 12

3. from 8 to 14

________________________

________________________

percent.

4. from 2 to 5

_______________________

7. from 8 to 5.6

_______________________

10. from 17 to 21

_______________________

13. from 7 to 11

_______________________

5. from 10 to 6

6. from 12 to 18

________________________

8. from 15 to 8

________________________

9. from 21 to 15

________________________

11. from 10 to 2

________________________

12. from 4 to 9

________________________

14. from 3 to 9

________________________

15. from 12 to 5

________________________

________________________

16. World Toys buys bicycles for $38 and sells them for $95.

What is the percent of increase in the price?

_________________

17. Jack bought a stereo on sale for $231. The original price

was $385. What was the percent of decrease in price?

_________________

18. Adams Clothing Store buys coats for $50 and sells them

for $80. What percent of increase is this?

_________________

19. Asabis average in math for the first quarter of the school

year was 75. His second quarter average was 81. What was

the percent of increase in Asabis grade?

_________________

20. A shoe store is selling athletic shoes at 30% off the regular

price. If the regular price of a pair of athletic shoes is $45,

what is the sale price?

_________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

362

LESSON

6-5

Reading Strategies

Compare and Contrast

amount of change

percent of change =

original amount

Compare the two lists. Change can either increase or decrease.

Decrease

Increase

A collector sold 15 CDs.

Then she sold 25 more CDs.

Now he has only 45 CDs.

percent of increase.

ratio will show a percent of decrease.

10

Percent of change =

25

Change fraction to percent: 40%

15

Percent of change =

60

Change fraction to percent: 25%

1. Compare percent of increase with percent of decrease. How are they the same?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

each situation.

3. Sophie had $70 saved. She withdrew $15 from her savings.

________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Kate bought $50 worth of groceries. Then she bought $20 more.

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

369

LESSON

6-5

Percent of Increase and Decrease

Find the amount of increase by subtracting the lesser number from the greater.

Write a fraction: percent of increase =

amount of increase

original amount

Rewrite the fraction as a percent.

The temperature increased from 60F to 75F.

Find the percent of increase.

75 60

15

1

percent of increase =

=

=

= 25%

60

60

4

Complete to find each percent of increase.

1. Membership

2. Savings

increased from

increased from

80 to 100.

$500 to $750.

_________________

_________________

= __________

= __________

80

= __________

= __________ %

500

= __________

= __________ %

percent of increase =

amount of increase

original amount

3. Price increased

from $20 to $23.

Find the amount of increase.

_________________

percent of increase =

20

20

= 20

= _________________ %

amount of increase

original amount

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

365

LESSON

6-5

Percent of Increase and Decrease (continued)

Find the amount of decrease by subtracting the lesser number from the greater.

amount of decrease

original amount

If possible, simplify the fraction.

Rewrite the fraction as a percent.

Find the percent of decrease.

0.143

175 150

25

1

percent of decrease =

=

=

= 7 1.000 = 14.3%

175

175

7

4. Enrollment

5. Temperature

decreased from

decreased from

1000 to 950.

75F to 60F

_________________

_________________

= __________

= __________

1000

100

= __________ %

75

15

percent of decrease =

100

= __________ %

amount of decrease

original amount

6. Sale price

decreased from

$22 to $17.

Find the amount of decrease.

_________________

percent of decrease =

22

22

= 22

= _________________ %

amount of decrease

original amount

366

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

36 to 45 . . . is this an increase or a decrease?

bigger amount

Decrease: bigger amount to smaller amount

Always subtract

smaller number

from greater number.

Amount of Change 45 36 9

amount of change

Multiply by 100.

3

0.25

6

original amount

25%

by 25% because you

went from a smaller to

a greater amount.

Problem 2

Original Price

$750

Sale Percentage

Discount

35%

BIG

SALE

C

OM

$750

S

ITOR

P U T E R M ON !

To d a y O n l

y!!

750 0.35 d

262.50 d

Sav

35 %

So, Anthony

saved $262.50.

Original Price

Amount Saved

Sale Price

$750

$262.50

750 262.50 s

487.50 s

monitor on sale for $487.50.

1. What words in a mathematical sentence signify a decrease?

All rights reserved.

84

LESSON

6-5

Problem Solving

Percent of Increase and Decrease

1. What is the percent of increase

in the population of Las Vegas,

NV from 1990 to 2000? Round

to the nearest tenth of a percent.

Solution:

19902000

Metropolitan

Area

Population

1990

2000

Increase

1,563,282 852,737

= 0.833

852,737

Las Vegas,

NV

852,737

1,563,282

Naples, FL

152,099

251,377

Yuma, AZ

106,895

in the population of Naples,

FL from 1990 to 2000?

Round to the nearest tenth

of a percent.

152,099

Percent

of

49.7%

Yuma, AZ to the nearest whole

number?

________________________________________

For Exercises 46, round to the nearest tenth. Choose the letter

for the best answer.

5. In 1967, a 30-second Super Bowl

commercial cost $42,000. In 2000,

a 30-second commercial cost

$1,900,000. What was the percent

increase in the cost?

advertising costs in 2000 was 4.4%

lower than in 1999. If the 1999

spending was $1,812.3 million, what

was the 2000 spending?

A $79.7 million

A 44.2%

B $1,732.6 million

B 442.4%

C $1,892 million

C 4,423.8%

won the 100-meter dash at the

Summer Olympics with a time of

12.00 seconds. In 2004, Justin

Gatlin of the U.S. won with a time of

9.85 seconds. What was the percent

decrease in the winning time?

A 2.15%

B 17.9%

C 21.8%

104

LESSON

6-6

Practice A

Applications of Percents

commission for the following. Do not solve.

1. 10% commission on $4000

2. 6% commission on $8450

_______________________________________

________________________________________

3. 8% commission on $3575

_______________________________________

________________________________________

6. 6

_______________________________________

1

% commission on $85,900

4

________________________________________

7. What percent of 14 is 7?

_______________________________________

________________________________________

_______________________________________

________________________________________

Solve.

11. 45 is 25% of what number?

_______________________________________

________________________________________

dollar invested. If the broker invests $50,000, what is

the commission on the investment?

______________

14. Sharlene bought 4 CDs at the music store. Each cost $14.95.

She was charged 5% sales tax on her purchase. What was

the total cost of her purchase?

______________

15. Isaac earned $1,800 last month. He put $270 into savings.

What percent of his earnings did Isaac put in savings?

______________

her total sales. If she wants to earn $450 in commissions,

how much do her total sales have to be?

______________

371

LESSON

6-6

Reading Strategies

Focus On Vocabulary

sale. Many salespeople receive a commission on the amount

they sell.

The commission rate is the percent paid on a sale. A salesperson

might receive a 5% commission in addition to his salary. The

commission rate is 5%.

The formula for finding out how much a salesperson earns based on

the commission rate and the amount of sales is:

commission rate sales = amount of commission

Sales tax is added to the price of an item or service. Sales tax is a

percent of the purchase price. A sales tax of 6.5% means that all

taxable items will have an additional 6.5% added to the total cost.

sales tax rate sale price = sales tax

sale price + sales tax = total sale

The total sale price is computed by adding the sales tax to the cost

of all the items purchased.

Write commission, commission rate, sales tax, or total sale to

describe each situation.

1. $5.45 was added to the price of the shoes Jill bought.

________________________________________________________________________________________

2. The man who sold your family a car receives $500 for the sale.

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

378

LESSON

6-6

Applications of Percents

Find the commission on a real-estate sale of $125,000

if the commission rate is 4%.

Write the percent as a decimal and multiply.

commission rate amount of sale = amount of commission

0.04 $125,000

= $5000

If, in addition to the commission, the salesperson earns a

salary of $1000, what is the total pay?

commission + salary = total pay

$5000 + $1000 = $6000

Complete to find each total monthly pay.

1. total monthly sales = $170,000; commission rate = 3%; salary = $1500

amount of commission = 0.03 $________________ = $________________

total pay = $________________ + $1500 = $________________

2. total monthly sales = $16,000; commission rate = 5.5%; salary = $1750

amount of commission = ________________ $________________ = $________________

total pay = $________________ + $________________ = $________________

A tax is a charge, usually a percentage, generally imposed by a government.

If the sales tax rate is 7%, find the tax on a sale of $9.49.

Write the tax rate as a decimal and multiply.

tax rate amount of sale = amount of tax

0.07

$9.49

= $0.6643 $0.66

Complete to find each amount of sales tax.

3. item price = $5.19; sales tax rate = 6%

amount of sales tax = 0.06 $_____________ = $_____________ $_____________

4. item price = $250; sales tax rate = 6.75%

amount of sales tax = _____________ $_____________ = $_____________ $_____________

374

LESSON

6-6

Applications of Percents (continued)

goes to a specific expense.

Heather earned $3,200 last month. She paid $448 for

transportation. To find the percent of her earnings that she

put towards transportation, write a proportion.

Think: What percent of 3200 is 448?

n

100

448

3200

Set up a proportion.

Think:

part

part

=

whole

whole

3200n = 44,800

Simplify.

3200n

3200 =

44,800

3200

n = 14

Simplify.

Complete each proportion to find the percent of earnings.

6. Leah earned $1,900 last month.

She paid $304 for utilities. What

percent of her earnings went to

utilities?

