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METABOLISM

- Sum total of a highly organized and regulated cellular


activity involving enzymes

Functions:
1. To obtain chemical energy by degrading or oxidizing
high energy metabolites or by capturing energy
from the sun
2. To synthesize macromolecules or break down
macromolecules to produce small precursor
molecules and use them for the synthesis of other
macromolecules.

Two paths of metabolism

Catabolism

Anabolism

leads to degradation of
biomolecules

synthesis of biomolecules

overall process of chemical


oxidation and formation of
reduced cofactors of NADH,
NADPH, FADH2

overall process of chemical


reduction and formation of
oxidized cofactors NAD+ , NADP+,
and FAD+

release of chemical energy


(exothermic) and production
of ATP from ADP

requirement of energy input


(endothermic) and use ATP

Bioenergetics
- aka biochemical thermodynamics, is the study of the
energy changes accompanying biochemical reactions
- Biologic systems are essentially isothermic and use
chemical energy to power living processes

*Biologic Systems Conform to the General Laws of


Thermodynamics

First Law of Thermodynamics


- for any physical or chemical change, the total amount of
energy in the universe remains constant; energy may
change form or it may be transported from one region to
another, but it cannot be created or destroyed

Second Law of Thermodynamics


- that the universe always tends toward increasing
disorder: in all natural processes, the entropy of the
universe increases

Thermodynamic System
-is the collection of matter that is undergoing a particular
chemical or physical process
-it may be an organism, a cell, or two reacting compounds
-The reacting system and its surroundings together constitute
the universe

- Living cells and organisms, however, are open systems,


exchanging both material and energy with their surroundings

Thermodynamic Functions

Gibbs Free Energy


- expresses the amount of energy capable of doing work
during a reaction at constant temperature and pressure

Enthalpy
- is the heat content of the reacting system

Entropy
- quantitative expression for the randomness or disorder
in a system

Standard Free-Energy Changes of Some


Chemical Reactions at pH 7.0 and 25 C (298 K)

Cells require two basic needs for survival: (1) carbon


source and (2) energy
1. Carbon Source
a. autotrophs
- organisms that use carbon dioxide as source
of carbon
b. heterotrophs
- organisms that use more complex molecules
as source of carbon for their carbon-containing
components

1. Energy Source
a. autotrophs
- obtain energy from the sun and convert light
energy to chemical energy

b. heterotrophs
- obtain energy from the breakdown of organic
substances such as glucose or fats

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)


- Universal carrier of biochemical energy
- most abundant storage form of energy that is most
readily obtainable
- hydrolysis results in a free energy equal to 7.3kcal/mol

Synthesis of ATP
1. Substrate Level Phosphorylation
- ADP + Pi ----> ATP, reaction is nonspontaneous, can be
coupled to other reactions to become spontaneous
- phosphate will come from metabolites with high
group transfer potentials

Examples of compounds with High Group Transfer


Potential

Synthesis of ATP
2. Oxidative Phosphorylation
- synthesizes ATP by a coupled reaction with electron
- electron transfer occurs between substances that act
as electron donors and those that accept electrons
- two requirements for oxidative phosphorylation to
occur: (1) cell must have a respiratory system; (2) oxygen
must be sufficiently supplied to the cell

- respiratory system of cells consists of electron carriers


found in clusters called the electron transport system

Stages of Metabolism

Major pathways of glucose utilization.

Glycolysis: Preparatory Phase.

Glycolysis: Payoff Phase

Fate of Pyruvate