37 views

Uploaded by Nguyen Huu Quan

- SM_GM_AKCD_L008
- SMC Addmath Mocks 2008
- Serres Chaos
- The Garden of Knowledge as a Knowledge Manifold.pdf
- MCR3U Exam Review 2013
- Sample Question Paper
- UNIVERSAL ARITHMETICK
- Geometry
- Numbers
- Math(F4)-Circle III 8.3
- JB_W9_DPP21_23
- Catiiolic Junior Collegt' 2oo8 Jci Promotional Examinations
- Finnish National Curriculum for Mathematics
- lessons 1-3
- no.docx
- 2.75-76
- Links
- lesspn plan3-8 2weebly
- lesspn plan3-8 2weebly
- First Periodical Exam of Math 8

You are on page 1of 35

ro

Inequalities Marathon

http://www.mathlinks.ro/viewtopic.php?t=299899

Author:

MathLink ers

Editor:

Hassan Al-Sibyani

October 4, 2009

alex2008

apratimdefermat

beautifulliar

bokagadha

Brut3Forc3

dgreenb801

Dimitris X

enndb0x

FantasyLover

geniusbliss

great math

hasan4444

keyree10

Mateescu Constantin

Maths Mechanic

Pain rinnegan

Potla

R.Maths

Rofler

saif

socrates

Virgil Nicula

List of names:

Name

Apratim De

Endrit Fejzullahu

Hassan Al-Sibyani

Hoang Quoc Viet

Mateescu Constantin

Raghav Grover

Toang Huc Khein

Popa Alexandru

Redwane Khyaoui

Sayan Mukherjee

Virgil Nicula

Mathlink User

apratimdefermat

enndb0x

hasan4444

great math

Mateescu Constantin

Maths Mechanic

Pain Rinnegan

alex2008

R.Maths

Potla

Virgil Nicula

Problem 1 India 2002 (Hassan Al-Sibyani): For any positive real numbers a, b, c show that the following

inequality holds

a b

c

c+a a+b

b+c

+ +

+

+

b

c a

c+b

a+c b+a

First Solution (Popa Alexandru): Ok. After not so many computations i got that:

a b

c

a+b

b+c

c+a

+ +

b

c a c+a a+b

b+c

2

b2

c2

a b

abc

a

c

+ 2+ 2

=

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) b2

c

a

b

c a

abc

bc

ca

ab

+

+

+

3

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) c2

a2

b2

a2 b2 c2

a b c

ab bc ca

So in order to prove the above inequality we need to prove 2 + 2 + 2 + + and 2 + 2 + 2 3

b

c

a

b c a

c

a

b

The second inequality is obvious by AM-GM , and the for the first we have:

b2

c2

a2

+ 2+ 2

2

b

c

a

2

3

a2

b2

c2

+ 2+ 2

2

b

c

a

c

a b

+ +

b

c a

2

a

b

c

where i used AM-GM and the inequality 3(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) (x + y + z)2 for x = , y = , z =

b

c

a

So the inequality is proved.

a

b

c

Second Solution (Raghav Grover): Substitute

= x, = y, = z So xyz = 1. The inequality after

b

c

a

substitution becomes

x2 z + y 2 x + z 2 x + x2 + y 2 + z 2 x + y + z + 3

x2 z + y 2 x + z 2 x 3 So now it is left to prove that x2 + y 2 + z 2 x + y + z which is easy.

Third Solution (Popa Alexandru): Bashing out it gives

a4 c2 + b4 a2 + c4 b2 + a3 b3 + b3 c3 + a3 c3 abc(ab2 + bc2 + ca2 + 3abc)

which is true because AM-GM gives :

a3 b3 + b3 c3 + a3 c3 3a2 b2 c2

and by Muirhead :

a4 c2 + b4 a2 + c4 b2 abc(ab2 + +bc2 + ca2 )

Fourth Solution (Popa Alexandru): Observe that the inequality is equivalent with:

X a2 + bc

3

a(a + b)

cyc

Now use AM-GM:

s Q

X a2 + bc

(a2 + bc)

Q

33

a(a + b)

abc (a + b)

cyc

So it remains to prove:

Y

Y

(a2 + bc) abc (a + b)

Now we prove

(a2 + bc)(b2 + ca) ab(c + a)(b + c) a3 + b3 ab2 + a2 b (a + b)(a b)2 0

Multiplying the similars we are done.

Problem 2 Maxim Bogdan (Popa Alexandru): Let a, b, c, d > 0 such that a b c d and abcd = 1 .

Then show that:

3

(a + 1)(d + 1) 3 + 3

4d

1

First Solution (Mateescu Constantin):From the condition a b c d we get that a 3 .

d

1

= (a + 1)(d + 1)

+

1

(d + 1)

3

d

1

3

Now lets prove that 1 + 3 (d + 1) 3 + 3

d

4d

3

This is equivalent with: (d3 + 1)(d + 1) 3d3 +

4

2

3

2

[d(d 1)] [d(d 1)] + 1 d(d 1) 21 0.

4

1

1

1+ 3

Equality holds for a = 3 and d(d 1) = 0 d =

d

2

2

Problem 3 Darij Grinberg (Hassan Al-Sibyani): If a, b, c are three positive real numbers, then

a

2

(b + c)

b

(c + a)

c

(a + b)

9

4 (a + b + c)

X

(a + b + c)2

a2

P

2

ab2 + ac2 + 2abc

sym a b + 6abc

So we only have to prove

X that:

X

X

4(a + b + c)3 9

a2 b + 54abc 4(a3 + b3 + c3 ) + 12

a2 b + 24abc 9

a2 b + 54abc

4(a3 + b3 + c3 ) + 3

sym

X

a2 b 30abc

sym

sym

sym

But

sym

So 4(a3 + b3 + c3 ) + 3

a2 b 30abc

sym

2

a

b

c

a

b

c

9

(a + b + c)

+

+

+

+

(b + c)2

(c + a)2

(a + b)2

b+c c+a a+b

4

Problem 4 United Kingdom (Dimitris X): For a, b, c 0 and a+b+c = 1 prove that 7(ab+bc+ca) 2+9abc

First Solution (Popa Alexandru):

Homogenize to

2(a + b + c)3 + 9abc 7(ab + bc + ca)(a + b + c)

Expanding it becomes :

X

a3 + 6

sym

a2 b + 21abc 7

sym

a2 b + 21abc

sym

X

a3

sym

a2 b

sym

which is obvious by

a3 + a3 + b3 3a2 b and similars.

Second Solution (Popa Alexandru): Schur gives 1 + 9abc 4(ab + bc + ca) and use also 3(ab + bc + ca)

(a + b + c)2 = 1 Suming is done .