He paid $837 for food. What percent

of his earnings went to food?

n

=

3100

100

n

304

=

100

________ n

3100n = ________

3100n

= ________

3100

________

= ________

________

= ________

n = ________

n = ________

________

= ________ 100

of Wayne's earnings

went to food.

________

utilities.

375

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

Just to inform you, I get

a 4% commission if I sell

a car.

Commission

is

Commission Rate

of

Total Sales

4%

$39,500

c 4% $39,500

c 0.04 39,500

c 1580

Change the percent to a decimal.

Multiply.

Julie will be paid an additional

$1580 for selling the car.

Problem 2

Find the tax on the sale.

1@ 145.80

2@ 15.99

$145.80

$31.98

Subtotal

$177.78

Tax (7.75%)

t 7.75% $177.78

t 0.0775 177.78

t 13.78

total purchases

to get a subtotal.

by the tax rate.

$13.78

for her DVD player and DVDs.

1. How do you determine how much money Meka had to pay in

total for her DVD player and DVDs in Problem 2?

All rights reserved.

86

LESSON

6-7

Practice A

Simple Interest

1. principal = $100

2. principal = $150

rate = 4%

rate = ?

time = 2 years

time = 2 years

interest = ?

interest = $9

_______________________________________

________________________________________

3. principal = $200

4. principal = ?

rate = 5%

rate = 3%

time = ?

time = 4 years

interest = $10

interest = 30

_______________________________________

________________________________________

How much interest will be due at the end of 3 years? How much

will Jules have to repay?

________________________________________________________________________________________

8 years. The financial institution paid simple interest of 4%. What

was the amount of interest earned?

________________________________________________________________________________________

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

Principal

$300

$450

$500

$700

$750

$800

Rate

3%

4.5%

8%

4%

Time

4 years

3 years

2 years

3 years

2 years

2.5%

Interest

$67.50

$112.50

$108

$90

$100

380

LESSON

6-7

Reading Strategies

Focus on Vocabulary

Interest is the amount of money the bank pays you to use your

money, or the amount of money you pay the bank to borrow its

money.

Principal is the amount of money you save or borrow from the bank.

Rate of interest is the percent rate on money you save or borrow.

Time is the number of years the money is saved or borrowed.

Use this information to answer Exercises 13:

You put $800 in a savings account at 4% interest and leave it

there for five years.

1. What is the principal?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

3. What is the amount of time the money will stay in the account?

________________________________________________________________________________________

You can find out how much interest you would earn on that money

by using this formula:

Interest = principal rate time

words

I

=

p

r

t

symbols

I

=

$800

4% 5

I

=

$800

0.04 5

Change % to decimal.

I

=

$160

Multiply to solve.

4. To find out how much interest you will earn by keeping your

money in a bank, what three things do you need to know?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

387

LESSON

6-7

Simple Interest

A borrower pays the interest. An investor earns the interest.

Simple interest, I, is earned when

an amount of money, the principal P,

is borrowed or invested at a rate of interest r

for a period of time t.

I= Prt

Calculate the simple interest on a loan of $3500

for a period of 6 months at a yearly rate of 5%.

5% = 0.05

6 months = 0.5 year

Write the time period in terms of years.

I=Prt

I = 3500 0.05 0.5 = $87.50

interest earned

1. principal P = $5000; time t = 2 years; interest rate r = 6%

I = P r t = ____________ 0.06 _______ = $ _______

2. principal P = $2500; time t = 3 months; interest rate r = 8%

I = P r t = ____________ ____________ ____________ = $ _______

Situation 2: Find t given I, P, and r.

I=Prt

390 = 3000 0.065 t

390 = 195t

390 195t

=

195

195

2=t

of 6.5% earned $390 in interest. Find

the period of time for which the money

was invested.

The investment was for 2 years.

3. I = $1120; P = $4000; r = 7%

I=Prt

1120 = _______ 0.07 t

1120 = _______ t

812.50 = _______ t

=

______________

_______

I=Prt

______________

______________

years = t

_______

______________

years = t

383

LESSON

6-7

Simple Interest (continued)

$2500 was invested for 3 years

and earned $450 in interest.

Find the rate of interest.

I=Prt

450 = 2500 r 3

450 = 7500r

450

7500r

=

7500

7500

0.06 = r

5. I = $1200; P = $6000; t = 4 years

I=Prt

I=Prt

1200 = _______ r 4

1200 = _______ r

325 = _______ r

_______

=r

__________

=r

after interest has been earned, is the sum

of the principal P and the interest I.

_______

%.

A= P+ I

has been invested for 3 years at a yearly rate of 6%.

First, find the interest earned.

I=Prt

I = 3500 0.06 3 = $630

interest earned

3500 + 630 = 4130

So, the total amount in the account after 3 years is $4130.

Find the total amount in the account.

7. principal P = $4500; time t = 2.5 years; interest rate r = 5.5%

I = P r t = ____________ ____________ ____________ = $ __________

Total Amount = P + I = 4500 + ____________ = ____________

So, after 2.5 years, the total amount in the account was $ _________________.

384

Name

Date

LESSON

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

Use this diagram to help you to set up an equation to find a percent.

Simple Interest

THE

THEUNITED

UNITEDSTATES

STATESOF

OFAMERICA

AMERICA

THE

THEUNITED

UNITEDSTATES

STATESOF

OFAMERICA

AMERICA

THE

THEUNITED

UNITEDSTATES

STATESOF

OFAMERICA

AMERICA

THE

THEUNITED

UNITEDSTATES

STATESOF

OFAMERICA

AMERICA

Principal

Rate

Time

Amount of

money

borrowed or

invested

Interest rate

written as a

percent

Number of

years money

in borrowed or

invested

THISPRIVATE

NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER

THISPRIVATE

NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER

FOR ALL DEBTS, PUBLIC AND

THISPRIVATE

NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER

12

12

12

A

12

12

12

12

12

12

WASHINGTON, D.C.

12

WASHINGTON, D.C.

H 293

L70744629F

L70744629F

L70744629F

L70744629F

12

L70744629F

L70744629F

L70744629F 12

L70744629F

WASHINGTON, D.C.

WASHINGTON, D.C.

H 293

H 293

SERIES

1985

H 293

12

SERIES

1985

ONE DOLLAR

ONE DOLLAR

ONE DOLLAR

ONE DOLLAR

12

SERIES

1985

12

SERIES

1985

12

Interest for

Tristans

loan

$14,500

7%

to get decimal.

I 14,500 0.07 5

I 5075

5 years

simple interest for his loan.

the loan in 4 years? Explain.

4 years instead of 5 years? Explain.

All rights reserved.

88

LESSON

4-2

Practice A

Integer Exponents

1. 101

_______________

5. 100

_______________

9. 107

_______________

2. 106

3. 102

_______________

4. 101

_______________

________________

7. 105

6. 103

_______________

8. 106

_______________

11. 103

10. 104

_______________

________________

12. 105

_______________

________________

Simplify.

13. (2)3

_______________

17. 52

_______________

14. 34

15. (4)2

_______________

16. 24

_______________

18. 63

19. (9)2

_______________

________________

20. (3)3

_______________

21. 8 30 + 21

________________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

189

LESSON

4-2

Reading Strategies

Using Patterns

evaluate powers with exponents.

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

23 = 8

33 = 27

43 = 64

22 = 4

32 = 9

42 = 16

21 = 2

31 = 3

41 = 4

20 = 1

30 = 1

40 = 1

1

3

1

3 2 =

9

1

4

1

4 2 =

16

the first column. You see that as you

move down the column the products

are getting smaller. That is because

there is one less factor. Each product

is divided by 2 to get the next product.

1

2

1

2 2 =

4

2 1 =

columns to answer Exercises 16.

3 1 =

4 1 =

2. What is the product divided by

each time to get the next product? ______________________

3. What is 1 3? ______________________

4. What is the base in Column 3? ______________________

5. What number is the product divided

by each time to get the next product? ______________________

6. What is

1

4? ______________________

4

table above as a guide.

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

53 = 125

63 = 216

103 = 1000

52 =

62 =

102 = 100

=5

=6

= 10

195

LESSON

4-2

Integer Exponents

move the power to the denominator

of a unit fraction.

5 2 = 1

52

1. 73 =

2. 95 =

3. 134 =

4. 101 =

102 =

1

= 0.1

10

1

102

1

= 0.01

100

103 = _______________________________

6. 31 =

1

3

3 2 =

1

3

5. 51 =

1

5

5 2 =

1

52

1

1

=

55

25

53 = _______________________________

7. (4)1 = ______

1

1

=

33

9

(4)2 = _____________________________

33 = _______________________________

(4)3 = ________________________________

Simplify.

8. 23 =

= ____________

9. (6)2 =

= ____________

10. 42 =

= ____________

11. (3)3 =

= ____________

192

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

3

(2)

CAUTION

(2)3

1

1

(2)3

1

1

(2) (2) (2) 8

p!

Hel

When you flip, the sign falls off, the exponent!

Try it on a calculator

( (

or

Problem 2

Which operation is done first?

Think: start inside parentheses

2 (7)0 (4 2)2 2 (7)0 (6)2

1

Think: (7)0 1

21

36

1

and 62 2

6

1. What clue in Problem 1 tells you that you need to find the

reciprocal?

All rights reserved.

