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1. Pressurization system of 737 (14 Janeiro)

Bleed air is supplied to and distribuited by the air conditioning system
Pressurization is controlled by regulating the discharged of conditioned air
through an outflow valve
Two pressure relief valves provide safety in case of overpressure if
pressurization system fails
Negative relief valve preventes external atmosphere pressure from exceeding
the internal cabin pressure
2. How many PAX on a 737 / How many flight attendants on a 737 and why
1 Flight attendant 50 seats
B737-800 189 Pax 4 Flight Attendants
B737-800 MAX 197 4 Flight Attendants
3. 737 engines
CFM56-7B (737-800)
4. Pointing to MCP on a 738 cockpit poster) What is this?
(Mode Control Panel) Instrument panel that controls na advanced autopilot
and related systems
5. (Pointing to FMA) What is this?
(Flight Mode Annunciator) Indicates what system is controlling the aircraft
and what mode is operational
6. Where do we monitor what the AFDS is doing?
Primary Flight Display
7. Why don't we do this on the MCP?
MCP is where is select the modes, they even be armed and not engadged
8. Where does the 737 get his hydraulic power from
Engine-driven pump and AC eletric motor-driven pump
9. How many hydraulic systems on the 737 and at what pressure
3 Systems (A, B and STDBY) 3000 PSI (15 Janeiro)
10. How is the landing gear operated
Hydraulic system
11. Explain me the wing of the 737, starting from the tip
Winglet, Ailerons, Slats (4 LE each wing), Spoilers and Flaps (2 LE Flaps
and TE)
12. What kind of hld do the 737 has?
4 LE Slats on each wing and LE and TE flaps.
13. 737 absolute ceiling
41,000 FT
14. MZFW IN 737?
138,300 LBS
15. Why smaller than MTOW and MLW?
MTOW 174,200 LBS
MLW 146,300 LBS
Because MZFW does not take into account the fuel

16. Why do we have it?

We have it to limit the payload on the aicraft to limit the stresses on the
aircraft structure, specially on the wings.
17. On the 737, what powers the flight controls? (16 Janeiro)
Hydraulic System
18. And the Flaps
Hydraulic system
19. If the Hyd sys B fails, can you actuate the flaps?

Yes. Can be moved eletrically using ALTERNATE flaps.

20. Do the 737s engines have any limitation at full power ?

21. Difference between 737-800 and 737 Max

More fuel capacity and greater aerodynamic efficiency

Lower fuel consuption

Greater range

Air law
1. VFR vs VMC?

Visual Meteorological Coniditions is a flight category in which a pilot has

visibility to maintain visual separation from terrain and other aircraft.

Visual Flight Rules are a set of regulations in which is permitted the flight
under visual conditions

1. What happens to an altimeter when you take off with the static port blocked?
The altimeter will not regist any change in height the height at which the
blockage occurred will still be indicated regardless of any climb or descent
2. From Madrid to Seattle... which navigation systems may I use?
GPS / IRS / Radio Nav
3. Explain IRS
IRS is an inertial reference system, which provides position and navigation
information to a separate flight management system, without the aid of
external references. Is an evolution of the INS
4. What is an PFD?
Primary flight display is the pilots primary reference for flight information
5. What is FMA? (17Janeiro)
Flight Mode Annunciator indicates what system is controlling the aircraft and
what mode is active. Is located on the upper side of the PFD
6. Explain how a ASI works?
We have an airtight box with a pitot pressure fed to a capsule which is
capable of expansion and contraction and a static presure fed to the box. A
pressure differential between the inside and outsider of the capsule will
cause it to expand or contract.

7. Explain how a Altimeter works?

Static pressure is fed into the instrument casing from the static source. The
changes in pressure caused by the changes in altitude will result in
expansion or contraction of an aneroid capsule in the instrument casing
which is linked to a mechanical linkage which converts i tinto rotational
8. Then was asked about errors with theses regarding blockages while climbing and
If the static source becomes blocked, the altimeter will not register any
change in height the height at which the blockage occured will be the
indicated altitude.
If the static source becomes blocked the ASI will over-read in a descent,
because the static pressure around the capsule would be lower than it
should be, during a climb will under-read
If a pitot blockage occurs the ASI will work like an altimeter. During a climb
IAS will increase, the pressure locked inside the capsule remains constant
but the pressure around it decreases allowing the capsule to expand,
conversely the IAS decreases during a descent (PUDSOD)
9. Explain Dynamic Pressure?
Dynamic pressure is the pressure due the motion of an object. Dy= 1/2 p v2
. Dynamic pressure is a measure of airspeed.
10. Explain a pitot tube?
A pitot tube is a open-ended tube faced directly into the airflow which
measures the total pressure (Static + Dynamic).
11. Explain TAS/IAS what happens when you climb and why?

Indicated air speed is the speed indicated on the instrument which is subject
to several erros. True Air Speed it the speed corrected to that errors
(Instrument/Position, Compressibility and Density Error)

Dynamic pressure is proportional to air density, so at high altitude, where

the density is less, the dynamic pressure will be less for a given TAS. When
we climb as the air density is less we have to increase our speed in order to
maintain a constant speed climb. Consequently the TAS will rise.