Problem 5 Gheorghe Szollosy, Gazeta Matematica (Popa Alexandru): Let x, y, z R+ . Prove that:

p

x(y + 1) +

p

p

3p

y(z + 1) + z(x + 1)

(x + 1)(y + 1)(z + 1)

2

First Solution (Endrit Fejzullahu): Dividing with the square root on the RHS we have :

r

r

r

3

x

y

z

+

+

(x + 1)(z + 1)

(x + 1)(y + 1)

(y + 1)(z + 1)

2

By AM-GM

r

1

x

(x + 1)(z + 1)

2

1

x

+

x+1 y+1

y

1

(x + 1)(y + 1)

2

y

1

+

y+1 x+1

z

1

(y + 1)(z + 1)

2

z

1

+

z+1 y+1

Summing we obtain

1

LHS

2

x

1

+

x+1 x+1

+

y

1

+

y+1 y+1

+

z

1

+

z+1 z+1

1 1 1

4a

4b

4c

+ + 2

+ 2

+ 2

2

2

2

2

a b

c

2a + b + c

a + 2b + c

a + b2 + 2c2

3

2

First Solution (Mateescu Constantin): By AM GM we have 2a2 + b2 + c2 4a bc

4a

1

4a

=

=

2a2 + b2 + c2

4a bc

bc

1

1

1

Addind the similar inequalities = RHS + + (1)

ca

ab

bc

2

2

1 1 1

1

1

1

Using Cauchy-Schwarz we have + +

+ +

a b

c

ca

ab

bc

1

1

1

1 1 1

So + + + + (2)

a b

c

ca

ab

bc

From (1), (2) we obtain the desired result .

Second Solution (Popa Alexandru): By Cauchy-Schwatz :

a

a

4a

2

+ 2

2a2 + b2 + c2

a + b2

a + c2

Then we have

RHS

X 1

X a+b

X 2

1

+

= LHS

a2 + b2

a+b

2a 2b

cyc

cyc

cyc

c + d + e = 5 . Prove that:

abc + bcd + cde + dea + eab 5

First Solution (Popa Alexandru): Assume e min{a, b, c, d}. Then AM-GM gives :

e(c + a)(b + d) + bc(a + d e)

e(5 e)2

(5 2e)2

+

5

4

27

(e 1)2 (e + 8) 0

Problem 8 Popa Alexandru (Popa Alexandru): Let a, b, c be real numbers such that 0 a b c .

Prove that:

(a + b)(c + a)2 6abc

b = xa , c = yb = xya x, y 1

Then:

(a + b)(a + c)2

2abc

3

(x + 1)(xy + 1)2 a3 6x2 ya3

(x + 1)(4xy + (xy 1)2 ) 6x2 y

4xy + (xy 1)2 x + (xy 1)2 2x2 y 0

We have that:

4xy + (xy 1)2 x + (xy 1)2 2x2 y

4xy + 2(xy 1)2 2x2 y( because x 1)

= 2x2 y 2 + 2 2x2 y = 2xy(y 1) + 2 > 0

done.

Second Solution (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let b = a + x, c = b + y = a + x + y,sure x, y 0

Inequality becomes

(2a + x)(x + y + 2a)2 6a(a + x)(a + x + y) 0

But

(2a + x)(x + y + 2a)2 6a(a + x)(a + x + y) = 2a3 + 2a2 y + 2axy + 2ay 2 + x3 + 2x2 y + xy 2

which is clearly positive.

b

c

d

a

+

+

+

2

b+c c+d d+a a+b

(a + b + c + d)2

From andreescu LHS X

ab + (ac + bd)

sym

(a + b + c + d)2 2

sym

that:

a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 8

a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 2(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) = 8

because a, b, c, d 2

Problem 11 (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that abc = 1 .Prove that

X

cyc

1

1

a2 + 2b2 + 3

2

LHS =

X

cyc

X

1

1

(a2 + b2 ) + (b2 + 1) + 2

2ab

+

2b + 2

cyc

=

because

1X

1

1

=

2 cyc ab + b + 1

2

1

1

1

ab

1

=

=

=

bc + c + 1

bc + c + abc

c ab + b + 1

ab + b + 1

and

1

=

ca + a + 1

so

X

cyc

1

b

1

b

=

ab + b + 1

+a+1

1

1

ab

b

=

+

+

=1

ab + b + 1

ab + b + 1 ab + b + 1 ab + b + 1

Problem 12 Popa Alexandru (Popa Alexandru): Let a, b, c > 0 such that a + b + c = 1. Prove that:

15

1+a+b 1+b+c 1+c+a

+

+

2+c

2+a

2+b

7

X1+a+b

X 3 + (a + b + c)

X 4

15

36

36

+1

+ 3

2+c

7

2+c

7

2+c

7

X 22

(2 + 2 + 2)2

36

But

=

2+c

2+2+2+a+b+c

7

Second Solution (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a b c then by Chebyshevs inequality we have

X 1

1

5X 1

LHS (1 + 1 + 1 + 2(a + b + c))

=

3

2+a

3 cyc 2 + a

cyc

X 1

9

15

By Titus Lemma

, then LHS

2

+

a

7

7

cyc

Problem 13 Titu Andreescu, IMO 2000 (Dimitris X): Let a, b, c be positive so that abc = 1

1

1

1

a1+

b1+

c1+

1

b

c

a

First Solution

(Endrit Fejzullahu):

1

1

1

a1+

b1+

c1+

1

b

c

a

x

y

Substitute a = , b =

y

z

Inequality

isequivalent with

x

z y

x z

y

1

1+

1+

1+

y

y

z

z

x

x

(x + z y)(y z + x)(z x + y) xyz

WLOG ,Let x > y > z, then x + z > y, x + y > z.If y + z < x, then we are done because

(x + z y)(y z + x)(z x + y) 0 and xyz 0

Otherwise if y + z > x , then x, y, z are side lengths of a triangle ,and then we can make the substitution

x = m + n, y = n + t and z = t + m

Inequality is equivalent with

8mnt (m+ n)(n + t)(t +

m), this is true byAM-GM

m + n 2 mn, n + t 2 nt and t + m 2 tm, multiply and were done.

Problem 14 Korea 1998 (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a, b, c > 0 and a + b + c = abc. Prove that:

1

a2

+1

1

1

3

+

2

2

+1

c +1

b2

1

1

1

, b = , c = the condition becomes xy + yz + zx = 1, and the

x

y

z

inequality:

X

x

3

2

2

x +1

X

Xr x

X

x

x

x

p

But

=

=

2

2

x+yx+z

x +1

x + xy + xz + zy

x

x

r

+

x

x

x+y x+z

But

x+yx+z

2

y

x

z

y

z

x

r

+

+

+

+

+

X

x

x

3

x+y x+y z+x z+x y+z

z+y

So

=

x+yx+z

2

2

Second Solution (Raghav Grover):

Substitute a = tan x,b = tan y and c = tan z where x + y + z =

And we are left to prove

cos x + cos y + cos z 32

Which i think is very well known..

Third Solution (Endrit Fejzullahu): By AM-GM we have a + b + c 3 3 abc and since a + b + c = abc =

(abc)2 27

We rewrite the given inequality

as

1

1

1

1

1

+

+

3 a2 + 1 b2 + 1 c2 + 1

2

+1

1

1

1

a+b+c

abc

1

1

f (a) + f (b) + f (c) f

=f

=q

2

3

3

3

3

3

2

(abc)

+1

32

a2

If a, b, c R and a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. Find the minimum value of A = ab + bc + ca 3(a + b + c).

First Solution (Endrit Fejzullahu):

(a + b + c)2 3

(a + b + c)2 a2 b2 c2

=

ab + bc + ca =

2

2

Let a + b + c = x

2

x

3

Then A =

3x

2

2

x2

3

We consider the second degree fuction f (x) =

3x

2

2

b

We obtain minimum for f

= f (3) = 6

2a

Then Amin = 6 ,it is attained for a = b = c = 1

Problem 16 (Endrit Fejzullahu): If a, b, c are positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 1.Prove

that

r

a

b

c

3

+

2

c+a

b+c

a+b

x

First Solution (keyree10): Let f (x) =

. f (x) > 0

1x

X

1

3s

a+b+c

a

= , by jensens.