44

LESSON

4-3

Practice A

Scientific Notation

1. 1.76 101

2. 8.9 103

_______________

5. 5.8 10

_______________

6. 8.1 10

_______________

9. 5.0 10

3. 6.2 102

_______________

7. 3.8 10

_______________

10. 3.12 10

_______________

4. 1.01 102

________________

4

8. 2.03 103

_______________

11. 7.6 10

_______________

________________

2

_______________

________________

13. 376,000

_______________________

16. 1006

_______________________

19. 0.0107

_______________________

22. 250,800

_______________________

14. 9,580,000

15. 650

________________________

17. 29

________________________

18. 0.0061

________________________

20. 0.0002008

________________________

21. 0.00053

________________________

23. 0.000094

________________________

24. 0.00086

________________________

________________________

25. Earth is about 93,000,000 miles from the Sun. Write this number

in scientific notation.

________________________________________________________________________________________

The diameter of Venus is about 1.21 104 kilometers. Which

planet has the greater diameter, Earth or Venus?

________________________________________________________________________________________

197

LESSON

4-3

Reading Strategies

Organization Patterns

You can use powers of 10 to write very large or very small numbers

in a shortened form. This efficient method is called scientific

notation. It is also useful in performing multiplication and division of

very large and very small numbers.

Standard form

348,000,000

Scientific notation

=

3.48 108

8 places left

create a number between

1 and 10.

decimal point is moved to the

left is the positive exponent.

Standard form

0.00035

Scientific notation

=

3.5 104

4 places right

create a number between

1 and 10.

decimal point is moved to the

right is the negative exponent.

1. How many places must you move the decimal

point to create a number between 1 and 10? _________________________________________

2. Which direction will you move the decimal point? _____________________________________

3. Will the exponent be negative or positive? ____________________________________________

4. Write the number in scientific notation. _______________________________________________

Use 312,000,000 to answer Exercises 57.

5. How many places must you move the decimal

point to create a number between 1 and 10? _________________________________________

6. Which direction will you move the decimal point? _____________________________________

7. Will the exponent be negative or positive? ____________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

203

LESSON

4-3

Scientific Notation

Standard Notation

430,000

0.0000057

Scientific Notation

1st factor is

between 1 and 10.

2nd factor is an

integer power of 10.

4.3 105

5.7 106

negative integer for small number

)(

how many places and which way to move the decimal point.

Complete to write each in standard notation.

1. 4.12 106

2. 3.4 105

_______________

_______________

How many places?

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

3. 8 105

____________________________________

4. 7.1 104

5. 3.14 108

____________________________________

___________________________________

10. Then determine the power of 10 by counting from the decimal

point in the first factor to the decimal point in the given number.

Complete to write each in scientific notation.

6. 32,000,000

7. 0.0000000712

_______________

________________

way must the decimal move to its location

in the given number? How many places?

_______________

________________

_______________

________________

8. 41,000,000

____________________________________

9. 0.0000000643

____________________________________

10. 1,370,000,000

___________________________________

200

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

Think about the number line.

3.12 109

Which direction should you

move the decimal point?

2

1

0

To the left

To the right

Problem 2

Write 0.0000003 in scientific notation.

0.0000003.

If 1, then 3 107

If 1, then 3 107

|0.0000003| 1

So 0.0000003 3 107.

1. If a number is extremely large will the exponent be positive or

negative if you write the number in scientific notation?

2. Write 3 107 in decimal form.

3. Is 3 107 grams more likely to be the weight of a car or the

weight of an eyelash? Explain.

All rights reserved.

46

LESSON

4-4

Practice A

Laws of Exponents

1. 22 23

2. 35 32

_______________

1

5. 8 8

3. 13 15

________________

4

6. 7 7

_______________

4. 54 53

________________

7. 12 12

________________

________________

8. n3 n8

________________

________________

9.

25

22

10.

_______________

13.

58

56

_______________

10 4

11.

103

________________

14.

46

12.

43

________________

249

15.

243

________________

(6)8

________________

(3)4

________________

16.

(6)5

(3)6

b7

b5

________________

Simplify.

17. (32)4

_______________

2 3

21. (5 )

_______________

18. (63)1

19. (45)0

________________

20. (82)3

________________

0 4

4 2

22. (7 )

24. (s5)2

23. (9 )

________________

________________

________________

________________

25. The mass of a male African elephant is about 7 10 kg. What is the combined

mass of a herd of 80 male African elephants? Write your answer in scientific

notation.

________________________________________________________________________________________

warehouse holds 55 boxes of paper. How many boxes of paper

are stored in all the warehouses? Write the answer as one

power.

________________________________________________________________________________________

27. Write the expression for 5 used as a factor eight times being

divided by 5 used as a factor six times. Simplify the expression

as one power.

________________________________________________________________________________________

205

Reading Strategies

LESSON

4-4

Organization Patterns

with the same base easier.

To multiply powers with the same base, add exponents.

(4 4)

(4 4 4)

44444

42

43

45

To divide powers with the same base, subtract the exponents.

666666

666

666666

6 66

66

63

63

66

6

= 66 3 = 63

1. What is the base for 32?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

4. Write all the factors for 32 34.

___________________________________________

________________________________________________________

rewrite the number using the same base.

____________________________________________

7. Are the bases the same for 55 52?

___________________________

__________________________________________________

211

LESSON

4-4

Laws of Exponents

To multiply powers

with the same base,

keep the base and add

exponents.

the same base,

keep the base and

subtract exponents.

To raise a power

to a power,

keep the base and

multiply exponents.

xa xb = xa+b

xa xb = xab

(xa)b = xab

45 42 = 45 + 2 = 47

45 42 = 45 2 = 43

83 8 = 83 + 1 = 84

83 8 = 831 = 82

1. 45 42 = ( _____ ) ( _____ ) ( _____ ) ( _____ )( _____ ) ( _____ )( _____ ) = 4_____

2. 83 8 = ( _____ ) ( _____ ) (_____ ) (_____ ) = 8_____

3. 45 42 =

4. 83 8 =

45

4

4 4444

= 4_____

4 4

8 88

83

=

= 8_____

8

8

+2+ 2

5. (42)3 = 42 42 42 = 42

= 42(3) = 4________

+

8.

76

7

7. 94 93 = 9________ = 9_____

= 762 = 7_____

9.

126

12

= 12________ = 12_____

10. 104 106 = _________

13.

15 6

15 2

= _________

11. 55 5 = _________

14.

95

= _________

9

12. 45 4 43 = _________

15.

210

22

= _________

Simplify.

16. (53)4 = 53(4) = _________

208

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

Can you see a relationship?

72 72 74

49 49 74

2401 74

2401 2401

Problem 2

Can you see a relationship?

(75)3 715

(75) (75) (75) 715

(75 5 5) 715

715 715

to

Yes!

power

a

e

is

To ra

ly

r, multip

a powe ents!

on

the exp

1. Does x m y n xy m n? Explain.

All rights reserved.

48

LESSON

4-5

Practice A

Squares and Square Roots

1. 16

2. 49

_______________

3. 1

_______________

5. 100

_______________

6. 4

_______________

4. 25

7. 81

_______________

________________

8. 64

_______________

________________

9.

8 +1

_______________

13.

36 + 10

64

16

11.

_______________

15.

_______________

12.

49 4

19.

_______________

100

4

_______________

31 + 5

________________

16.

_______________

18. 5 9

_______________

18 2

_______________

14. 15 25

_______________

17.

76

10.

16 + 9

________________

20.

3 81

________________

other flags that are rectangular.

21. If the flag of Switzerland has an area

of 81 ft2, what is the length of each of

its sides? (Hint: s =

A)

_______________________________________

Switzerland flag are 10 ft, what is the

area of the flag? (Hint: A = s 2)

_______________________________________

213

Reading Strategies

LESSON

4-5

The large square shown below is 4 squares long on each side and

has 16 squares. 4 times 4 equals 16. 4 is the square root of 16.

Symbols

Symbols

Words

4 4 = 16

42 = 16

16 = 4

25 = 5

42 = 16 and

2

5 = 25 and

16 = 4

25 = 5

Write in words.

1. 62

2.

____________________________________________

36

_______________________________________________

3. What is the square root of 36?

4. What is the square root of 100?

5. What is 72?

_______________________________

________________________________

_____________________________

219

LESSON

4-5

Squares and Square Roots

25 = 5 5 = 52 or 25 = (5) (5) = (5)2

If yes, write its identical factors.

1. 121 ___________________________

2. 200 ___________________________

3. 400 ___________________________

Since 52 = 25 and also (5)2 = 25,

both 5 and 5 are square roots of 25.

The principal square root of 25 is 5:

25 = 5 and 25 = 5

25 = 5

4.

81 = _____________

625 = _____________

5.

81 = __________

6.

625 = __________

169 = ______________

169 = __________

7.

144 = ___________

8.

6400 = ___________

9.

10,000 = ____________

5 100 3

5(10) 3

50 3

47

evaluating an expression. For the

order of operations, do square root

first, as you would an exponent.

Complete to simplify each expression.

10. 3 144 20

3 ________ 20

________

20

________

11.

25 + 144 + 13

__________

__________

+ 13

+ 13

________

12.

1

100

+

25

2

100

25

1

2

1

5

2

1

__________ +

2

+

_________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

216

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

times itself equals 81?

