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No.

Title

1.

Abstract

2.

Introduction

3.

Aims

4.

Theory

5.

Apparatus

6.

Procedure

7.

Results

8.

Calculations

9.

Discussions

10.

Conclusions

11.

Recommendations

12.

Reference

13.

Appendix

Page

2.0 INTRODUCTION
In all the industrial sectors and industrial chemical processes, mostly reactor is
the key equipment that is used where it changes from the raw materials into the
desire products that are needed. The design and operation of chemical reactors is
essential to the whole success of an industrial process. The criteria for the good
reactor is it produced a high production and also economical.
There are many types of reactor depending on the nature of the feed materials
and products. The rate of reaction is the most important thing that we are considered
in the reactor because it showed the effectiveness of the processing of the reactor.
Reactors can take various forms depending on the nature of the feed materials and
the products [1]. Understanding the function of reactors is necessary to properly
control and handle a reaction system. Basically, there are two groups of reactors
which area batch reactors and continuous flow reactors. A most common ideal
reactor type in chemical engineering is the continuous stirred tank reactor or known
as CSTR.
It is necessary to understand the non-steady behavior of process equipment
for design and operation of automatic control systems. Continuous stirred tank
reactor is one particular type of process equipment. In this reactor, it is important to
determine the system response to change in concentration. This response of the
concentration versus time is an indication of the idealistic of the system.
There are three reactor vessels connected in series, each containing a
propeller agitator driven by a variable speed electric motor. Two reagent vessels and
two variable speed feed pumps feed reagents into the first reactor in line. For certain
experiments the feed can be connected to the third reactor and a dead-time coil, also
positioned on the vacuum formed plinth. Each reactor and the exit port of the deadtime coil are fitted with accurate conductivity probes for monitoring the process [2].
This reactor runs at steady state with continuous flow of reactants and
products; the feed assumes a uniform composition throughout the reactor, exit
stream has the same composition as in the tank. A Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor
(CSTR) is a well-mixed vessel that operates at steady-state (Q in=Qout=Q) [3]. The
main assumption in this case is that the concentration of the incoming fluid will

become instantaneously equal to the outgoing upon entering the vessel. Figure 1.1
explains visually this concept.

Figure 1: Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor

A CSTR differs from a batch only in the fact that it is not closed. Thus, the
mass flows in and out of the reactor will not cancel. In CSTR there are 3 kinds of
phases can be presents which are liquid phase, gas-liquid reactions phase and solidliquid reactions phase. The CSTR are being use when agitation is required and the
series configurations for different kinds of concentration streams [4]. The advantages
are the process in continuous operation, good temperature control, easily adapts to
two phase runs, good control, simplicity of construction, low operating (labor) cost
and easy to clean. While the disadvantages are lowest conversion per unit volume
and by-passing and channeling possible with poor agitation [5].

3.0 OBJECTIVES
1) To know the effect of cstr in series on conversion of compound.
2) To determine the time taken for the conductivity of the three tanks becomes
constant.

4.0 THEORY
A Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) is a well-mixed vessel that operates at
steady-state (Qin=Qout=Q). The main assumption in this case is that the
concentration of the incoming fluid will become instantaneously equal to the outgoing
upon entering the vessel. Fig. 2 explains visually this concept.

Figure 2 shows the Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor


A CSTR differs from a batch only in the fact that it is not closed. Thus, the mass flows
in and out of the reactor in eq. [6] will not cancel:

[14]
The mass balance in [14] equals to 0 thanks to the steady state hypothesis (no
accumulation). Solving,

[15]
where

H = V/Q = average hydraulic residence time. Eq. [15] represents the

characteristic equation for a CSTR. Assuming a first-order reaction,

[16]

Type of Reactor
Characteristics
Continuously
Stirred Run at steady state with continuous flow of reactants and
Tank Reactor (CSTR)

products;

the

feed

assumes

uniform

composition

throughout the reactor, exit stream has the same composition


as in the tank

Kinds of Phases Usage

Advantages

Present
1. Liquid phase

1. When agitation is 1.

2. Gas-liquid rxns

required

3. Solid-liquid rxns

2.
configurations

Disadvantages

Continuous 1.

operation

Lowest

conversion per unit

Series 2.