Therefore,

,where s =

3

3

1a

1s r

b

3

a

c

+

. Hence proved

=

+

2

c+a

b+c

a+b

Second Solution (geniusbliss):

By

holders inequality,

X

X

X

a

a

a(b + c) (a + b + c)3

1

1

2

2

(b

+

c)

(b

+

c)

cyclic

cyclic

cyclic

thus,

cyclic

2

a

(b + c)

1

2

(a + b + c)2

3(ab + bc + ca)

3

=

2(ab + bc + ca)

2(ab + bc + ca)

2

or,

a

b

c

+

+

c+a

b+c

a+b

3

2

a

b

c

1

+

+

(a + b + c)

3

c

+

a

b+c

a+b

1

1

1

+

+

c

+

a

b+c

a+b

f (x) =

1

x

1

1

=

LHS 3 q

3

2

(a

+

b

+

c)

3

3

2

a + b + c 2abc 2

Use Cauchy-Schwartz:

LHS = a(1 2bc) + (b + c)

p

(a2 + (b + c)2 )((1 2bc)2 + 1)

(a2 + (b + c)2 )((1 2bc)2 + 1) 2 (1 + 2bc)(1 bc + 2b2 c2 ) 1 4b2 c2 1

which is true because

1 b2 + c2 2bc

done

Problem 18 (Popa Alexandru): Let x, y, z > 0 such that xyz = 1 . Show that:

x2 + y 2 + z 2 + x + y + z 2(xy + yz + zx)

First Solution (great math): To solve the problem of alex, we need Schur and Cauchy inequality as demonstrated as follow

p

3

a + b + c 3 abc = 3 (abc)2

9abc

2(ab + bc + ca) (a2 + b2 + c2 )

a+b+c

(a2 + b2 + c2 )(a + b + c) + 9abc 2(ab + bc + ca)(a + b + c)

Therefore, needless to say, we complete our proof here.

Problem 19 Hoang Quoc Viet (Hoang Quoc Viet): Let a, b, c be positive reals satisfying a2 + b2 + c2 = 3.

Prove that

(abc)2 (a3 + b3 + c3 ) 3

10

A = (abc)2 (a3 + b3 + c3 )

Therefore, we only need to maximize the following expression

A3 = (abc)6 (a3 + b3 + c3 )3

Using Cauchy inequality as follows, we get

3

1

A = 6 3a2 b 3a2 c 3b2 a 3b2 c 3c2 a 3c2 b a3 + b3 + c3

3

3

3(a2 + b2 + c2 )(a + b + c)

9

9

a+b+c

3(a2 + b2 + c2 ) = 3

Therefore,

A3 33

which leads to A 3 as desired. The equality case happens a = b = c = 1

Second Solution (FantasyLover):

For the sake of convenience, let us introduce the new unknowns u, v, w as follows:

u=a+b+c

v = ab + bc + ca

w = abc

2

9 u2

.

2

9 u2

2

We are to prove that w u

+ 3w 3.

2

a+b+c

u3

3

By AM-GM, we have abc

= w 3 .

3

3

2

u9

7 9u

+ 2 37 .

Hence, it suffices to prove that u

2

3

r

a+b+c

a2 + b2 + c2

However, by QM-AM we have

= u 3

3

3

6

2

7u (9 u )

differentiating, u achieves its maximum when

= 0.

2

Since a, b, c are positive, u cannot be 0, and the only possible value for u is 3.

Since u 3, the above inequality is true.

Problem 20 Murray Klamkin, IMO 1983 (Hassan Al-Sibyani): Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides

of a triangle. Prove that:

a2 b(a b) + b2 c(b c) + c2 a(c a) 0

11

inequality becomes :

y2

z2

x2

+

+

x+y+z ,

y

z

x

true by Cauchy-Schwartz.

Second Solution (geniusbliss): we know from triangle inequality that b (a c) and c (b a) and

a (c b)

therefore,

a2 b(a b) + b2 c(b c) + c2 a(c a) a2 (a c)(a b) + b2 (b a)(b c) + c2 (c b)(c a) 0

and the last one is schurs inequality for r = 2 so proved with the equality holding when a = b = c or for

and equilateral triangle

Problem 21 Popa Alexandru (Popa Alexandru): Let x, y, z

1

xyz +

1 2

,

. Show that :

3 3

2

3(x + y + z)

2

2

3(x + y + z)

9

2

1 2

1

Since x, y, z

,

,then 3 xyz

3 3

3

3

2

1

2

2

3

Let a = xyz ,then a +

1 9a 9a + 2 0 9 a

a

0 ,were done since

9a

3

3

1

2

a

3

3

Problem 22 Endrit Fejzullahu (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a, b, c be side lengths of a triangle,and is the

angle between a and c.Prove that

2 3c sin a

b2 + c2

>

a2

b+c

ac sin

a2 + b2 + c2 4 3S and S =

2

Then

2

2

2

b + c 2 3ac sin a ,dividing by a2 , we have

b2 + c2

2 3c sin a

2

a

a

b2 + c2

2 3c sin a

2 3c sin a

Since a < b + c =

>

a2

a

b+c

12

Problem 23 Dinu Serbanescu, Junior TST 2002, Romania (Hassan Al-Sibyani): If a, b, c (0, 1) Prove

that:

p

.

Since a, b, c (0, 1), let us have a = sin2 A, b = sin2 B, c = sin2 C where A, B, C 0,

2

Then, we are to prove that sin A sin B sin C + cos A cos B cos C < 1.

Now noting that sin C, cos C < 1, we have sin A sin B sin C + cos A cos B cos C < sin A sin B + cos A cos B =

cos(A B) 1.

Second Solution (Popa Alexandru): Cauchy-Schwartz and AM-GM works fine :

p

p

abc + (1 a) (1 b) (1 c) = a bc + 1 a (1 b) (1 c)

p

p

p

a + (1 a) bc + (1 b) (1 c) = bc + (1 b) (1 c) < 1

abc +

(1 a)(1 b)(1 c)

a + bc 1 a + (1 b)(1 c)

+

2

2

a + bc 1 a + (1 b)(1 c)

+

1

So we only need to prove that

2

2

1 1

+ 2 which is true since a, b [0, 1]

b

c

Problem 24 (FantasyLover): For all positive real numbers a, b, c, prove the following:

1

1

a+1

1

b+1

1

c+1

1

1

a

1

b

1

c

1

3

inequality becomes :

9 + 3r

3(p + q + r + 1)

pq + 2q 2 6pr + 9r

2p + q + r

q

which is true because is well-known that pq 9r and q 2 3pr

Second Solution (Endrit Fejzullahu): After expanding the inequality is equivalent with :

1

1

1

1 1 1 1

1

1

1

+

+

+ +

+

+

a(a + 1) b(b + 1) c(c + 1)

3 a b

c

a+1 b+1 c+1

This is true by Chebyshevs inequality , so were done .

13

Problem 25 Mihai Opincariu (Popa Alexandru): Let a, b, c > 0 such that abc = 1 . Prove that :

a2

ab

bc

ca

+ 2

+

1

2

2

2

+ b + c b + c + a c + a2 + b

We have a2 + b2 + c 2ab + c =

X

Hence, it suffices to prove that

2

2

c

c.

1

a

X

1

1.