81

81

81

9

4 4 16

5 5 25

6 6 36

7 7 49

8 8 64

9 9 81

4 4 16

5 5 25

6 6 36

7 7 49

8 8 64

9 9 81

Problem 2

Order of Operations:

1. Parentheses

2. Exponents and roots

3. Multiply and divide from left to right.

4. Add and subtract from left to right.

325

4

35 4

15

4

19

Multiply.

Add.

1. Why is 52 read as five squared?

() and the product of two negative numbers is positive

(3 3 9). Use these rules to explain why 9

is

undefined.

All rights reserved.

50

LESSON

4-5

Problem Solving

Squares and Square Roots

1. For college wrestling competitions,

the wrestling mat must be a square

with an area of 1,764 square feet.

What is the length of each side of the

wrestling mat?

competitions, the wrestling mat must

be a square with an area of 1,444

square feet. What is the length of

each side of the wrestling mat?

(Hint: A = s2)

Solution:

1,444 = ___________

1,764 = 42 feet

___________ feet

paper that is 169 square inches. How

many squares can she cut out of the

paper that are 4 inches on each side?

132 square feet. In his new house,

there are three rooms. Room one is

11 feet by 11 feet. Room two is 10

feet by 12 feet and room three is 13

feet by 13 feet. In which room will the

rug fit?

________________________________________

________________________________________

6. To create a square patchwork quilt,

square pieces of material are sewn

together to form a larger square.

Which number of smaller squares

can be used to create a square

patchwork quilt?

36 inches on each side. The actual

wood trim is 2 inches wide. The

photograph in the frame is surrounded

by a bronze mat that measures

5 inches. What is the maximum area

of the photograph?

A 35 squares

C 64 squares

B 84 squares

C 484 sq. inches

8. A box of tile contains 12 square tiles.

If you tile the largest possible square

area using whole tiles, how many tiles

will you have left from the box?

cover 400 square feet. If you painted a

square with the can of paint, how long

would it be on each side?

A 200 feet

C 20 feet

A 9

C 6

B 3

B 25 feet

62

LESSON

4-6

Practice A

Estimating Square Roots

the integers. Explain your answer.

1.

2.

10

_______________________________________

3.

________________________________________

4.

19

_______________________________________

5.

33

________________________________________

6.

15

_______________________________________

39

________________________________________

7.

32

8.

_______________

11.

22

9.

59

_______________

12.

_______________

10.

118

_______________

13.

155

_______________

230

________________

14.

43

_______________

181

________________

15.

12

16.

_______________

19.

38

_______________

20.

_______________

23.

54

_______________

17.

18

18.

_______________

21.

45

_______________

24.

________________

22.

_______________

25.

27

_______________

40

_______________

24

22

________________

26.

48

________________

221

LESSON

4-6

Reading Strategies

Follow a Procedure

integer as its square root. To find the square root of a perfect

square, ask yourself what number multiplied by itself equals the

perfect square.

Some Perfect Squares

1

16

36

49

64

81

100

121

144

169

25

2. What is the square root of 16? ___________________________

3. What number times itself equals 25? ___________________________

4. What is the square root of 25? ___________________________

Use these steps to estimate the square root of a number that is not a

perfect square.

What is

45 ?

Step 1

Identify a perfect square that is a little more than 45.

The square root of 49 = 7.

Step 2

Identify a perfect square that is a little less than 45.

The square root of 36 = 6.

49

36

Step 3

The estimate of

45 is between 6 and 7.

Use the steps above to help you estimate the square root of 90.

5. Which perfect square is a little more than 90? _________________

6. What is the square root of 100? _________________

7. Which perfect square is a little less than 90? _________________

8. What is the square root of 81? _________________

9. What is your estimate of the square root of 90?

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

227

LESSON

4-6

To locate a square root between two consecutive integers, refer to the table.

Number

Square

1

1

2

4

3

9

4

16

5

25

6

36

7

49

8

64

9

81

10

100

Number

Square

11

121

12

144

13

169

14

196

15

225

16

256

17

289

18

324

19

361

20

400

256

< 260

260 is between the perfect squares 256 and 289:

256 <

So:

And:

16

< 289

260 <

<

289

260 < 17

1.

______

< 39

______

<

______

<

< ______

______

39 < ______

______

39 < ______

______

2.

After locating a square root between two consecutive integers, you can

determine which of the two integers the square root is closer to.

27 is between the perfect squares 25 and 36:

25 < 27

< 36

25 <

So:

And:

The difference between 27 and 25 is 2;

the difference between 36 and 27 is 9.

So,

<

27 <

36

27 < 6

25 < 27 < 36

27, is closer to 5.

3. 100

< 106

< 121

4.

_______ <

250

< _______

_______

_______

<

_______

_______

<

_______

106 is closer to ______ than ______

250 = _______

224

Name

Date

LESSON

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

52 25 and

62 36

Is 5 30 6?

30

5.47722

Yes, 30 is

between

5 and 6.

Problem 2

700

26.5

It reads "the

square root of

700 is about

26.5."

What

is this?

means ABOUT

1. The square root of 5 is between 2 and 3. Which is a more

precise statement 2 5

3 or 5

2.2? Why?

2. Why do you use the term about when reading the answer to

Problem 2?

All rights reserved.

52

LESSON

4-7

Practice A

Operations with Square Roots

Simplify.

1. 8 2 + 3 2

2. 10 5 6 5

________________________

4.

7.

10.

3. 6 7 + 7 + 2 7

________________________

________________________

8 2

5. 3 10 10

6. 5 3 27

____

3 ______

___ ___

_____

3 ______

___ ___

________

_______

8.

45

9.

32

___ 5

___ 2

____ 5

____ 2

________

_______

27 + 48

11.

___ 3 + ___ 3

50 18

________

300

______

27 + 6 3

12.

________

___ 3 + ___ 3

___ 3

________________________________________________________________________________________

14. Pipe A has a width of 125 centimeters, and Pipe B has a width

of 80 centimeters. Write the difference in the two widths in

simplified form.

________________________________________________________________________________________

229

LESSON

4-7

Reading Strategies

Follow a Procedure

Step 1: List all the factors of the number.

Step 2: Ask yourself: Are any of the factors perfect squares?

If yes, circle the greatest perfect square factor.

If no, stop, the expression is already simplified.

Step 3: Write the number under the square root symbol as a product of two numbers,

where one of the numbers is the number you circled in Step 2.

Step 4: Use the Multiplication Property of Square Roots to write the expression as two

separate square roots.

Step 5: Take the square root of the perfect square.

24 .

Step 3:

____ ____

Step 4:

____ ____

54 .

Step 3: ______________________

Step 4: ______________________

Step 5: ______________________

Simplify.

3.

12

_______________

4.

5.

27

_______________

21

_______________

6.

63

_________________

235

LESSON

4-7

When the numbers under the square root symbols are the same, you can add or

subtract them.

4 7 +9 7

outside the square

root symbol.

13 7

Simplify.

1. 3 2 + 8 2

2. 9 6 2 6

___________________

3.

_______________

5 +7 5

_______________

4. 13 10 4 10

_________________

The numbers under the square root symbols do not have to be the same in order to

multiply them.

5 20

3 7

Simplify when

needed.

100

21

10

Simplify.

5.

2 2

6. 4 5 5

_______________

7.

_______________

8 3 2

_______________

8. 8 3 3

_________________

To simplify square roots, write the number under the square root symbol as a product.

Make one of the factors a perfect square.

90

square root of 9 is 3.

a perfect square under the

square root symbol.

9 10

3 10

Simplify.

9.

45

_______________

10.

11.

12

_______________

600

_______________

12. 3 50

_________________

232

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

Can I add radicands?

No!

Ill add like apples.

2 10 5 10 ?

10 is the radicand.

2 10

7 square roots of 10

5 10

( 10 10 ) ( 10 10 10 10 10 )

So, 2 10 5 10 7 10

Easier: 2 10 5 10 (2 5) 10

7 10

Problem 2

Can I multiply radicands?

Yes!

12

3 ?

12

radicands.

3 12 3

36

6

6 36 because 6 6 36.

1. Tami said that 9

16

Was she right? Explain.

25 because 9 16 25.

11

7 35

57 45 .

All rights reserved.

54

LESSON

4-8

Practice A

The Real Numbers

1. 3.2

2.

2

5

3. 12

_______________________

________________________

________________________

_______________________

________________________

________________________

4

2

4.

5. 20

6.

16

_______________________

________________________

________________________

_______________________

________________________

________________________

7. 0

8.

_______________

11.

3

4

_______________

12.

_______________

4

9.

10.

_______________

________________

13. 49

25

_______________

9

0

14.

_______________

11

________________

15. 3

1

2

and 3

3

3

_______________________

11

5

17.

________________________

1

1

and

8

5

________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

1

and

2

1.

________________________________________________________________________________________

237

LESSON

4-8

Reading Strategies

Use a Venn Diagram

an

integer

. Rational numbers include:

integer

Decimals

Fractions

Integers

Whole Numbers

you see how they are related.

1. 0.4 is a rational number, but it is not an integer or

___________________________

2.

and it is a whole number.

___________________________.

4. 2.6 is a rational number, but it is not ___________________________ or a

whole number.

Numbers that are not rational are called irrational numbers. For

example,

terminate or repeat.

3 = 1.7320508

integer, or whole number.

5. 2.236068

_____________________________________________.

6. 7

_______________________________________________________.

7. 328

_______________________________________________________.

8. 2

2

3

_______________________________________________________.

243

LESSON

4-8

The Real Numbers

all integers, all fractions, and decimals

that end or repeat.

