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FABRICATION OF PNEUMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of

DIPLOMA

IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SUBMITTED BY:

1. G.K. MANIGANDAN
2. B. KARTHIKEYAN
3. P. BALASUBRAMANI

4. J. DHANAJEYAN
5. D. DURAIVEL
6. L. PRABHU

Under guidance of
Mr. V.K. RAJENDRAN,M.E.
MARCH 2016.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

A M K TECHNOLOGICAL POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE


CHEM BARAMBAKKAM, CHENNAI 602 103

A M K TECHNOLOGICAL POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE


CHEM BARAMBAKKAM, CHENNAI 602 103

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this Project work on

FABRICATION OF PNEUMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM


submitted by . Reg. No.
in partial fulfillment for the award of
DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
This is the bonafide record of work carried out by him under
our supervision during the year 2016
Submitted for the Viva-voce exam held on ..

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

INTERNAL EXAMINER

PROJECT GUIDE

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the outset, we would like to emphasize our sincere thanks to the Principal Mr.
R. J. KUMAR, B.E., M.E., MISTE., Ph.D., encouragement and valuable advice.

we thank our Esquired Head of Department Mr R. RAJKUMAR, A.M.I.E,


M.E., for presenting his felicitations on us.
We are grateful on our Entourages Mr. V.K.RAJENDRAN, M.E., for guiding in
various aspects of the project making it a grand success.
We also owe our sincere thanks to all staff members of the Mechanical
Engineering (MTMR) Department.

Ultimately, we extend our thanks to all who had rendered their co-operation for
the success of the project.

CONTENTS

CONTENTS
Chapter No.

TITLE

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

SYNOPSIS

3.

WORKING

4.

DESCRIPTION OF BRAKE SYSTEM

5.

BRAKE DETAILS

6.

AIR BRAKE DIAGRAM

7.

MECHANICAL SPARE PARTS DETAILS

8.

PNEUMATIC PARTS DETAILS

9.

FINISHING AND PAINTING

10.

COST ESTIMATION

11.

CONCLUSION

12.

BIBILOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
This is a self assessment test on the part of the students to assess his competency
in creativity.
During the course of study, the student is put on a sound theoretical foundation of
various mechanical engineering subjects and of course, to a satisfactory extent.
Opportunities are made available to him to work on different kinds of machines, so that
he is exposed to various kinds of manufacturing process.
As a students learn more and more his hold on production technology becomes
stronger. He attains a stage of perfection, when he himself is able to design and
fabricate a device.
This is the project work. That is the testimony for the strenuous training, which
the student had in the institute. This assures that he is no more a student, he is an
engineer.
This report discuses the necessity of the project and various aspects of planning ,
design, selection of materials, fabrication, erection, estimation and testing.

ABSTRACT

ABSTRAC
The aim is to design and develop a control system based on breaking system of an
AIR controlled safely automotive wheel braking system.
.
The control valve which directs the air to the double acting cylinder for
breaking control. This braking actions is implemented In our project, we have to apply
this braking system in one wheel as a model.

CHAPTER 1

DESCRIPTION OF BRAKE
SYSTEM

CHAPTER 1
DESCRIPTION OF BRAKE SYSTEM
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION

Brakes are one of the most important control components of the vehicle. They are
required to stop the vehicle within the smallest possible distance and this is done by
converting the kinetic energy of the wheels into the heat energy which is dissipated into
the atmosphere.
Types of brakes based on method of actuation:
1. Mechanical brakes
2. Hydraulic brakes
3. Electric and electronic brakes
4. Vacuum brakes
5. Air brakes
Types of brakes based on application
1. Drum brakes
2. Disc brakes
3. Parking Brakes
1.2 DRUM BRAKES
The modern automobile drum brake was invented in 1902 by Louis Renault,
though a less - sophisticated drum brake had been used by Maybach a year earlier. In the
first drum brakes, the shoes were mechanically operated with levers and rods or cables.
From the mid-1930s the shoes were operated with oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder
and pistons, though some vehicles continued with purely-mechanical systems for
decades. Some designs have two wheel cylinders.