=

2

+

a a

+

a

cyc a

cyc

Reducing to a common denominator, we prove that

X

1

4(a a + b b + c c) + ab ab + bc bc + ca ca + 12

=

2+a a

4(a a + b b + c c) + 2(ab ab + bc bc + ca ca) + 9

cyc

.

ca 3.

p

3

Applying AM-GM, we have ab ab + bc bc + ca ca 3 a2 b2 c2 a2 b2 c2 = 3, and we are done.

Second Solution (Popa Alexandru):

LHS

X

cyc

X

X 1

ab

1

=

=

2+

2ab + c

2+c c

cyc

cyc

x

y

RHS

Problem 26 Korea 2006 First Examination (FantasyLover): x, y, z are real numbers satisfying the condition 3x + 2y + z = 1. Find the maximum value of

1

1

1

+

+

1 + |x| 1 + |y| 1 + |z|

.

First Solution (dgreenb801):

We can assume x,y, and z are all positive, because if one was negative we could just make it positive, which

would allow us to lessen the other two variables, making the whole sum larger.

Let 3x = a, 2y = b, z = c, then a + b + c = 1 and we have to maximize

2

1

3

+

+

a+3 b+2 c+1

Note that

3

3

1

a2 c + ac2 + 6ac + 6c

+1

+

=

0

a+c+3

a+3 c+1

(a + 3)(c + 1)(a + c + 3)

So for fixed a + c, the sum is maximized when c = 0.

We can apply the same reasoning to show the sum is maximized when b = 0.

11

So the maximum occurs when a = 1, b = 0, c = 0, and the sum is

.

4

14

1

1

1

3

+

+

1 + abc

for all positive reals.

AM-GM works :

(1 + abc) LHS + 3 =

X 1 + abc + a + ab

cyc

a + ab

X 1+a

X b(c + 1)

3

3

+

+ 3 abc 6

3

ab + a cyc b + 1

abc

cyc

Problem 28 Junior TST 2007, Romania (Popa Alexandru): Let a, b, c > 0 such that ab + bc + ca = 3.

Show that :

1

1

1

1

+

+

1 + a2 (b + c) 1 + b2 (c + a) 1 + c2 (a + b)

abc

Then 1 + 3a abc 3a

Then

X

1

1 1 1 1

1

ab + bc + ca

+ +

=

=

1 + 3a abc

3 a b

c

3abc

abc

Problem 29 Lithuania 1987 (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a, b, c be positive real numbers .Prove that

a3

b3

c3

a+b+c

+

+

2

2

2

2

2

2

a + ab + b

b + bc + c

c + ca + a

3

X

X

a3

a4

(a2 + b2 + c2 )2

=

a2 + ab + b2

a3 + a2 b + ab2

a3 + b3 + c3 + a2 b + ab2 + b2 c + bc2 + c2 a + ca2

a+b+c

This is

if

3

(a4 + b4 + c4 ) + 2(a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 a2 ) (a3 b + a3 c + b3 a + b3 c + c3 a + c3 b) + (a2 bc + ab2 c + abc2 )

This is equivalent to

(a2 + b2 + c2 )(a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca) 0

Which is true as a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca 0 (a b)2 + (b c)2 + (c a)2 0

Second Solution (Popa Alexandru):

Since :

a2

a3 b3

=ab

+ ab + b2

15

X

cyc

X

b3

1 X a3 + b3

a3

=

=

.

a2 + ab + b2

a2 + ab + b2

2 cyc a2 + ab + b2

cyc

1

a+b

a3 + b3

2

2 a + ab + b2

6

which is trivial .

3a2 +b2

ab

3b2 +c2

bc

3c2 +a2

ca

6 3

Lets make use of Cauchy-Schwarz as demonstrated as follows

p

(3a2 + b2 )(3 + 1)

3a + b

2ab

2ab

Thus, we have the following estimations

X

cyc

3a2 + b2

2

ab

1 1 1

+ +

a b

c

X1

3 3

a

cyc

1

abc

3 3

and

r

X1

1

3

3

3 3

a

abc

cyc

Problem 31 Komal Magazine (Hoang Quoc Viet): Let a, b, c be real numbers. Prove that the following inequality holds

(a2 + 2)(b2 + 2)(c2 + 2) 3(a + b + c)2

1

3

(a2 + 2)(b2 + 2) = (a2 + 1)(1 + b2 ) + a2 + b2 + 3 (a + b)2 + (a + b)2 + 3 = ((a + b)2 + 2)

2

2

And Cauchy-Schwartz again

(a2 + 2)(b2 + 2)(c2 + 2)

3

3

((a + b)2 + 2)(2 + c2 ) ( 2(a + b) + 2c)2 = RHS

2

2

16

b2

b

c

1

a

+

+

2

2

1 + 3abc

+ 3c

c + 3a

a + 3b

Using Holders inequality

!2

X

X

a

2 + 3c

b

cyc

cyc

It is enoughX

to prove that

1 + 3abc

a(b2 + 3c)

cyc

Homogenise (a + b + c)3 =

1,

X

X

Also after Homogenising

a(b2 + 3c) = a2 b + b2 c + c2 a + 9abc + 3

a2 b

3

cyc

3

(a + b + c) = a + b + c + 6abc + 3

sym

a b

sym

a3 + b3 + c3 a2 b + b2 c + c2 a

By AM-GM

a3 + a3 + b3 3a2 b

b3 + b3 + c3 3b2 c

c3 + c3 + a3 3c2 a

Then a3 + b3 + c3 a2 b + b2 c + c2 a ,done

Second Solution (manlio):

by holder.

P

P

(LHS)2 ( a(b2 + ac) ( a)3

so it suffices to prove

1

1

P

a(b2 + 3c)

1 + 3abc

that

P 3is P 2

a

ab true by AM-GM

Third Solution (Apartim De):

f (t) = 1t ; f 0 (t) < 0; f 00 (t) > 0

Using Jensen with weights a, b, c, we have

af (b2 + 3c) + bf (c2 + 3a) + cf (a2 + 3b) f (ab2 + bc2 + ca2 + 3ab + 3bc + 3ca)

Now,

p

By Holder, (a3 + b3 + c3 ) = 3 (a3 + b3 + c3 )(b3 + c3 + a3 )(b3 + c3 + a3 ) ab2 + bc2 + ca2

Again,

P 2

3(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) + 3abc = 9abc + 3

a b = 3(a + b + c)(ab + bc + ca) = 3(ab + bc + ca)

sym

1 + 3abc = (a + b + c)3 + 3abc > ab2 + bc2 + ca2 + 3ab + 3bc + 3ca

f (ab2 + bc2 + ca2 + 3ab + 3bc + 3ca) > f (1 + 3abc)

QED

17

s

a2 + b2

b2 + c 2

c2 + d2

54a

+

+

3

2

2

2

ab + b

bc + c

cd + d

(a + d)

( a )2 + 1

Write the LHS as ba

+ two other similar termsfeel lazy to write them down. This is a beautiful appli(b) + 1

2

t1

t2 + 1

0.

is convex since

cation of Jensens as the function for positve real t such that f (t) =

t+1

t+1

P a d 2

(

ba

+1

3

Thus, we get that LHS P a d

b a +3

a b

c

I would like to write + + = K for my convenience with latexing.

c d

b

K 2

9

)

+

1

K

+K

6

=

so we have 3

3

3

K +3

1+ K

1+ K

9

This is from K +

6 by AM GM.

K

13

Xa d

d

by AM GM.