Irrational numbers can only be written

as decimals that do not end or repeat.

Real Numbers

Rational Numbers

Irrational Numbers

irrational numbers form the set of real numbers.

Square roots of numbers that are Square roots of numbers that are

perfect squares are rational.

not perfect squares are irrational.

25 = 5

3 = 1.732050807. . .

1.

7

_______________

2.

3.

81

_______________

4.

169

_______________

101

________________

So, the square root of a negative number is not a real number.

9 is not a real number.

5. 8

_______________

6. 8

7.

_______________

8

25

8.

_______________

________________

Between any two real numbers, there is always another real number.

One way to find a number between is to find the number halfway

between.

1

2

To find a real number between 7 and 7 ,

5

5

3

1

2

3

divide their sum by 2: 7 + 7 = 14 2 = 7

10

5

5 5

Find a real number between each pair.

9. 8

4

3

and 8

7

7

_______________

11. 3

_______________

7

2

and 3

9

9

_______________

12. 6

1

3

and 6

2

4

________________

240

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

Before you classify the numbers, look closely at each number.

15

number is undefined.

CAUTION

13

expressions. They look obvious!

Problem 2

1 1

2 )2

(1

3

3

Hmm, Where have

I seen this concept before?

It is the average, or

mean.

1. What is the only set of numbers that irrational numbers can belong to?

2. How many sets of numbers does a whole number belong to?

All rights reserved.

56

LESSON

4-8

Problem Solving

The Real Numbers

1. Twin primes are prime numbers that

differ by 2. Find an irrational number

between twin primes 5 and 7.

ten-thousandth, = 3.1416 . Find a

rational number between 3 and .

Solution:

Possible answer: _________

between 5 and 7.

Since 52 = 25, 72 = 49, and 62 = 36,

try the square root of a number

between 25 and 49 that is not 36.

Possible answer:

31

Rounded to the nearest

ten-thousandth e 2.7823 . Find a

rational number that is between 2

and e.

the divisors of the number sum to the

number itself. The number 6 is a

perfect number because

1 + 2 + 3 = 6. The number 28 is

also a perfect number. Find an

irrational number between 6 and 28.

________________________________________

_______________________________________

6. Which is an irrational number?

5. Which is an integer?

A the number half-way between 6

and 7

as a fraction

balance was $213.00 and $21.87

was deposited

with area 2 cm2

C the square root of a negative

number

resulted in a 15 yard loss, 10 yard

gain, 6 yard gain and 5 yard loss

68

LESSON

2-3

Practice A

Adding and Subtracting Rational Numbers

Do not solve.

1.

1

3

+

2

4

2.

_______________

5. A statue 8

that is 1

1

4

+

3

9

3.

_______________

2

3

3

8

4.

_______________

1

1

2

6

________________

Games in 2002, the United States

4-man bobsled teams won silver and

bronze medals. USA-1 sled had a

total time of 3 min 7.81 sec. The

USA-2 sled had a total time of 3 min

7.86 sec. What is the difference in the

time of the two runs?

5

in. high rests on a stand

16

3

in. high. What is the total

16

height?

_______________________________________

________________________________________

7.

2

4

+

9

9

_______________

11.

2

1

5

2

_______________

8.

5

3

+

12

12

9.

_______________

12. 2

9

7

10

10

10.

_______________

1

1

+1

3

2

13. 3

_______________

1 5

+ 1

4 6

_______________

8

11

15

15

________________

14.

3

11

4 12

________________

15. Mr. Martanarie bought a new lamp and lamppost for his home.

5

1

The pole was 6 ft tall and the lamp was 1 ft in height. How

8

4

tall were the lamp and post together?

________________________________________________________________________________________

16. 1

1 1

+

2 2

_______________

17. 1

1

1

+

2

2

18. 5

_______________

1

1

2

6

3

_______________

19. 12

3

3

5

4

12

________________

98

LESSON

2-3

Reading Strategies

Use a Graphic Aid

3 eighths + 4 eighths = 7 eighths

3

8

4

8

8

9

7

8

3

9

5

9

picture below will help you understand adding fractions with unlike

1 1

denominators. + = ?

2 4

In order to add

1 1

+ , you must find a common denominator.

2 4

_________________

into fourths. How many fourths are there in one-half?

_________________

1

to fourths.

2

4. You can now add, because you have a common denominator.

3. Change

_________________

_________________

common denominator. The picture below will help you understand

5 1

finding a common denominator. = ?

6 3

_________________

6. How many sixths are in one-third? Write the fraction.

_________________

_________________

105

LESSON

2-3

Adding and Subtracting Rational Numbers

Use the common denominator for the sum.

Add the numerators to get the numerator of the sum.

Write the sum in simplest form.

3 1+ 3 4

1

1

+

=

=

=

8

8

8

8

2

Use the common denominator for the difference.

Subtract the numerators.

Subtraction is addition of an opposite.

Write the difference in simplest form.

3 1 3 +1 4

2

=

=

=

6 6

6

6

3

1.

3

4

+

= _____ = _____

14

14

3.

2.

4

2

+ = _____ = _____

10 10

5.

3

9

= _____ = _____

15 15

3

5

+ = _____ = _____

12 12

4.

8 2

= _____ = _____

9 9

10 2

= _____ = _____

24 24

To add or subtract decimals, line up the decimal points and then add or subtract from

right to left as usual.

6.

12.83

+ 24.17

35.78

14.55

37.00

21.23

7. 14.23 + 3.56 = _________________

Complete to subtract the decimals.

10. 124.33 13.16 = _________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

101

LESSON

2-3

Adding and Subtracting Rational Numbers (continued)

with common denominators. To find the LCD of denominators 5 and

6, list the multiples of each.

Multiples of 5: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30

Multiples of 6: 12, 18, 24, 30

So, the LCD of 5 and 6 is 30.

Complete to find the LCD for each set of denominators.

13. The LCD of 6 and 4 is: ___________________________

Multiples of 6: ___________________________

Multiples of 4: ___________________________

14. The LCD of 3 and 7 is: ___________________________

Multiples of 3: ___________________________

Multiples of 7: ___________________________

To add fractions with different denominators:

Add:

1 1 1 3 3

+ =

=

2 3 23 6

1 2 2

=

32 6

5

=

6

15.

+

1

=

4 20

16.

3

=

4 16

17. 5

1

=5

3

24

3

=

5 20

5

=

16 16

+2

5

=2

8

24

= ________

= ________ = ________

= ________

18.

1 7

+

=

4 20

19.

4 1

=

9 5

20.

8 1

=

15 4

102

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

7

13

11

13

Add .

There are a total of 18

shaded squares.

Problem 2

Write a mixed number as an improper fraction.

7 1(8) 7

8

8

number and the denominator.

Keep the

denominator.

Mixed Number

7

15

1

8

8

Improper Fraction

1. Explain how to add rational numbers that have the same

denominator.

All rights reserved.

24

LESSON

2-4

Practice A

Multiplying Rational Numbers

1

1. 5

3

2

2. 2

5

_______________

5 2

5.

7 5

_______________

6.

_______________

9.

1 10

2 7

10.

3 1

4 3

1 1

7.

4 3

_______________

________________

1 2

8.

6 3

_______________

3 5

10 18

11.

_______________

14.

2

4. 3

9

_______________

_______________

_______________

1

13. 4 1

2

1

3. 4

6

4 12

5 16

________________

12.

_______________

3 5

4 8

2 1

15. 3

5 4

_______________

4 24

3 16

________________

5 3

16.

6 10

_______________

________________

Multiply.

17.

3.2

5

18.

_______________

21.

3.14

0.007

_______________

0.34

0.06

19.

_______________

22.

8.12

9

20.

_______________

6.7

0.8

23.

_______________

0.25

2.4

_______________

4.24

3.5

________________

24.

7.9

2

________________

1

hours for the Lenox family. She was paid $5 an hour. How much

2

did she receive for this babysitting job?

________________________________________________________________________________________

107

LESSON

2-4

Reading Strategies

Use a Visual Model

1 1

1

product of

. First,

of the rectangle was shaded. Then,

2 3

2

1

the rectangle was divided horizontally into thirds. Then,

was

3

1 1

shaded. The overlap of the shading shows the product of

.

2 3

part of the rectangle is each of these parts?

_____________

_____________

fractions.

_____________

1 1

.

4 2

fourths. Shade one-fourth of the rectangle.

5. Draw a line across the rectangle to divide it into halves.

Into how many parts is the rectangle now divided?

_____________

7. What fractional part of the rectangle was shaded twice?

_____________

_____________

113

LESSON

2-4

Multiplying Rational Numbers

3

1

.

4

3

Divide a square into

4 equal parts. Lightly

shade 3 of the 4.

To model

Darken 1 of the

3 shaded parts.

Compare the

1 darkened part to

the original 4.

1

3

1

=

3

4

4

1.

2.

1

2

= __________

2

4

3.

3

4

= __________

4

6

2

3

= __________

3

9

To multiply fractions:

and the other in a denominator.

Multiply the remaining factors in the

numerator and in the denominator.

If the signs of the factors are the same, the product is positive.

If the signs of the factors are different, the product is negative.

3

8

1 2

2

=

=

1 3

3

4

9

1

1

4

= _______

2

9

2 9

= _______

7.

3 10

4.