The shoes in drum brakes are subject to wear and the brakes needed to be adjusted
regularly until the introduction of self adjusting drum brakes in the 1950s. In the 1960s
and 1970s brake drums on the front wheel of cars were gradually replaced with disc
brakes and now practically all cars use disc brakes on the front wheels, with many
offering disc brakes on all wheels. However, drum brakes are still often used for
handbrakes as it has proved very difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a
car when it is not in use. Moreover, it is very easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc
brake so that one unit serves for both footbrake and handbrake.
Early type brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake systems of
older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake assembly. The
United States Federal Government began to regulate asbestos production, and brake
manufactures had to switch to non-asbestos linings. Owners initially complained of poor
braking with the replacements; however, technology eventually advanced to
compensate. A majority of daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestosfree linings. Many other countries also limit the use of asbestos in brakes.
Drum brakes consist of a backing plate, brake shoes, brake drum, wheel cylinder,
return springs and an automatic or self-adjusting system. When you apply the brakes,
brake fluid is forced, under pressure, into the wheel cylinder which, in turn, pushes the
brake shoes into contact with the machined surface on the inside of the drum. When the
pressure is released, return springs pull the shoes back to their rest position. As the brake
linings wear, the shoes must travel a greater distance to reach the drum. When the
distance reaches a certain point, a self-adjusting mechanism automatically reacts by
adjusting the rest position of the shoes so that they are closer to the drum.

1.2.1 BRAKE SHOES

Like the disc pads, brake shoes consist of a steel shoe with the friction material or
lining riveted or bonded to it. Also like disc pads, the linings eventually wear out and
must be replaced. If the linings are allowed to wear through to the bare metal shoe, they
will cause severe damage to the brake drum.
1.2.2 BACKING PLATE
The backing plate is what holds everything together. It attaches to the axle and
forms a solid surface for the wheel cylinder, brake shoes and assorted hardware. It rarely
causes any problems.
1.2.3 BRAKE DRUM
Brake drums are made of iron and have a machined surface on the inside where
the shoes make contact. Just as with disc rotors, brake drums will show signs of wear as
the brake linings seat themselves against the machined surface of the drum. When new
shoes are installed, the brake drum should be machined smooth. Brake drums have a
maximum diameter specification that is stamped on the outside of the drum. When a
drum is machined, it must never exceed that measurement. If the surface cannot be
machined within that limit, the drum must be replaced.

1.2.4 WHEEL CYLINDER


The wheel cylinder consists of a cylinder that has two pistons, one on each side.
Each piston has a rubber seal and a shaft that connects the piston with a brake shoe.
When brake pressure is applied, the pistons are forced out pushing the shoes into contact

with the drum. Wheel cylinders must be rebuilt or replaced if they show signs of
leaking.
The major components of the drum brake assembly is shown in the following
figure the detailed exploded view of drum brake components.
1.2.5 RETURN SPRINGS
Return springs pull the brake shoes back to their rest position after the pressure is
released from the wheel cylinder. If the spring are weak and do not return the shoes all
the way, it will cause premature lining wear because the linings will remain in contact
with the drum. A good technician will examine the springs during a brake job and
recommend their replacement if they show signs of fatigue. On certain vehicles, the
technician may recommend replacing them even if they look good as inexpensive
insurance.
1.2.6 SELF ADJUSTING SYSTEM
The parts of a self adjusting system should be clean and move freely to insure that
the brakes maintain their adjustment over the life of the linings. If the self adjusters stop
working, you will notice that you will have to step down further and further on the brake
pedal before you feel the brakes begin to engage. Disc brakes are self adjusting by
nature and do not require any type of mechanism. When a technician performs a brake
job, aside from checking the return springs, he will also clean and lubricates the self
adjusting parts where necessary.
1.3 PARKING BREAKS

The parking brake (a.k.a. emergency brake) system controls the rear brakes
through a series of steel cables that are connected to either a hand lever or a foot pedal.
The idea is that the system is fully mechanical and completely by passes the hydraulic
system so that the vehicle can be brought to a stop even if there is a total brake failure.
In drum brakes, the cable pulls on a lever mounted in the rear brake and is directly
connected to the brake shoes. This has the effect of by passing the wheel cylinder and
controlling the brakes directly.
1. Support plate
2. Park brake shoes
3. Equalizer
4. Springs
5. Hold down clips
6. Adjuster
Disc brakes on the rear wheels add additional complication for parking brake systems.
There are two main designs for adding a mechanical parking brake to rear disc brakes.
The first type uses the existing rear wheel caliper and adds a lever attached to a
mechanical corkscrew device inside the caliper piston. When the parking brake cable
pulls on the lever, this corkscrew device pushes the piston against the pads, thereby
bypassing the hydraulic system, to stop the vehicle. This type of system is primarily
used with single piston floating calipers, if the caliper is of the four piston fixed type,
then that type of system cant be used. The other system uses a complete mechanical
drum brake unit mounted inside the rear rotor. The brake shoes on this system are
connected to a lever that is pulled by the parking brake cable to activate the brakes. The
brake drum is actually the inside part of the rear brake rotor.