Now K =

3

b

a

a

1

1

1

6

6a 3

3a 3

54a 3

Thus, we have

=

1

1

1

3

a+d

a+d 3

1+ K

a3 + d3

2

Problem 34 (Raghav Grover): If a and b are non negative real numbers such that a b. Prove

that

1

a+

3

b(a b)

If a 3 the problem is obviously true.

Now for a < 3 we have :

a2 b ab2 3ab + 3b2 + 1 0 ba2 (b2 + 3b)a + 3b2 + 1 0

It suffices to prove that D 0 b4 + 6b3 + 9b2 12b3 4b b(b 1)2 (b 4) 0 which is true.

1

1

a+

= b + (a b) +

3 by AM-GM

b(a b)

b(a b)

Third Solution (geniusbliss):

p

since a b we have a2 b(a b) square this and substitute in this denominator we get,

a a

4

+ +

3 by AM-GM so done.

2 2 a2

18

2

First Solution (Popa Alexandru): Denote a+b

2 = x , ... , then the inequality becomes :

X

X

xy(x3 + y 3 )

x2 y 2 (x + y)

cyc

cyc

X

cyc

abc

1

a

1

b

1

c

3(a + b + c)

1

1

1

abc ab + bc + ca = abc abc

a + b + c =

By Am-Gm

(ab + bc + ca)2 3abc(a + b+ c)

Since ab + bc + ca = abc abc, wehave

p

(abc) 3 3abc(a + b + c) = abc 3(a + b + c)

Problem 37 Pham Kim Hung (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a, b, c, d be positive real numbers satisfying

a + b + c + d = 4.Prove that

1

1

1

1

1

+

+

+

2

2

2

2

11 + a

11 + b

11 + c

11 + d

3

6(x2 11

1

00

3 )

f (x) =

f

(x)

=

2

2

3

11 + x

(11 + x )!

r !

r

11

11

11

(x2 ) = x

x+

3

3

3

r

r !

11

11

If x

,

, f 00 (x) < 0

3

3

19

r

Thus within the interval

11

,

3

11

3

!

, the quadratic polynomial is negative

r

00

r

Let a b c d . If all of a, b, c, d

0,

11

3

2x

3

(11 + x2 )

11

3

!

.

!

,

f 0 (x) =

11

,

3

a+b+c+d

4

= 4f (1) =

4

1

=

12

3

r

11

3

In that case,

f (a) + f (b) + f (c) + f (d) < f (a 1) + f (b 1) + f (c 3) + f (d 3) < 4f

a+b+c+d8

4

= 4f (1) =

QED

Problem 38 Crux Mathematicorum (Apartim De): Let R, r, s be the circumradius, inradius, and

semiperimeter, respectively, of an acute-angled triangle. Prove or disprove that

s2 2R2 + 8Rr + 3r2

.

When does equality occur?

2

a + b2 + c2 = 2 p2 r2 4Rr (1)

2

2

2

4S = b + c a tan A

(2)

. ThereProof. Ill use the remarkable linear-angled identities

sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C = 2S2

(3)

R

cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + r

(4)

R

fore,

2

P

2

X

X

X cos A

X cos2 A C.B.S.

1 + Rr

( cos A) (3)(4)

2

2

2

2 (2)

a =

b +c a

= 4S

= 8S

8S P

= 8S

=

2S

sin A

sin 2A

sin 2A

R2

(1)

= 4(R+r)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 4(R + r)2 = 2 p2 r2 4Rr 4(R+r)2 = p2 2R2 + 8Rr + 3r2 .

Problem 39 Russia 1978 (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let 0 < a < b and xi [a, b].Prove that

1

1

1

n2 (a + b)2

(x1 + x2 + ... + xn )

+

+ ... +

x1

x2

xn

4ab

20

4

1

=

12

3

We will prove that if a1 , a2 , . . . , an [a, b](0 < a < b) then

1

1

1

(a + b)2 2

(a1 + a2 + + an )

+

+ +

n

a1

a2

an

4ab

1

1

1

a1

a2

an c

c

c

P = (a1 + a2 + + an )

+

+ +

=

+

+ +

+

+ +

a1

a2

an

c

c

c

a1

a2

an

2

c

a2

c

an

c

1 a1

+

+

+

+ +

+

4 c

a1

c

a2

c

an

c t

Function f (t) = + have its maximum on [a, b] in a or b. We will choose c such that f (a) = f (b), c = ab.

c

r t r

a

b

Then f (t)

+

. Then

b

a

P n

a

+

b

b

b

a

!2

1

(a + b)2

= n2

4

4ab

81abc (a2 + b2 + c2 ) (a + b + c)5

81abc(a2 + b2 + c2 ) 27

(ab + bc + ca)2 2

(a + b2 + c2 ) (a + b + c)5

a+b+c

p6 27q 2 p2 + 54q 3 0 (p2 3q)2 0

Problem 41 mateforum.ro (Popa Alexandru): Let a, b, c > 0 such that a3 + b3 + 3c = 5 . Prove that :

r

r

r

a+b

b+c

c+a

1 1 1

+

+

+ +

2c

2a

2b

a b

c

a3 + 1 + 1 +b3 + 1 + 1+ 3c = 9 3a + 3b + 3c = a + b + c 3(AM-GM)

a+b+c

Also abc

= 1(AM-GM)

3

21

"

#2

r

X

X a+b

1

(a + b + c)

2c

a

X1 X

It is left to prove that

a

a

X1

But this =

3

a

Which is perfextly

true,

as from AM-GM on the LHS;

r

X1

1

3

3

3 [ abc 1]

a

abc

ways have:

X

1

1

=

Then we ala2 + 1

2

1

1

a3 + 2

3

a3 + a3 + 1 3a2 = a3 + a3 + 1 + 3 3a2 + 3 =

1

1

1 X 1

3(a2 + 1)

2(a3 + 2)

3

a3 + 2

Problem 43 Russia 2002 (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a, b, c be positive real numbers with sum 3.Prove

that

a + b + c ab + bc + ca

2(ab + bc + ca) = 9 (a2 + b2 + c2 )

as a + X

b + c = 9. Hence the inequality

a 9 (a2 + b2 + c2 )

= 2

X

=

(a2 + a + a) 9

Perfectly

true

from AGM as :

a2 + a + a 3a

Problem 44 India 2002 (Raghav Grover): For any natural number n prove that

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

+ 2

+ .... + 2

+

2

n +1 n +2

n +n

2 2n

22

Pn

n

n

X

X

k

3(n2 + n)

k

1

k2

k=1 P

P

=

=

>

n

n

2

2

2

2

2

2

n +k

n k+k

2(3n + 2n + 1)

2

n

k=1 k +

k=1 k

k=1

k=1

For the 2nd part;

X

X 1

X k

X 1

n2

=

1 2

= n n2

and then use AM-HM for

So we get the desired

2

2

n +k

n +k

n +k

n2 + k

result.

P =

X a2 b2

cyc

c2

ab

bc

ca

Let x = , y = andz =

c

a

b

Then Obviously By Am-Gm

x2 + y 2 + z 2 xy + yz + zx = a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 ,then Pmin = 1

Problem 46 (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 3 .Prove

that

a2

b2

c2

+

+

1

a + 2b2

b + 2c2

c + 2a2

a2

a2 + 2ab2 2ab2

a(a + 2b2 )

2ab2

2

3

=

=

a

a2 b2

2

2

2

2

a + 2b

a + 2b

a + 2b

a + 2b

3

Suming the similars we need to prove :

a 2 b2 +

b2 c 2 +

c2 a2 3

By AM-GM :

X

3

cyc

a2 b2

X 2ab + 1

cyc

1

=

3

!