6

2

= _______

7

3

2 27

8.

= _______

9 40

5.

3 15

5 17

4

9.

7

6.

= _______

21

= _______

8

110

Name

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

LESSON

Problem 1

Multiply.

5 12

5

12

5 12

5

12

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

Multiply.

Problem 2

0.07(4.6) 0.322

21

1. Ming multiplies two fractions. The product simplifies to 1. What

do you know about the two fractions?

will the product have? How do you know?

All rights reserved.

26

LESSON

2-5

Practice A

Dividing Rational Numbers

1.

1 3

8

4

2.

_______________

5.

1

1

9

3

2

1

1

5

2

3.

_______________

6.

_______________

9. 1

5

2

9

3

7.

_______________

_______________

4.

_______________

2

4

5

7

10.

1

1

6

3

________________

3

6

5

7

8.

_______________

3

9

4

11. 2

_______________

3 1

4 8

1

1

3

4

3 5

8 6

________________

12.

_______________

5

5

8

________________

13. 1.53 0.3

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

________________

_______________

________________

21.

10

for x = 0.05

x

_______________________

22.

9.12

for x = 0.2

x

23.

________________________

24. Mr. Chen has a 76-in. space to stack books. Each book is 6

42.42

for x = 1.4

x

________________________

1

in.

3

________________________________________________________________________________________

115

LESSON

2-5

Reading Strategies

Focus on Vocabulary

exchange gifts, you might think of the gifts as switching places.

In the reciprocal of a fraction, the numerator and denominator

exchange places.

Fraction Reciprocal

2

3

3

2

4

5

5

4

8

1

1

8

1. What does the word reciprocal mean? _________________

2. What is the reciprocal of

7

? _________________

8

6

? _________________

5

Fraction Reciprocal = Product

2 3

6

=

=1

3 2

6

4 5

20

=

=1

5 4

20

1 8

8

=

=1

8 1

8

4. What is the product of

1 7

? _________________

7 1

2

and its reciprocal? _________________

6

1

? _________________

2

1

2? _________________

2

121

LESSON

2-5

Dividing Rational Numbers

interchange the numerator and denominator.

The product of a number and its reciprocal is 1.

2

3

Fraction

3

2

Reciprocal

2

3

=1

3

2

1. The reciprocal of

3

is:

5

_______________________

________________________

3. The reciprocal of 2

1

is:

3

________________________

2

6

3

3

9

5 10

2

1

3

6

3 10

5

9

1

2/ 1

=

3 6/ 3 9

3 10

2

=

3

5 9

4

4

16 =

_________ = __________

3

3

5

20

5

3 9

3

6.

=

_______ = __________

7. = _______ = _______

7

21 7

4 8

4

6.2

Change a decimal divisor to a whole number.

0.7 4.34

0.7. 4.3.4

7 43.4

Using the number of places in the divisor,

4.

3

3

12 =

_______ = ___________

8

8

5.

the divisor and the dividend.

Rewrite each division with a whole-number divisor.

Then, do the division.

8. 0.6 1.14

10. 0.02 7.12

__________ = _______

9. 0.3 4.56

__________ = _______

__________ = _______

__________ = _______

118

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

3

4

FLIP

4

3

3 4 3 4

= 1

4 3 4 3

1

Problem 2

How do you make 0.4

a whole number?

74.8

7.48 10

4

0.4 10

0.4 (x) 4

x 10

Multiply by 10.

4

1

4

1. Given 5 8, explain what you will multiply 5 by to find the

quotient.

12.62

in order to divide?

3

All rights reserved.

28

LESSON

2-6

Practice A

Solving Equations with Rational Numbers

Solve.

1. x + 1.2 = 4.6

2. a 3.4 = 5

_______________________

4.

x

=2

1.3

________________________

5. 6.7 + w = 1.1

_______________________

7. 7.2 = 0.9y

2

2

+x=

5

5

_______________________

13. x

3

1

=

2

5

_______________________

________________________

6.

________________________

8. k 4.05 = 6.2

_______________________

10.

3. 2.2m = 4.4

________________________

9.

________________________

11.

1

1

x=

4

2

12.

3

5

=

7

7

d

= 3.75

3.2

________________________

________________________

14. x

n

= 3.8

1.9

1

3

a =

3

4

________________________

5

5

15. a =

6

8

________________________

________________________

3

1

in. high. The ceiling is 90 in. high.

4

2

How much higher is the ceiling than Elisas highest reach?

________________________________________________________________________________________

17. Nolan Makes $10.60 an hour at his after-school job. Last week

he worked 11.25 hr. How much was Nolan paid for the week?

________________________________________________________________________________________

123

LESSON

2-6

Reading Strategies

Follow a Procedure

The rules for solving equations with rational numbers are the same

as equations with whole numbers.

Get the variable

by itself.

operation on both

sides to keep the

equation balanced.

computing rational

numbers.

3

1

+y= .

4

4

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

1

on both sides.

4

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

5. What is the first step to solve this equation?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

129

LESSON

2-6

solving equations with integers or whole numbers:

Use inverse operations to isolate the variable.

1

z = 16

4

1

4 z = 16 4

4

3.5

x

3.5

= 20.92

3

7

=

8

8

3

3

+

8

8

Multiply

each side

by 4.

z = 64

x + 3.5 = 17.42

y

3

to

8

each side.

Add

10

2

1

=1 =1

8

8

4

26t = 317.2

Subtract 3.5

from each side.

Divide each

side by 26.

26t = 317.2

26

26

t = 12.2

1. x 1.4 = 7.82

2.

________________________

1

7

+y=

4

4

________________________

3. 3z = 5

________________________

4. 14x = 129.5

________________________

7. x + 53.8 = 1.2

________________________

5.

1

y = 27

3

________________________

8. 25 =

1

k

5

________________________

6. 265.2 =

z

22.1

________________________

9. m

3

2

=

5

3

________________________

126

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

A.

4.2p 12.6

12.6

4.2p

4.2

4.2

B.

x 9 9

1

by itself

Why do you do this step?

Problem 2

2

house

5

3 houses

1 day

d days s

2

5

2 5

5

d 3

5 2

2

15

d

2

1

d 7

2

d 3

1. What is different about solving an addition equation with

fractions than solving an addition equation with integers?

division equation with decimals?

All rights reserved.

30

LESSON

2-6

Problem Solving

Solving Equations with Rational Numbers

1. In the last 150 years, the average

height of men in America has

1

increased by

foot. Today,

3

American men have an average

7

feet. What was the

height of 5

12

average height of American men 150

years ago?

1

in. long. If she cuts the ribbon

2

3

into pieces that are

in. long, into

4

how many pieces can she cut?

23

Solution:

Todays height:

Ribbon length:

____________________

Piece length:

____________________

Number of pieces:

7

ft

12

23

1

Increase:

ft

3

7

1

or

Height 150 years ago: 5

12

3

7

4

3

1

5

=5

or 5

12 12

12

4

The average height of American men

1

150 years ago was 5 ft.

4

1

2

47

3

3

=

4

4

47

4

47

3

2

1

1

94

= 31

3

3

4. The balance in Susans checking

account was $245.35. After the bank

deposited interest into the account,

her balance was $248.02. How much

interest did the bank pay?

dash in 2004 with a time of 9.85

seconds. His time was 0.95 seconds

faster than Francis Jarvis who won

the 100-m dash in 1900. What was

Jarvis time?

A $1.01

A 8.95 seconds

B $2.67

B 10.65 seconds

C $3.95

C 10.80 seconds

34

LESSON

7-1

Practice A

Solving Two-Step Equations

in steps 2 and 4.

3x + 2 = 11

1.

2.

x

1 + 1 = 2 + 1 _________________

4

x

= 1

4

x

4 = 4(1) _________________

4

3x + 2 2 = 11 2 _________________

3x = 9

3x

9

=

3

3

x

1 = 2

4

_________________

x=3

x = 4

Solve.

3. 2x + 3 = 9

_______________

7. 5y 2 = 28

_______________

4.

x

1=5

3

5. 3a + 4 = 7

_______________

6.

_______________

8. 2x 7 = 7

9.

_______________

w2

= 1

5

x+2

= 3

2

________________

10. 2r + 1 = 1

_______________

________________

11. Pearson rented a moving van for 1 day. The total rental charge is

$66.00. A daily rental costs $45.00 plus $0.25 per mile. How

many miles did he drive the van?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

393

LESSON

7-1

Reading Strategies

Analyze Information

Jill has $8 in her pocket now. She had $20 when she left for

the movies. How much money did she spend?

Answer the questions in Exercises 14 to solve this problem.

1. How much money did Jill start with?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

Mark paid $45 at the music store for 3 CDs and a pack of

batteries, before tax. The batteries cost $6. How much did

Mark pay for each of the CDs?

Answer the questions in Exercises 59 to solve this problem.

5. How much did Mark spend at the music store?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

400

LESSON

7-1

Solving Two-Step Equations

Then, work backward to undo each operation.

4z + 3 = 15

z

3=7

4

z+3

=7

4

The variable is

multiplied by 4 and

then 3 is added.

by 4 and then 3 is

subtracted.

3 is added to the

variable and then the

result is divided by 4.

To solve, first

subtract 3 and

then divide by 4.

and then multiply by 4.

To solve, multiply

by 4 and then

subtract 3.

Then, tell the steps needed to solve.