On cars with automatic transmissions, the parking brake is rarely used. This can cause
a couple of problems. The biggest problem is that the brake cables tend to get corroded
and eventually size up causing the parking brake to become inoperative. By using the
parking brake from time to time, the cables stay clean and functional. Another problem
comes from the fact that the self adjusting mechanism on certain brake systems uses the
parking brake actuation to adjust the brakes. If the parking brake is never used, then the
brakes never get adjusted.

1.4 DISC BRAKES


1.4.1 INTRODUCTION
Disc brakes consist of a metal disc attached to the wheel hub that rotates with the
wheel. Calipers are attached to the frame or fork along with pads that squeeze together
on the disc. Such brakes have been successfully used on motorcycles for decades, and
been the principal choice there. The disc brake is a lot like the brakes on bicycle. Bicycle
brakes have a caliper, which squeezes the brake pads against the wheel. In a disc brake,
the brake pads squeeze the rotor instead of the wheel, and the force is transmitted
hydraulically instead of through a cable. Friction between the pads and the disc slows
the disc down.
1.4.2 CONSTRUCTION
THEORY OF CONVENTIONAL HYDRAULIC DISC BRAKE
A Disc brake uses a flat, round disc or rotor, attached to the wheel hub
instead of a drum. Brake pads are positioned on the opposite sides of the rotor and are

mounted in the brake caliper. The caliper contains the hydraulic piston used to apply the
shoes and to transmit the braking forces from the shoes to the suspension members.
All disc brakes are non energized, non servo brakes; lining pressure is directly
proportional to brake pedal pressure.
Centrifugal force will throw the contaminants off the rotor. A disc brake will have much
cooler operation than drum brakes because of increased area that is exposed to the air
flowing past it.
All modern automotive brake system uses a hydraulic system to transmit the
application forces from the brake pedal to the brake shoes.
The brakes hydraulic system begins at the master cylinder. The master cylinder is
basically a piston type hydraulic pump operated by the brake pedal. As brake pedal is
pushed, brake fluid is pumped to the caliper or wheel cylinder piston. This fluid pushes
on the pistons, which push the brake shoes against the rotor.
1.4.3 ADVANTAGES OF DISC BRAKES OVER DRUM BRAKES
In case of disc brakes the frictions surface is directly exposed to the cooling air, so
the heat dissipation is much easier in disc brake than drum brakes.
The frictional surface in case of disc brakes are flat when compared to curved
surface of drum brakes, this mean in disc brakes there is uniform wear.
Frictional pad material is not subjected to any bending, thereby increasing the
range of materials from which to choose the suitable one.

The design of disc brakes is such that there is no loss efficiency due to expansion,
as the system becomes hot, expansion of drum of internally expanded shoe types
if brake tends to move the friction surface apart, causing a loss of effective pedal
travel, on the friction surfaces slightly without tending to increase the clearance.
Disc brake weigh less than their conventional drum type counterpart a saving
approximately 20% being possible.
Disc brake has a better anti fade characteristics than drum brakes.

1.4. DISADVANTAGES
Any leakages of hydraulic fluid leads to brake failure
Air bubbles if any got trapped in the hydraulic circuit will result is brake failure.
Sufficient level of brake fluid should always be maintained all the time
Hydraulic disc brakes usually require relatively specialized tools to bleed the
brake systems.
Repairs on the trail are difficult to perform, whereas mechanical disc brakes rarely
fail completely.