2

ab + 3

cyc

:

a

b

c

a

b

c

+

+

+

+

b+c c+a a+b

(b + c)2

(c + a)2

(a + b)2

23

3

2

. Prove that

First Solution:

WLOG a b c

Then By Chebyshevs

inequality we have

1

1

1

1

+

+

RHS LHS

3

a+b b+c c+a

It is enough to show that

1

1

1

+

+

3

a+b b+c c+a

By Cauchy Schwartz

1

1

1

9

3

+

+

3 a + b + c , done

a+b b+c c+a

2(a + b + c)

2

Problem 48 USAMO 2003 (Hassan Al-Sibyani): Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that:

(2b + a + c)2

(2c + a + b)2

(2a + b + c)2

+

+

8

2a2 + (b + c)2

2b2 + (a + c)2

2c2 + (a + b)2

Suppose a + b + c = 3

The inequality is equivalent with :

(a + 3)2

(b + 3)2

(c + 3)2

+ 2

+ 2

8

2

2

+ (3 a)

2b + (3 b)

2c + (3 c)2

2a2

For this we prove :

(a + 3)2

4

4

a + 3(4a + 3)(a 1)2 0

+ (3 a)2

3

3

2a2

done.

Problem 49 Marius Mainea (Popa Alexandru): Let x, y, z > 0 such that x + y + z = xyz. Prove

that :

x+y

y+z

z+x

27

+

+

1 + z2

1 + x2

1 + y2

2xyz

x+y y+z

z+x

(x + y)2

(y + z)2

(z + x)2

((x + y) + (y + z) + (z + x))2

P

+

+

=

+

+

=

2

2

2

2

2

2

1+z

1+x 1+y

x + y + (x + y)z

y + z + (y + z)x z + x + (z + x)y

2(x + y + z) + x2 (y + z)

4(x + y + z)2

4(x + y + z)2

27

1

27

P 2

= Q

4(x + y + z)2

=

3

2xyz + x (y + z)

(x + y)

8 (x + y + z)

2xyz

24

p

p

p

abc(a + a2 + 1)(b + b2 + 1)(c + c2 + 1) 1

2+1=

2 + ab + bc + ca =

First Solution (dgreenb801):

Note

that

a

a

(a + b)(a + c)

p

2

Also, by Cauchy, (a + (a + b)(a + c)) (a + (a + b))(a + (a + c)) = (2a + b)(2a + c)

So after squaring both sides of the inequality, we have to show

1 = (ab + bc + ca)6 a2 b2 c2 (2a + b)(2a + c)(2b + a)(2b + c)(2c + a)(2c + b) =

(2ac + bc)(2ab + bc)(2bc + ac)(2ab + ac)(2cb + ab)(2ca + ab)

, which is true by AM-GM.

Problem 51 Asian Pacific Mathematics Olympiad (dgreenb801): Let a, b, c > 0 such that abc = 8.

Prove that:

a2

b2

c2

4

p

+p

+p

3

(1 + a3 )(1 + b3 )

(1 + b3 )(1 + c3 )

(1 + c3 )(1 + a3 )

First Solution (Popa Alexandru): By AM-GM :

p

Then we have :

X

cyc

a3 + 1

a2 + 2

.

2

X

a2

a2

p

4

(a2 + 2) (b2 + 2)

(a3 + 1) (b3 + 1)

cyc

So we need to prove

X

cyc

a2

1

.

2

2

(a + 2) (b + 2)

3

a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 a2 + 2(a2 + b2 + c2 ) 72.

, true by AM-GM

Problem 52 Lucian Petrescu (Popa Alexandru): Prove that in any acute-angled triangle ABC we have :

a+b

b+c

c+a

+

+

4(a + b + c)

cos C

cos A cos B

ab(a + b)

bc(b + c)

ca(c + a)

+ 2

+ 2

2(a + b + c)

2

2

2

2

+b c

b +c a

c + a2 b2

a2

25

or

X

a(

cyclic

a2

c2

b2

+ 2

) 2(a + b + c)

2

2

+b c

c + a2 b2

X

a(

cyclic

a2

X

b2

c2

(b + c)2

+ 2

)

a 2

2

2

2

2

2

+b c

c +a b

(a + b c2 ) + (c2 + a2 b2 )

or

X

a(

cyclic

a2

X (b + c)2

c2

b2

+ 2

)

2

2

2

2

+b c

c +a b

2a

X (b + c)2

2a

2(a + b + c)

Second Solution (Mateescu Constantin):

From the law of cosinus we have a = b cos C + c cos Band c = b cos A + a cos B .

a+c

b(cos A + cos C)

=

=a+c+

= a + c + 2R tan B(cos A + cos C) . Then:

B

cosX

B

X acos

+c

= 2(a + b + c) + 2R

tan B (cos A + cos C) and the inequality becomes:

cos B

X

X

X

2R

tan B(cos A + cos C) 2

a = 4R

sin A

X

X

X

X

tan B cos A +

tan B cos C 2

sin A = 2

tan A cos A

Wlog

assume

that

A

C

.

Then

cos

A

cos

B

cos

C and tan A tan B tan C, so

X

X

P

P

tan A cos A

tan B cos A and

tan A cos A tan B cos C, according to rearrangement inequality

.

Adding up these 2 inequalities yields the conclusion.

Third Solution (Popa Alexandru):

LHS

(2(a + b + c))2

= 4(a + b + c)

(a + b) cos C + (b + c) cos A + (c + a) cos B

n

X

i=1

n

X

xi + n

i=1

1 + x2i

n2

Without loss of generality, we may assume that

x1 x2 xn

26

xi = 1, prove that

Therefore, we have

nx1 1 nx2 1 nxn 1

and

x2

xn

x1

2

2

x21 + 1

x2 + 1

xn + 1

n

X

(nxi 1)xi

i=1

x2i + 1

# n

!

"

!

n

X

X xi

1

n

xi n

=0

n

x2 + 1

i=1

i=1 i

n

X

xi + n

i=1

1 + x2i

n2

Problem 54 Hoang Quoc Viet (Hoang Quoc Viet): Let a, b, c be positive reals satisfying a2 + b2 + c2 = 3.

Prove that

a3

b3

c3

+ 2

+ 2

1

2

2

2

2b + c

2c + a

2a + b2

Using Cauchy Schwartz, we get

X

cyc

a3

(a2 + b2 + c2 )2

P

P

2b2 + c2

2 cyc ab2 + cyc ac2

ab2 + bc2 + ca2 3

and

a2 b + b2 c + c2 a 3

However, applying Cauchy Schwartz again, we obtain

p

a(ab) + b(bc) + c(ca) (a2 + b2 + c2 ) ((ab)2 + (bc)2 + (ca)2 )

In addition to that, we have

(ab)2 + (bc)2 + (ca)2

(a2 + b2 + c2 )2

3

x+y+z

x1+

27

1

x

1

y

x1+

1

z

= 2 prove that:

z1

Note that you can substitute x 1 = a, y 1 = b, z 1 = c then you need to prove that a2 + b2 + c2 + 3

1

1

1

a + b + c while you have 2

+

+

= 2 or equivalently a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 a2 + 2a2 b2 c2 = 1. next,

a + 1 b2 + 1 c2 + 1

substitute ab = cos x, bc = cos y, ca = cos z where x, y, z are angles of triangle. since you need to prove that

3

a2 + b2 + c2 + 3 a+b+c then you only need to prove that 3 2(ab+bc+ca) or cos x+cos B +cos C

2

which is trivial.