1. 3x 5 = 7

The variable is ___________________________ and then ___________________________.

To solve, first ___________________________ and then ___________________________.

2.

x

+5=7

3

To solve, first ___________________________ and then ___________________________.

3.

x+5

=7

3

To solve, first ___________________________ and then ___________________________.

4. 10 = 3x 2

The variable is ___________________________ and then ___________________________.

To solve, first ___________________________ and then ___________________________.

5. 10 =

x2

5

To solve, first ___________________________ and then ___________________________.

396

LESSON

7-1

The variable is multiplied by 2 and

then 3 is added.

2x + 3 = 11 To undo addition,

3

3

subtract 3.

2x

=8

2x

2

To undo multiplication,

8

divide by 2.

2

x=4

Check: Substitute 4 for x.

?

2(4) + 3 =

11

?

8+3=

11

then 3 is subtracted.

x

3 = 11

To undo subtraction,

2

+3 +3

add 3.

x

= 14

To undo division,

2

x

2

= 2 14 multiply by 2.

2

x = 28

Check: Substitute 28 for x.

28

?

3=

11

2

?

14 3 =

11

11 = 11

11 = 11

6. 3t + 7 = 19

To undo addition,

_____

____

subtract.

To undo multiplication,

3t

= ____

3t ____ = ____ ____ divide.

t

= ____

w

7=5

To undo subtraction,

7.

3

_____

w

3

____

= ____

_________________

Check:

add.

To undo division,

_____

z 3 = ____

_____

= ____

w

7=5

3

3

w

= ____ 12

multiply.

3

w = ____

z3

8.

=8

To undo division,

2

z3

_____

= ____ 8 multiply.

2

____

Check: 3t + 7 = 19

?

3(_____) + 7 =

19 Substitute for t.

?

_____ + 7 = 19

To undo subtraction,

add.

?

7=

5

Substitute.

?

7=

5

_________________

Check:

z3

=8

2

3 ?

=8

2

2

Substitute.

?

=

8

_____________

z = ____

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

397

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

How many tickets did the family buy?

That's $3.25,

please.

$52.00

52.00

3.25

9.75t

48.75

9.75t

48.75

9.75

9.75

t

9.75

5

3.25

3.25

Step 1 Subtract

3.25 from both

sides.

Step 2 Divide

both sides by

9.75.

1. What would the total cost have been in Problem 1 if the family

had purchased 7 tickets?

All rights reserved.

90

LESSON

7-3

Practice A

Solving Literal Equations for a Variable

1. P = 3s for s

2. S = 2V for V

______________________________________

________________________________________

3. F = ma for m

4. I = Prt for r

______________________________________

________________________________________

5. a = b + c for b

6. h = 5k + 6 for k

______________________________________

7. A =

________________________________________

bh

for h

2

8. 2c + 3d = e + 5 for e

______________________________________

________________________________________

9. 2c + 3d = e + 5 for d

10. 2c + 3d = e + 5 for c

______________________________________

________________________________________

11. What would be the width of a rectangular poster if the area was

390 square inches and the length was 26 inches?

________________________________________________________________________________________

where r is the radius and h is the height. Solve this equation for r.

________________________________________________________________________________________

simple interest, where P is the principal, r is the rate, and t is the

time in years. If the amount is $484 on a principal amount of $400 at

a rate of 0.07, then for how long was the money saved?

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

410

LESSON

7-3

Reading Strategies

Use a Concept Map

Examples

Definition

P = 4s

2w 3 + x = 4z

A=

How to rearrange

Literal Equation

1

bh

2

When to rearrange

Use inverse operations

variable that is not isolated

--addition and subtraction undo each other

--multiplication and division undo each other

1. Is the equation b + 3b = 15 a literal equation? Why or why not?

________________________________________________________________________________________

length of a side.

Luis knows the side length and wants to know the perimeter of the square.

Faye knows the perimeter and wants to know the length of each side.

Who should rearrange the formula to find what they need? ___________________

3. Which operation will isolate s in P = 4s? __________________________________

4. Solve P = 4s for s. ___________________________________________________

5. Consider the equation 2w 3 + x = 4z. Locate the variable x.

What other terms are on the same side of the equation as x?

How can you isolate x?

_______________________

_______________________________________________________________

1

7. Tell how you would solve A = bh for h. _________________________________

2

________________________________________________________________________________________

1

Solve A = bh for h. ___________ Find the height of the triangle. _____________

2

416

LESSON

7-3

A literal equation has more than one variable. Solve literal equations the same way

you solve other equationsby using inverse operations.

Compare solving a = 3b + c for b as is, to solving it when a = 17 and c = 5.

a = 3b + c

a = 3b + c

a

= 3b + c

c

c

Step

17 = 3b + 5

Locate b.

17 = 3b + 5

Isolate 3b by subtracting.

a c = 3b

a c 3b

=

3

3

ac

=b

3

17 = 3b + 5

5

5

12 = 3b

12 3b

=

3

3

4=b

Isolate b by dividing.

ac

= b for a. Multiply each side by 3:

3

a c = 3b. Then add c to each side: a = 3b + c. It is the original equation.

Fill in the blanks to solve each equation for the given variable.

1. R = mt 2 for t

2. k + 4m g = p + 9m for k

R + _____ = ______

k g = p + ______

R+

=t

k = p + _____ + ____

4. z + 1 = 5 + y x for y

3. d + 2p = m for p

______________________________________

5. A =

________________________________________

m+n

for m

2

______________________________________

________________________________________

413

Name

Date

LESSON

Class

Student Worksheet

When you solve a literal equation, think how you would solve a

normal equation that looks like the literal equation.

Problem 1

Solve d r t for r.

Id solve

30 r 6 by dividing

both sides by 6.

this one: 30 r 6

Solving 30 r 6 for r

30 r 6

30 r 6

6

6

Solving d r t for r

both sides by 6...

5r

drt

d r t

t

t

d

r

t

both sides by t.

Problem 2

Solve y 3x b for b.

Id solve

12 9 b by subtracting

9 from both sides.

this one: 12 9 b.

Solving 12 9 b for b

9 both sides...

Solving y 3x b for b

12 9 b

12 9 9 b 9

3b

y 3x b

...so here, subtract 3x

from both sides.

y 3x 3x b 3x

y 3x b

1. Why might you want to solve the formula d rt for r?

2. Show how you would solve the circumference formula C 2r

for r. Explain each step.

All rights reserved.

94

LESSON

7-3

Problem Solving

Solving Literal Equations for a Variable

1. The formula 3F 24 = s is used to

find the shoe size of an adult whose

foot is F inches long. Solve the

equation for F. How long is an adults

foot if their shoe size is 6?

number of times a cricket chirps c, in

one minute, when the temperature is t

(in F). Solve the equation for t. Find

the temperature when a cricket chirps

100 times per minute.

Solution:

Solution:

Solve for F.

3F 24 = s

3F 24 + 24 = s + 24

3F = s + 24

3F

s + 24

=

3

3

s + 24

F=

3

Find the length of a size 6 foot.

6 + 24

F=

3

30

F=

3

F = 10 inches

4t 148 = c

4t 148 + ___ = c + ___

4t = c + ___

___ = c + ___

t = c + ___

Find the temperature when a cricket

chirps 100 times per minute.

t = ___ + ___

t = ___

t = ___

4. Eulers formula states that the number

of vertices V in a polyhedron is equal

to 2 plus the number of edges E

minus the number of faces F. This is

written as V = 2 + E F. Solve the

formula for E. How many edges does

a polyhedron have if it has 6 vertices

and 5 faces?

r 2h

gives the

3

volume V of a cone with radius r and

height h. Solve the equation for h.

Find the height of an ice cream cone if

its volume is 19.2325 cubic inches

and its radius is 1.75 inches.

Use 3.14 for .

3. The formula V =

________________________________________

_______________________________________

5. The formula v = 1053.52 + 1.14t

gives the speed v at which sound

travels in feet per second when the

air temperature is t (in F). What is

the air temperature when sound

travels at 1139.02 ft/sec?

A 54F

volume V of a rectangular prism,

with length l, width w, and height h.

Find the length of a crate with a

volume of 87.75 cubic feet, width of

4.5 feet, and height of 3 feet.

A 6.5 ft

C 75F

C 7.3 ft

B 11.7 ft

B 61F

118

LESSON

7-4

Practice A

Solving Inequalities by Adding or Subtracting

1. 3 + 8 ___ 12

2. 5(3) ___ 14

3. 15 7 ___ 7

4. 3(7) ___ 28

5. 9 + (9) ___ 16

7. 4 9 ___ 12

8. 3 + 6 ___ 8

10. a + 3 < 7

_______________________

13. 3 + s > 1

_______________________

16. g + 2 2

_______________________

19. t 4 < 7

_______________________

22. x + 2 > 1

_______________________

11. 4 + m 1

________________________

14. z 5 5

________________________

17. 4 + w 3

________________________

20. 6 + r 5

12. n 1 < 2

________________________

15. 9 + p < 14

________________________

18. k 1 < 5

________________________

21. y + 14 > 22

________________________

23. 4 + a < 6

________________________

________________________

24. c 2 3

________________________

418

LESSON

7-4

Reading Strategies

Reading a Table

The word inequality means not equal. Inequality symbols are used

to compare values that are not equal. The table shows the inequality

symbols and their meanings.