Considering the above mentioned advantages and superior nature of disc brakes we
decided to choose modifications in disc brakes to make it much simpler and more
effective and cheaper design.
1.5 HYDRAULIC VS MECHANICAL
Two main disc brake systems exist: hydraulic and mechanical (cable-actuated).
Mechanical disc brakes (which are almost always less expensive than hydraulic) have
less modulation than hydraulic disc brake systems, and since the cable is usually open to
the outside, mechanical disc brake tend to pick up small bits of dirt and grit in the cable
lines when ridden in harsh terrain. Hydraulic disc rakes use fluid from a reservoir,
pushed through a hose, to actuate the pistons in the disc caliper that then actuate the
pads. Hydraulic disc brake systems generally keep contaminants out better. However,
since hydraulic disc brakes usually require relatively specialized tools to bleed the brake
systems, repairs on the trail are difficult to perform, whereas mechanical disc brakes
rarely fail completely. Hydraulic disc brakes occasionally require bleeding of the brake
lines to remove air bubbles. There are two types of brake fluid used in disc brakes today:
mineral oil and DOT fluid. Mineral oil is generally inert and while DOT has a higher
boiling point, it is known to be corrosive to frame paint. The two are generally not
interchangeable, as the different fluids may cause seals to swell or be corroded. Also, the
hydraulic fluid may boil on steep, continuous down hills. This is due to heat building up
in the disc and pads and can cause the brake to lose its ability to transmit force through
incompressible fluids, since some of it has become a gas, which is compressible. To
avoid this problem, 203 mm (8 inch) diameter disc rotors have become common on
downhill bikes. Larges rotors dissipate heat more quickly and have a larger amount of
mass to absorb heat. For these reasons, one must weigh the advantages and
disadvantages of using a hydraulic system versus a mechanical system.

Our design is mainly focused to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages by


entirely new and innovative system for disc brakes. The main concept of our project is
derived from electronic wedge barking system. and few important outline of the EWB is
given below.

CHAPTER - 2
AIR BRAKING SYSTEM

FABRICATION OF THE
PROJECT

FABRICATION OF THE PROJECT

This project consists of

1) DCV system

2) Pneumatic actuator unit


3) Two wheeler (TVS MOPED)

2.PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR UNIT;

The brake lever is connected to the double acting cylinder which is


controlled by the 5/2 way solenoid operated directional control valve.
This cylinder has 12mm dia and 25mm stroke length.
3)Two wheeler (TVS MOPED)

To fabricate this brake set up


arranged.

a TVS CHAMP two wheeler moped is

WORKING PRINCIPLE

WORKING PRINCIPLE
This project consists of

1) AIR control system


2) Pneumatic actuator unit
3) Two wheeler (TVS MOPED)

2.5.1. ADVANTAGES

2.5.1. ADVANTAGES

1. Brake cost will be less


2. Free from wear adjustments
3. Less power consumption
4. Less skill technicians is sufficient to operate
5. Installation is simplified very much

Increased safety: improvement in maneuverability and stability of the


vehicle

More room and less weight: fewer components result in savings in terms
of space and weight
Flexibility and ease of maintenance

DISADVANTAGES

1. Need separate air tank

2. This brake system is costlier one.


3. Addition cost is required to install this system to four wheeler

APPLICATIONS

APPLICATIONS
1. Four wheeler application
2. It is also implemented in two wheeler

DESCRIPTION OF
PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS

DESCRIPTION OF PNEUMATIC COMPONENTS

1. Double acting air cylinder with piston arrangement.


2. Spool valve (2 position 5 ports valve)
3. Pneumatic fittings
a. Bulk head union
b. Flexible hoses
c. Air compressors

DOUBLE ACTING AIR CYLINDER WITH PISTON ARRANGEMENT:

It consists of a piston inside a cylindrical housing called a barrel. Attached to one


end of the piston is a rod which the rod end has one port. This rod end port is used for
entrance of air and extends outside one end of the cylinder. At another end is a port for
exit of air.
Double acting cylinder can be extended and retracted pneumatically. The smallest
bore size of a double acting cylinder is 1 1/8 inch. The piston, which is made of ductile
Iron, contains u-cup packing to seal against leakage

between the piston and barrel. The ports are located in the end caps, which are secured
to the barrel by bolts and nuts.

SPOOL VALVE:
The spool is rod in 5/2 values, so that 5/2 valve is called spool
valve. It used to change the path of flow of air.

DIRECTING CONTROL VALVES:


A direction control valve is used to change the direction of airflow as and when
required by the system for reversing the machine tool devices. A direction control valve
may be classified, according to the construction of the internal moving parts, as

1. Rotary spool Type.


2. Sliding Spool Type.
3. Solenoid operated valves

SOLENOID OPERATED VALVES:


Solenoid valves are electromechanical devices like relays and contractors. A
solenoid valve is used to obtain mechanical movement in machinery by utilizing fluid or
air pressure. The fluid or air pressure is applied to the cylinder piston through a valve
operated by a cylindrical electrical coil. The electrical coil along with its frame and
plunger is known as the solenoid and the assembly of solenoid and mechanical valve is
known as solenoid valve.