Second Solution (Sayan Mukherjee):

Xx1

1

1 1

+ + = 2 =

=1

x y z

x

2

X x 1 X

x 1 (From CS)

Hence (x + y + z)

X x

= x + y + z

x1

Problem 56 IMO 1998 (saif): Let a1 , a2 , ..., an > 0 such that a1 + a2 + ... + an < 1. prove that

1

a1 .a2 ...an (1 a1 a2 ... an )

n1

(a1 + a2 + ... + an )(1 a1 )(1 a2 )...(1 an )

n

1

a1 a2 . . . an an+1

n+1 (it should be

(1 a1 )(1 a2 ) . . . (1 an )

n

that x1 + x2 + + xn = 0 and also y = max{x1 , x2 , . . . , xn } and also z = min{x1 , x2 , . . . , xn }, prove that

x21 + x22 + + x2n + nyz 0

(xi y)(xi z) 0 i = 1, 2, ..., n so

n

X

i=1

(x2i + yz)

n

X

i=1

Problem 58 Pham Kim Hung (Endrit Fejzullahu): Suppose that x, y, z are positive real numbers and

x5 + y 5 + z 5 = 3.Prove that

x4

y4

z4

+ 3 + 3 3

3

y

z

x

28

By a nice use of AM-GM we have :

4

p

y4

z4

x

19

19

+ 3 + 3 + 3(x5 + y 5 + z 5 )2 19( x100 + 19 y 100 + z 100 )

10

3

y

z

x

So it remains to prove :

3 + 19(

19

x100 +

19

y 100 +

19

z 100 ) 20(x5 + y 5 + z 5 )

Problem 59 China 2003 (bokagadha): x, y, and z are positive real numbers such that x + y + z = xyz.

Find the minimum value of:

x7 (yz 1) + y 7 (xz 1) + z 7 (xy 1)

By AM-GM and the condition you get

xyz 3 3

yz 1 =

So the

y+z

x

v s

u

r q

u

t

2 3 4 ... N < 3 N N2

r q

p

First Solution (Brut3Forc3): We prove the generalization m (m + 1) . . . N < m + 1, for m + 2.

For m = N , this isrequivalent to N < N + 1, which is clearly true. We now induct from m = N

q

down. Assume that (k + 1) (k + 2) . . . N < k + 2. Multiplying by k and taking the square root gives

r q

p

p

k (k + 1) . . . N < k(k + 2) < k + 1, completing the induction.

r

X

a+b

3

2 + 4bc + c2

b

a

+

b+c

cyc

29

s

s

r

X 2(a + b)

X

X

a+b

8

36

2

2

2

b + 4bc + c

3(b + c)

27(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)

cyc

cyc

cyc

However, we have

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)

8(a + b + c)3

27

Problem 62 Popa Alexandru (Popa Alexandru): Let a, b, c > 0 such that a + b + c = 1 . Show that

:

a2 + ab b2 + bc c2 + ca

3

+

+

1 a2

1 b2

1 c2

4

Xx

y

x

9

x+y

2

LHS =

Xx

cyc

X

cyc

P

P

( x)4

8( x)4

9

x

P

P 2 P

P 2 2

P

x+y

( xy)( xy + x )

( xy + ( x) )

2

Second Solution (Hoang Quoc Viet): Without too many technical terms, we have

!

Xx+y X x

X rx

+

3

4y

x+y

y

cyc

cyc

cyc

Therefore, it is sufficient to check that

Xx

cyc

Problem 63 India 2007 (Sayan Mukherjee): For positive reals a, b, c. Prove that:

(a + b + c)2 (ab + bc + ca)2 3(a2 + ab + b2 )(b2 + bc + c2 )(c2 + ac + a2 )

RHS LHS =

1

((x+y +z)2 (x2 y 2 +y 2 z 2 +z 2 x2 xyz(x+y +z))+(xy +yz +zx)(x2 +y 2 +z 2 xy yz zx))

2

30

Problem 64 Popa Alexandru (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a, b, c > 0 such that (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) = 1

. Show that :

3

2

16abc

a+b+c

16abc

3

3

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)

1

2

16

First Solution (Apartim De): By AM-GM,

abc

abc

abc By

8

8

3

3

AM-GM,

(a + b) + (b + c) + (c + a) 3

2

3

(a + b + c) >

2

3

Lemma:We have for any positive reals x, y, z and vectors M A, M B, M C

2

xM A + y M B + z M C 0

(x + y + z)(xM A2 + yM B 2 + zM C 2 ) xyAB 2 + yzBC 2 + zxCA2

Now taking x = y = z = 1 and M to be the circumcenter of the triangle with sides p, q, r such that pqr = 1

, and the area of the triangle=, we have by the above lemma,

2

9R2 p2 + q 2 + r2 3 (pqr) 3 = 3 3R2 1 162 3

(p + q + r)(p + q r)(q + r p)(r + p q) 3

Now plugging in the famous Ravi substitution i.e,

p = (a + b); q = (b + c); r = (c + a)

3

(a + b + c)

16abc

Problem 65 IMO 1988 shortlist (Apartim De): In the plane of the acute angled triangle ABC, L

is a line such that u, v, w are the lengths of the perpendiculars from A, B, C respectively to L. Prove that

u2 tan A + v 2 tan B + w2 tan C 2

where is the area of the triangle.

First Solution (Hassan Al-Sibyani): Consider a Cartesian system with the x-axis on the line BC and origin

at the foot of the perpendicular from A to BC, so that A lies on the y-axis. Let A be (0, ), B(, 0), C(, 0),

where , , > 0 (because ABC is acute-angled). Then

tan B =

tan C =

( + )

tan A = tan(B + C) = 2

here tan A > 0,so 2 > . Let L have equation x cos + y sin + p = 0

Then

u2 tan A + v 2 tan B + w2 tan C

( + )

= 2

( sin + p)2 + ( cos + p)2 + ( cos + p)2

(

+

)

( + ) 2

= 2 sin2 + 2p sin + p2 ) 2

+ ( + ) cos2 +

p

( + )

=

(2 p2 + 2p sin + 2 sin2 + (2 ) cos2 )

(2 )

31

( + )

[(p + sin )2 + (2 )] ( + ) = 2

(2 )

with equality when p + sin = 0, i.e., if and only if L passes through (0, /), which is the orthocenter

of the triangle.

Problem 66 (Hassan Al-Sibyani): For positive real number a, b, c such that abc 1, Prove that:

c

a b

+ + a+b+c

b

c a

a b

c

a+b+c

+ +

3

b

c a

abc

and since abc 1 then

a

b

b

c

c

a

a + b + c ,as desired .

