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A. European Ideologies Around 1800

Supports a return to world before 1789
Supports restoration of royal families to power
Supports a social hierarchy
Supports established church
Suppresses revolutionary ideas
Opposes freedom of the press
Uses troops to crush protests
Supports government based on written constitutions
Supports separation of powers within the government
Opposes divine-right monarchs, the old aristocracy, and established churches
Supports rights of liberty, equality, and property
Protects rights such as freedom of thought, speech, and religion
Supports laissez-faire economic policies
People with a common heritage unite to try to form their own homeland.

B. European Revolts in the Early 1800s


Karageorge leads war against Ottomans from 1804 to 1813; leads to sense of Serbian identity.
In 1815, Obrenovic turns to Russia for assistance.
In 1830, Serbs win autonomy.
Russia continues to defend Serbian interests.


Greeks revolt against the Ottomans in 1821.

Romantic writers support the Greeks.
In the 1820s, Britain, France, and Russia force Ottomans to grant independence to some Greek
In 1830, Greece is forced to accept a German king.


Rebels in Spain, Portugal, and some Italian states

France crushes revolt in Spain.
Austria crushes revolt in Italy.

Reading Check all men having the right to vote Vocabulary Strategy Agitator means
"someone who attempts to arouse feeling for or against something, especially a political cause."
Reading Skill liberals and conservatives
Review Questions 1. Conservatives opposed constitutional governments and wanted to restore the
royal families that Napoleon had deposed. Liberals opposed divine-right monarchies and wanted
governments based on constitutions. They saw government's role as limited to protecting basic
rights, such as freedom of thought, speech, and religion. 2. Metternich had urged conservative
rulers to crush uprisings.

Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
France: 1830; Radicals force king to abdicate. Belgium: 1830; Becomes an independent state with
a liberal constitution

Poland: 1830; Russia crushes revolt of students

army officers, and landowners.
France: 1848; Revolution leads to election of Louis Napoleon as president.
Austria: 1848; Metternich flees in disguise. Hungary: 1848; Louis Kossuth demands an independent government.
Czechs: 1848; Demand an independent government
Italy: 1848; Revolutionaries expel pope from Rome and install a nationalist government.
Germany: 1848; Frankfurt Assembly offers the king the throne of a united Germany, but he

Reading Check Louis Napoleon proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III.
Vocabulary Strategy Denounce means "to express harsh criticism of something or somebody,
usually in public."
Reading Skill The Paris revolts of 1848 again led to revolutions across Europe.
Review Questions 1. Charles X suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted
the press. This angered French citizens, who rebelled. 2. Vienna, Budapest, Prague, the Italian states,
and the German states

Revolts in Latin America
Haiti: 1791; Toussaint L'Ouverture leads an army of former slaves and ends slavery there.
Mexico: 1810; Father Hidalgo gives his "el Grito de Dolores" speech. Eventually Mexico wins
Argentina: 1816; San Martin's army defeats the Spanish.
Chile: 1818; San Martin helps Bolivar liberate Chile.
Colombia: 1819; Simon Bolivar surprises the Spanish at Bogota.
Venezuela: 1821; Simon Bolivar liberates Venezuela.
Brazil: 1822; Dom Pedro becomes emperor of an independent Brazil.
Ecuador: 1822; Simon Bolivar liberates Ecuador. Peru: 1824, San Martin helps Bolivar liberate Peru.
Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica: 1838; United Provinces of
Central America breaks into separate republics.

Reading Check Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin
Vocabulary Strategy Proclaim means "to announce publicly or formally."
Reading Skill the first sentence: By the late 1700s, revolutionary fever had spread to Latin America,
where the social system had led to discontent. Review Questions 1. They resented their
second-class status and were inspired by the Enlightenment and the French and American revolutions.

2. Dom Pedro, the son of the Portuguese king, became emperor and proclaimed independence for