The solenoid valve is thus another important

electromechanical device used in control of machines. Solenoid valves are of two types,
1. Single solenoid spring return operating valve,(5/2)
2. Double solenoid operating valve.

In fig 1 is shown a single solenoid spring return valve in its de-energized condition. The
symbol for the solenoid and the return are also shown. The solenoid valve is shown
connected to the cylinder to help readers understand
the solenoid valve action. In the de energized condition, the plunger and the valve spool
position as shown in figure 1.

5/2 WAY VALVE


In this position of spool, port P is connected to port A and port B is connected to tank or
exhaust (i.e. atmosphere) if air is used. Spring pressure (S) keeps the spool in this
condition
as long
is

as the coil

de

energized. Fluid pressure from port P through port A is applied to the left side of the
cylinder piston. Thus the cylinder piston moves in the right direction. Now
when the solenoid coil is energized, plunger is attracted and it pushes the spool against
spring pressure.
The new position of plunger and spool are shown in fig 2.

In this position of spool, port A gets connected to tank and port P gets connected to port
B. Thus pressure is applied to the cylinder piston from right and moves the piston rod to
the left. At the same time fluid in the other side is drained out to the tank. When the
solenoid coil is again de energized, the spring (S) will move the spool to its original
position as shown in figure 1. Thus, normally when the solenoid coil is de energized the
piston rod remains extended.

PNEUMATIC
FITTING

PNEUMATIC FITTINGS:
There are no nuts to tighten the tube to the fittings as in the conventional type of
metallic fittings. The tube is connected to the fitting by a simple push ensuring leak
proof connection and can be released by pressing the cap and does not require any
special tooling like spanner to connect (or) disconnect the tube from the fitting.

SPECIFICATION OF THE FITTING:


Body Material

- Plastic

Collect/Thread Nipple

- Brass

Seal

- Nitrate Rubber

Fluid Used

- Air

Max. Operating Pressure

- 7 Bar

Tolerance on OD of the tubes

- 1 mm

Min. Wall thickness of tubes

- 1 mm.

FLEXIBLE HOSES:

The Pneumatic hoses, which is used when pneumatic components such as


actuators are subjected to movement. Hose is fabricated in layer of
Elastomer or synthetic rubber, which permits operation at high pressure. The standard
outside diameter of tubing is 1/16 inch. If the hose is subjected to rubbing, it should be
encased in a protective sleeve.

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

By doing this mini project we were able to understand the importance of


Coordination between the various departments in an manufacturing unit

This brake system offers ample scope for improvement By providing


intermittent force at the brake plate. One of the major aims to achieve is that
when the operator sees a brake force , that he needs to know immediately
strike him, implying that the designs simple and easily understandable. Such
was the case with AIR brake system. AIR Brake system are hailed as the
greatest mechanical contrivance.

REFERENCE

Henry Hartmann, Mat1in Shautt, Antonio Pascucci, Bernd Gombert.


"eBrake - the mechatronic wedge brake", SAE Technical Paper Series,
paper No. 2002-01-2582, 6pp, 2002.

Automotive Braking System , by Thomas W. birch.

Automotive Engineering Fundamentals by Richard Stone, Jeffrey K.


Ball
Siigmar Micke, Richard E. Thompson, Bernd-Holger Roehling (1990).
The introduction of Air Disc Brakes for Trucks end Buses in Europe, SAE
Technical Paper series, paper No. 902203.

Richard Roberts, Bernd Gombert, Hemy Hartmann, Dittmar Lange, &


Martin Schautt."Testing the Mechatronic Wedge Brake", SAE Technical
Paper Series, paper No.2004-0 1-2766, 9 pp, 2004.

The investigation of disc brake mechanisms. - Minsk Automotive Plant,


1999. -lIp.

COST ESTIMATION

COST ESTIMATION

1. BRAKE SYSTEM

-----------------

2000.00

2. AIR CYLINDER

1100.00

3. 5/2 WAY LEVER OPERATED DCV------4. Fabrication work

900.00

-----------------

1200.00

5. VALVE CONNECTORS-------5 NOS--

300.00

6. 6/4 POLYURETHANE TUBE ------2METER----------

200.00

7. Transport cost --------------------------------

300.00
_______________

Total

6000.00

_______________

PHOTO VIEW

PHOTO VIEW