Good volume

for temperature control

2. By-passing and

different

3. Easily adapts to channeling possible

concentration

two phase runs

streams

4. Good control
5.

Simplicity

with poor agitation


of

construction
6

Low

operating

(labor) cost

7. Easy to clean

General Mole Balance Equation

Assumptions

1) Steady state therefore


2) Well mixed therefore rA is the same throughout the reactor

Rearranging the generation

In terms of conversion

Reactor Sizing
Given rA as a function of conversion, r A = f(X), one can size any type of reactor. The
volume of a CSTR can be represented as the shaded areas in the Levenspiel Plot
shown below:

Reactors in Series
Given rA as a function of conversion, , r A = f(X), one can also design any
sequence of reactors in series provided there are no side streams by defining the
overall conversion at any point.

Mole Balance on Reactor 1

Mole Balance on Reactor 2

Given rA = f(X) the Levenspiel Plot can be used to find the reactor volume

For a PFR between two CSTRs

5.0 APPARATUS
All the apparatus used for this experiment are listed in the table 1.5 - 1 with their
descriptions. Meanwhile, all the materials used for this experiment which is to
demonstrate the experiment are stated in table 1.5 - 2.
Table 1: shows the apparatus that used for this experiment.
No
1

Apparatus
Continuous

Stirred

Reactor in series

Descriptions
Tank Run at steady state with continuous flow of
reactants and products; the feed assumes a
uniform composition throughout the reactor, exit

2
3
4

Stop watch
Beaker
Conductivity meter

stream has the same composition as in the tank.


To measure time taken.
To place all the solution
To check the conductivity of solution or liquid

Table 2: show the materials that used for this experiment.


No
1
2
3

Material
Sodium chloride
Deionized water
Distilled water

6.0 PROCEDURE
1.Tank 1 and tank 2 was filled up with 20L feeds deionizer water.
2. 300g of Sodium Chloride was dissolved in tank 1until the salts dissolve entirely
and the solution is homogenous.
3. Three way valve (V3) was set to position 2 so that deionizer water from tank 2
willflow into reactor 1.
4. Pump 2 was switched on to fill up all three reactors with deionizer water.
5.The flow rate (Fl1) was set to 150 ml/min by adjusting the needles valve (V4). Do
notuse too high flow rate to avoid the over flow and make sure no air bubbles trapped
inthe piping. The stirrers 1, 2 and 3 were switched on.
6. The deionizer

water was

continued

pumped

for about 10 minute

until

the conductivity readings for all three reactors were stable at low values.
7.The values of conductivity were recorded at t=0
8. The pump 2 was switched off after 5 minutes.
9. The valve (V3) was switched toposition 1 and the pump 1 was switched on. The
timer was started.
10. The conductivity values for each reactor were recorded every three minutes.
11. Record of the conductivity values were continued until reading for reactor 3
closed to reactor 1.
12. Pump 2 was switched off and the valve (V4) was closed.12. All liquids in reactors
were drained by opening valves V5 and V6.

7.0 RESULTS
Table 3: Data for Conductivity Values
TIME(MIN)
0
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36
39
42
45
48
51
54
57
60
63
66
69
72
75
78
81
84
87
90
93

QT1 (mS/cm)
0.0000635
0.0000176
0.0085000
10.6000000
11.8100000
12.9500000
14.1000000
14.8200000
15.4400000
16.2300000
16.6300000
17.0000000
17.2800000
17.5800000
17.7100000
17.6300000
17.7100000
17.8800000
17.9900000
18.0200000
18.1500000
18.2200000
18.2500000
18.2500000
18.2500000
18.2500000
18.2500000
18.2500000
18.2200000
18.1000000
18.1200000
18.1400000

QT2 (mS/cm)
0.0000919
0.0000992
0.0022500
3.4900000
5.0800000
6.2400000
7.6100000
8.8400000
10.0800000
11.8800000
13.1800000
14.2800000
15.2200000
15.9100000
16.4400000
16.9100000
17.2300000
17.5200000
17.7000000
17.8300000
17.9400000
18.0400000
18.0700000
18.1400000
18.1600000
18.2100000
18.2500000
18.2500000
18.1700000
18.1700000
18.1400000
18.1400000

QT3 (mS/cm)
0.0000971
0.0000162
0.4530000
0.7180000
0.0140100
0.0191400
2.8200000
3.7300000
4.8100000
6.6000000
8.1600000
9.6200000
11.2000000
12.4200000
13.3500000
14.3900000
15.1300000
15.9000000
16.2900000
16.7300000
17.0600000
17.2900000
17.4900000
17.6600000
17.8200000
17.9300000
17.9700000
18.0400000
18.0600000
18.1400000
18.1300000
18.1400000