Problem 67 Endrit Fejzullahu (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a, b, c, d be positive real numbers such that

a + b + c + d = 4.Find the minimal value of :

X

cyc

a4

(b + 1)(c + 1)(d + 1)

X

X

4a

a4

b+1 c+1 d+1

+

+

+

P =

(b + 1)(c + 1)(d + 1)

16

16

16

8

cyc

cyc

=

X

cyc

So Pmin =

a4

3

3

a+b+c+d

(a + b + c + d) 4

(b + 1)(c + 1)(d + 1)

2

16

16

X

a4

4 6

3

1

=2 =

(b

+

1)(c

+

1)(d

+

1)

2

4

2

2

cyc

1

2

X

cyc

x

1

1 x, y, z 0

7 + z3 + y3

3

32

X

X

X

x

x

x

1

= because x3 + y 3 + z 3 + 6 3(x + y + z)

3

3

3

3

3

7

+

y

+

z

6

+

x

+

y

+

z

3(x

+

y

+

z)

3

X

(x 1)2 (x + 2) 0

Problem 69 Marius Maine (Toang Huc Khein): Let x, y, z > 0 with x + y + z = 1 . Then :

y 2 zx z 2 xy

x2 yz

+

+ 2

0

x2 + x

y2 + y

z +z

x + yz

x2 yz

=1 2

x2 + x

x +x

Inequality is equivalent with :

X x + yz

x2 + x

cyc

X x + yz

cyc

x2

+x

X

cyc

X yz

1

+

x + 1 cyc x2 + x

By Cauchy-Schwarz inequality

X

cyc

1

9

x+1

4

And

X

cyc

(xy + yz + zx)2

(xy + yz + zx)2

3

yz

x2 + x

x2 yz + y 2 xz + z 2 xy + 3xyz

4xyz

4

Second Solution (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let us observe that by Cauchy-Schwartz we have :

X x + yz

cyc

x2 + x

X x(x + y + z) + yz

cyc

x(x + 1)

X (x + y)(x + z)

X

=

x(x + y + x + z)

cyc

cyc

x

x+y

1

+

x

x+z

(1 + 1 + 1)2

9

= =3

3

3

LHS =

X x2 + x

cyc

x2

+x

X x + yz

cyc

x2 + x

33=0

Problem 70 Claudiu Mandrila (Endrit Fejzullahu): Let a, b, c > 0 such that abc = 1. Prove that :

a10

b10

c10

a7

b7

c7

+

+

7

+

+

b+c c+a a+b

b + c7

c7 + a7

a7 + b7

33

X

X

X a10

a7

=

3

3

b+c

b c (b + c)

1

64 (b

a7

+ c)6 (b + c)

But, from Holder;

6

1

(b7 + c7 ) 7 (1 + 1) 7 b + c Hence we are done

Problem 71 Hojoo Lee, Crux Mathematicorum (Sayan Mukherjee): Let a, b, c R+ ;Prove that:

2 3

9(a + b + c)2

33

(a + b3 + c3 ) + 2

abc

a + b2 + c2

(a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 ) 9abc (a b)2 + (b c)2 + (c a)2 0

34

- SM_GM_AKCD_L008Uploaded bykimflew
- SMC Addmath Mocks 2008Uploaded byYogaraajaa Seemaraja
- Serres ChaosUploaded byBruno De Bor
- The Garden of Knowledge as a Knowledge Manifold.pdfUploaded bylazaros
- MCR3U Exam Review 2013Uploaded byHari Menon
- Sample Question PaperUploaded byKumarGaurav
- UNIVERSAL ARITHMETICKUploaded byBranislav Stajcic
- GeometryUploaded byCoeus Apollo
- Math(F4)-Circle III 8.3Uploaded byRoszelan Majid
- NumbersUploaded bySatish Bhat
- JB_W9_DPP21_23Uploaded byAAVANI
- Catiiolic Junior Collegt' 2oo8 Jci Promotional ExaminationsUploaded byMathathlete
- Finnish National Curriculum for MathematicsUploaded byCarolina Torres Lozano Ψ
- no.docxUploaded bytest hack
- 2.75-76Uploaded bynorbert
- lesspn plan3-8 2weeblyUploaded byapi-232678768
- LinksUploaded byShivam Gupta
- lessons 1-3Uploaded byapi-193730631
- lesspn plan3-8 2weeblyUploaded byapi-232678768
- First Periodical Exam of Math 8Uploaded byCary Clark Orias
- imageUploaded byMaryrose Malinao Deiparine
- math finalUploaded byapi-297088251
- Trig mechanism polinski 115Uploaded byali kundi
- Mat 6 3 1 k7a 1 HandoutUploaded bymrferrell
- studenttextUploaded byapi-195130729
- Chap 22 Review and Problem Solving.pdfUploaded byArah
- Parallel Line Cut by a Transversal Line Ppt KoUploaded byLarry Bugaring
- BearingsUploaded byali kundi
- Year10EndTerm3SampleTests.docUploaded bypixelhobo
- C1 Questions (1)Uploaded bySarath Bandara

- Tables With LatexUploaded bynag380
- An-dam-be-chi-huyUploaded bythangdv82
- PP CM Phan ChungUploaded byNguyen Huu Quan
- Cac bai giang ve so hoc.pdfUploaded byNguyen Huu Quan
- bdtmathlinks.pdfUploaded byNguyen Huu Quan
- Ts. Nguyeãn Phuù Khaùnh - ðà LUploaded bycongdungyenbai
- THE_SUMS_OF_SQUARE_TECHNIQUE.pdfUploaded byNguyen Huu Quan
- Cac phuong phap tim GTLN GTNN thi TN LTDH.pdfUploaded byNguyen Huu Quan
- bcsvaungdung.pdfUploaded byNguyen Huu Quan
- [vnmath.com]-Cac bai giang ve bdt Cosi-Nguyen Vu Luong.pdfUploaded byTuấn Nhật

- 140218 CP PEGFrance-EnUploaded byVaibhav Soni
- HR需求（工程造价） (2)Uploaded bymanojkumarmurlidhara
- Whistleblowing characteristics.pptUploaded byAlice
- FCP 103 BAIKINGONUploaded byChamCham Aquino
- 26 RSI TrendsUploaded bylowtarhk
- RESUME Keperawatan B.inggrisUploaded byAhmad Gelegar Persada
- Dn001-Ldv-r0-Design of Box Culverts for Type 1Uploaded byvsballa
- Transgressive Violence Essay CatalinaUploaded byCata San
- Lec. # 2Uploaded byhaiob
- [R&S_CMU200_Spec]Uploaded bykees van der wal
- AP.docUploaded byPRINCIPAL ALS
- STP Trainer Profile_April 07Uploaded byVijay Raut
- Final 2018 New Members of CongressUploaded bySlate magazine
- Themelios40-2Uploaded byMorris Supit
- 143_GS3-SYE-UM-IPSec-v002extUploaded byronsupportmcs
- Prepking 310-220 Exam QuestionsUploaded bydenmark77
- Exotoxins of Staphylococcus AureusUploaded byyhoiss
- Paper Chemistry 1st Year (1st)Uploaded bysaifi_786
- class-5-imo-5-years-e-book.pdfUploaded byKrishna P. Miyapuram
- Aluminium Alloy Welding and FabricationUploaded byKiran Raghavendra
- cumm042.pdfUploaded byyanuararipratama
- REST PERIOD ACTIVITY JAN 2011Uploaded byIvan Brcic
- Linear AlkylbenzeneUploaded bymark_59
- 3.1(1).pdfUploaded byDejan
- Cloud.pdfUploaded bypremseoul
- Cable StandardsUploaded bygyani1982
- 2006 Pontiac Montana Quick Start GuideUploaded byerjenkins1
- Transportation Engineering2Uploaded byJohn Pierce Gumapac
- Aircraft Accident Investigation Procedure Manual (Nepal)Uploaded byMário Mineiro
- Advisory on Setting Up Teacher's Training CollegeUploaded bypoohpiglet