Inequality Symbols

Symbol

>

<

Meaning

Greater than

Less than

Greater than or equal to

Less than or equal to

1. Write the symbol you use to show that

one number is greater than another.

a number is less than or equal to

another number.

_______________________________________

________________________________________

one number is greater than or equal

to another

one number is less than another.

________________________________________

_______________________________________

inequality.

Study the word phrases and symbols for algebraic inequalities.

Word Phase

z is less than negative five

y is less than or equal to twelve

m is greater than twenty-three

t is greater than or equal to ten

Symbols

z < 5

y 12

m > 23

t 10

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

424

LESSON

7-4

true. An inequality usually has more than one solution. All the

solutions are contained in the solution set.

As with equations, solve a simple inequality by using inverse

operations to isolate the variable.

Solve and graph x + 4 > 9.

x+4>9

4 4

x>5

show that 5 is not included in

the solution set.

Draw an arrow to the right

of 5 to show that all

numbers greater than 5 are

included in the solutions.

Subtract 4.

solution and 4 should not be a solution.

Check:

x+4>9

x+4>9

?

6+4 > 9

10 > 9

4+4 > 9

8 >/ 9

Thus, the solution set for the inequality x + 4 > 9 is x > 5.

Write true or false.

1. 7 < 4

3. 3 > 4

2. 0 9

_______________________

________________________

________________________

4.

5.

_________________

_________________

6. 3 ___ in the solution

7. 0 ___ in the solution

8. 14 __ in the solution

set of x 1 > 5.

x1>5

____

1 > 5

__________

z + (4) 4

____

+ (4) 4

>5

____

4

set of w + 10 25.

w + 10 25

____

+ 10 25

____

25

421

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

8

ab

a is greater than b.

ab

a is less than b.

Problem 1

Completing an Inequality

Look for operations

Simplify

13 9 ? 6

4 ? 6

4 6

This is an operation.

Problem 2

19

18

17

18

16

15

17

the graph does not touch 17. So 17 is not a solution.

1. How would you complete the inequality in Problem 1 if the left

side were 12 7?

2. Write in words what the graph in Problem 2 shows.

Is 18.9?

that mean?

All rights reserved.

96

LESSON

7-5

Practice A

Solving Inequalities by Multiplying or Dividing

2. 3

1. 4x > 20

_______________

3.

_______________

b

3

8

4. 6d < 18

_______________

_______________

6.

5. 63 7f

g

2

4

_______________

_______________

7. 13 <

y

5

h

3

_______________

_______________

9. Cheryl wants to buy a bicycle that costs $160. If she saves $12 each week, what is

the fewest number of weeks she must save in order to buy the bicycle?

________________________________________________________________________________________

1

the amount of time that his brother

3

did. If Mark spent 25 minutes on his math homework, how much time did his

brother spend on his math homework?

________________________________________________________________________________________

426

LESSON

7-5

Reading Strategies

Understand Symbols

If you know the meanings of the inequality symbols, you can read

and write inequalities as word sentences, and you can write word

sentences as inequalities.

< less than

> greater than, or more than

less than or equal to, or no more than

greater than or equal to, or at least

Inequality

6<x

y > 14

15 z

b5

Word Sentence

Six is less than x.

y is greater than fourteen, or y is

more than fourteen.

Fifteen is less than or equal to z, or fifteen

is no more than z.

b is greater than or equal to five, or b is at least 5.

Inequality

Word Sentence

21 < 3x

Twenty-one is less than three times x.

y

>8

y divided by three is greater than eight.

3

4 2z

Four is less than or equal to two times z,

or four is no more than 2z.

b

10

b divided by four is greater than or equal to ten,

4

or b divided by four is at least ten.

Write the inequality as a word sentence.

1. 5d > 40

________________________________________________________________________________________

2.

f

3 _________________________________________________________________________________

6

________________________________________________________________________________________

3. 11 <

g

2

________________________________________________________________________________

4. 16 4h ________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

5. A tree is more than five times as tall as a math student. The tree is 28 feet tall.

________________________________________________________________________________________

Original content Copyright by Holt McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

432

LESSON

7-5

Solving Inequalities by Multiplying or Dividing

To solve an inequality, multiply and divide the same way you would

solve an equation. But, if you multiply or divide by a negative

number, you must reverse the inequality sign.

Divide by a Positive Number

2x < 14

2x 14

<

2

2

x<7

2x < 14

2x 14

>

Reverse the inequality sign.

2

2

x > 7

numbers from the graph and substitute

them into the original equation.

Choose a number that should be a solution

and a number that should not be a solution.

Check

According to the graph, 6 should

be a solution, but 8 should not be.

2x < 14

?

2 i 8 < 14

16 </ 14

Complete to solve. Then graph the equation and check.

s

1. 3y 24

2.

<4

9

s

24

3y

_____

_____

9

3

y ________

s ________

________

2x < 14

?

2 i 6 < 14

12 < 14

_____ _____

________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

________________________________________

429

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

Problem 2

Remember

Remember

the graph is not part of the solution.

Use the symbols or .

the graph is part of the solution. Use

the symbols or .

h

24 5

7x 42

h

Think:

The number 7 is negative,

reverse to .

7x

x

7

42

6

7

120 h, or h 120

Divide.

Divide.

x 6

120. It is not part of the solution.

the solution.

the solution.

numbers less than 6 are part of the

solution.

1. What does the symbol represent? What does the symbol

represent?

2. When graphing the solution of an inequality, when do you use an

open circle? When do you use a closed circle?

All rights reserved.

98

LESSON

7-6

Practice A

Solving Two-Step Inequalities

reversed in the solution. Do not solve.

1. 2x 4 < 20

2. 4 3y 21

_______________

3. 6x + 17 > 3

_______________

4.

_______________

a

4 2

5

________________

Solve.

5. 2x 17 29

6. 8

_______________

9. 10 10 2d 5

_______________

k

< 12

2

7. 23 3w < 34

_______________

10.

8. 24 0.6x < 60

_______________

2x

+ 5 14

3

11.

_______________

2

y

1

3

6

2

_______________

________________

12.

a

1

1

+

>

7

7

14

________________

13. 2x 1 < 3

14. 16 1 3a

_______________________________________

15.

________________________________________

y

3

1

2

4

2

16.

_______________________________________

d

5

1

+

>

3

12

4

________________________________________

In addition, she receives a base salary of $375. What should

the amount of her sales be for the week if she hopes to make

at least $600 this week?

________________________________________________________________________________________

434

LESSON

7-6

Reading Strategies

Follow a Procedure

You can use these steps to help you solve a two-step inequality.

Solve 8 < 4x + 4.

Step 1: Get the variable

by itself on one

8

4 < 4x + 4 4

Step 2: Solve.

4x

12

<

4

4

3

Step 3: Rewrite the solution

so the variable

comes first.

<x

x > 3

1. What did the procedure tell you to do first?

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________

5. How would the graph for x 3 be different than the above graph?

________________________________________________________________________________________

441

LESSON

7-6

with an equation. But, when multiplying or dividing by a negative

number, reverse the inequality symbol.

3x + 2 > 11 To undo addition,

2

3x

2 subtract 2.

2 2

3x

subtract 2.

>9

To undo multiplication,

3x

9

<

3

3

3x

9

>

divide by 3.

3

3

divide by 3 and

x >3

The solution set contains all real

numbers greater than 3.

numbers less than 3.

1. 2t + 1 9

______

2t

___

_____

2t

____

2. 2t + 1 9

To undo addition,

subtract.

______

To undo multiplication.

2t

8

divide.

2t

___

3. 3z 2 > 1

________

3z

3z

z

>

_______

3z >

________

3z

_____

To undo multiplication.

divide by 2 and

________

4. 3z 2 >

________

subtract.

___

________

To undo addition,

change to .

1

________

________

_____

z __________

_________

437

LESSON

7-6

Multiply both sides by the LCD.

v

1

1

+

>

The LCD is 4.

4

4

2

v

1

1

4

+4

>4

Multiply by the LCD.

4

4

2

v + 1 > 2

1

1

Subtract from both sides.

v > 3

5.

________

b

7

2

4 12

3

b

7

2

________

________

4

12

3

________

b ________ ________

________

________

Add.

________

b ________

__

b ________

y

2

1

+

7 14

2

6.

_____

Check direction.

7.

y

2

1

+ _____

_____

14

7

2

_____

x

1

2

>

+

9

3

3

x

1

2

> _____

+ _____

9

3

3

________

+ ________ ________

________

> x + ________

________

________

________

________

________

________

________

>x

x _____ _________

438

Name

LESSON

Date

Class

Student Worksheet

Problem 1

Solve and graph.

7y 4 . 24

4

y is multiplied

by 7. Divide

to undo.

4

7y . 28

4 is subtracted

from 7y. Add 4 to

undo.

7y

28

.

7

7

to the right of 4 on

the number line.

y .4

2

Problem 2

To break even, ticket sales plus money in budget must be greater

than cost of production.

REVENUE

COST

Price of the

ticket ($4.75).

This is money

the club must

spend.

R C

has in budget and

earns from ticket

sales.

Number of

tickets sold (t).

4.75t 610.75

Amount from

fundraising ($610.75)

Cost of entire

production

1100.00

1. List 3 values that are solutions to the inequality in Problem 1.

2. What can the drama club do in Problem 2 to make sure that

they earn money on their musical?

All rights reserved.

100

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