Conductivity against Time


20
18
16
14
12
Conductivity (mS/cm)

QT1

10

QT2

QT3

6
4
2
0

Time (min)

Graph 1: Conductivity against time

8.0 CALCULATIONS
Vi = FAO (XA,i XA,i-1) / (-rA)i
Where Vi = volume of reactor i
FA,i = molal flow rate of A into the first reactor
XA,i = fractional conversion of A in the reactor i
XA,i-1 = fractional conversion of A in the reactor i-1
For the first order reaction: (V=20 L)
(-rA)1 = (kCA)1 = kCA,1 = kCA0 (1 - XA,1)
CA0 = FA0 / v
i.e., FA0 = vCA0
XA,i-1 = XA,0 = 0
Therefore,

Tank 1:
Vi

= FAO (XA,i - XA,i-1) / (-rA)i

20

= 0.15 (XA,1 0) / (0.158(1 XA1))

XA,1

= 0.95

Tank 2:
Vi

= FAO (XA,i - XA,i-1) / (-rA)i

20

= 0.15 (XA,1 0.95) / (0.158(1 XA1))

XA,1

= 0.997

Tank 1:
Vi

= FAO (XA,i - XA,i-1) / (-rA)i

20

= 0.15 (XA,1 0.997) / (0.158(1 XA1))

XA,1

= 0.998

9.0 DISCUSSION
In the experiment, the experiment was carried out to determine the effect of
step change input on the concentration of the salt solution used in the experiment
which is sodium chloride, NaCl. With 150mL/min flow rate in, the experiment was
carried out by taking the conductivity of each reactor until the equal conductivity was
achieved for each of reactor.
The result was recorded in Table 1 which is the conductivity value of the 3
reactors. The initial conductivity value for QT 1 is 0.0000635 mS/cm, QT2 is
0.0000919 mS/cm and QT3 is 0.0000971 mS/cm. From the data, the conductivity
value increased as the time passed by since there are more salt solution was fed into
the reactors. The value of conductivity value for QT1, QT2 and QT3 are the same
after 93 minutes after the conductivity values changes. The final conductivity value
for the reactors are 18.1400000 mS/cm.
After that, the graph of conductivity for the 3 reactors against time was set up
which is shown in Graph 1. From the graph, the as the time increase, the conductivity
also increase until it become constant. It also can be seen that the first reactors
conductivity was reaching the constant more closer followed by second reactor and
reactor 3 respectively. However, since the graph are not smooth, it can be said there
are some error when recording the conductivity value of the reactors. But the data
collected still right since when the time increase, the conductivity also increase until it
become constant.
Then the conversion for each reactor was calculated to know how the reactor
Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in series effects the conversion of Nacl in
the reactor. The result shown that, QT have 0.950 conversion, QT2 have 0.997
conversion and QT3 have 0.998 conversion. The CSTR in series have advantage in
making the final product have higher conversion than a single CSTR. This could be
explained that the compound NaCl have higher residence time in a series CSTR than
in single CSTR.

10.0 CONCLUSION
From this experiment, the objectives were achieved since the effect of step
change input on the concentration of the salt solution used in the experiment which is
sodium chloride, NaCl was determined. It was concluded from the graph plotted, the
step change input affect the concentration at the reactor. However, since the graph
are not smooth, it can be said there are some error when recording the conductivity
value of the reactors. But the data collected still right since when the time increase,
the conductivity also increase until it become constant. Then, the CSTR in series
have advantage in making the final product have higher conversion than a single
CSTR. Based on the results of the experiment, the experiment was a success as the
objective was achieved.

12.0 REFERENCES
[1] Levenspiel, O,Chemical Reaction Engineering , John Wiley, 1972
[2] Robert H.Perry, Don W.Green,Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook ,McGraw
Hill,1998.
[3] Smith,J.M,Chemical Engineering Kinetics,McGraw Hill, 1981
[4] http://www.solution.com.my/pdf/BP107(A4).pdf

(retrieved on 15/4/16)

[5] http://www.umich.edu/~elements/5e/asyLearn/bits/cstr/index.htm
on 15/4/16)

(retrieved