1. VMCA, VMCG, V2 (Balanced Field). (25 Janeiro)
VMCA (Air minimum control speed) is the minimum speed at which, when
the critical engine becomes inoperative, it is possible do maintain directional
control and straight flight with na angle of attack of not more than 5

VMCG (Minimum control ground speed) Minimum speed on the ground at

which take-off can be safely continued by maintaining directional control,
when the critical engine suddently becomes in-operative.
V2 (Take-off safety speed) is the minimum speed that should be achieved
at or prior to the screen height in case of one engine inoperative. Is the
speed that maintains adequate directional control and climb performance of
the aircraft in case of engine failure.
2. Take off run available.
Is the distance from the point on the surface of the aerodrome at which the
aeroplane can commence its take-off run to the nearest point in the direction
of take-off at which the surface of the aerodrome is incapable of bearing the
weight of the airplane.
3. What is clearway
Is an area the may be provided at the end of the TORA, in the direction of
take-off, which is free of obstacles.
4. What is stopway
An rea beyond the take-off runway, able to support the aeroplane during
na abortive take-off, without causing structural damage to the aircraft.
5. What is the screen height for a 737
35 FT
6. Is the stopway designed to support the weight of an aircraft
7. 4 segments after engine failure
Assumed 1 engine inoperative and screen height is reduced to 15 FT in
contaminated/wet runways if engine fails at V1wet
1ST: Screen height marks the start of segment 1. The objetive is to climb,
but due to an engine failure and excess of drag we need to reduce it. At low
speeds and close to the ground retracting flaps is dangerous. So we must
retract the gear, once it is up and locked the segment 1 is finished.
2ND: Climb to 400 FT and retract the flaps.
3RD: Accelarate to best angle of climb speed, once it happens reduce thrust
to MCT (MTOT is limited to 5 minutes)
4TH: Climb to 1500 FT
8. Vref, what is?
Landing reference speed which must be attained at the landing screen
9. How much it?
1.23 stall reference speed in landing configuration
10. Formula to calculate the aquaplaning speed (26 Janeiro)
9x/Presso pneu (Rotating tires) 7.7x/Presso pneu (non-rotating tires)
11. What Is TODA?
Take-off Distance Available: The length of usable runway available plus the
length of clearway available. (TORA + Clearway). Distance from brakes
release to screen height.
12. Why do we have take off segments ?
1st: Aeroplane must be able to achieve the minimum climb gradient

2nd: Aeroplane must be able to maintain sufficient obstacle clearence

13. Does a single engine aircraft have take off segments ?


14. Maximum ceiling?

Service Ceiling: The height at which an airplane can no longer climb more
than 500 ft (jet)/ 100 ft (sep) per minute

Absolute Ceiling: The maximum height at which an airplane can mantain

level flight

1. How would you make an aircraft more aerodynamically? Without taking into
account the engines. (Thin, minimal chamber and swept wings) (27 Janeiro)
High aspect ratio (smaller wing tip vrtices)
High cambered wing
Straight wing
2. Why an a/c has such a high AoA after take-off, can we increase it more and more..,
why not?, what to do to increase AoA&lift? (slats,flaps),
We have low speeds at take-off, so, in order to produce lift we need to
increase the AoA
If we want to increase lift we must increase speed
3. What kind of flaps do we have?
TE Flaps Plain Flap / Split Flap / Slotted and multiple slotted flaps /Fowler
LE Flaps Krueguer Flap
4. AOA
Is the angle between the relative wind a the wings chord
5. Critical AOA
Angle of attack at which maximum lift is generated
6. where does a swept wing stall first and what can we do about it
It stalls at the wing tip
Washout, Stall Strip, Slats and Slots,
7. Angle of incidence .
Angle between the longitudinal axis and the wings chord
8. lift formula (28 Janeiro)
p v2 S CL
9. why/how a wing creates lift
The airfoil is manipulated in order to create a pressure differencial. The
upper surface of the wing has a longer area making the air to travel faster
than on the lower surface, which has a shorter area. By travelling faster the
static pressure will decrease, causing a pressure differencial. The air will
travel from the lower surface, were the static pressure is higher, to the upper
surface. The resultant is called lift.

10. What is the Bernoulli principal?

The Bernoulli principal states that for a fluid with no viscosity (ideal fluid) an
increase in speed occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure.
11. How do we operate in lower speed ranges with swept wings?
High lift devices (slats/slots and flaps)
12. swept back wing cons/pros (737 Angle)
MCrit is increased
Directional and Lateral stability are improved
Trailing-edge controls (flaps and wing tip ailerons) are less effective
because they are not in right angles to the airflow
It stalls at the tip first
13. Mach Tuck
Rearward CP movement with increasing Mach number which produces a
nose down pitching moment.
14. What is dihedral?
Upward inclination of the wings in relation the na airplanes lateral axis
15. Diihedral vs anhedral?
Dihedral is na upward inclination of the wing, anhedral is a downward
16. Why do we have it? (29 Janeiro)
Dihedral improves lateral stability
Anhedral has less lateral stabilitc effect but usefull in some over-stable
lateral aircrafts
17. Winglets, what are they?
A vertical extension of the wingtips
18. Why they are there?
Are used to reduce the wing-tip vrtices in order to reduce drag improving
airplanes efficiency.
19. How to prevent stalling wing tip first?
Washout, Stall Strip, Slats and Slots,
20. what does limit the altitude? (coffin corner)
Absolute ceiling coffin corner
21. Why pa28 has dihedral and c172 don't?
Because C172 has an high wing which is already laterally stable
22. What is stall , and at which angle of attack a C172 stalls
When the lift of an airplane is no longer sufficient to sustain its mass in flight
23. What is Mcrit? (30 Janeiro)
Is the value of the free stream mach number when the local mach number
first becomes sonic.
24. What is machtuck? How to we prevent it?
Reaward movement of the CP with increasing mach number, causing a
increased nose down pitching moment. Mach trim system varies
automatically the angle of incidence of the tailplane.
25. What is Mcrit, why is it good for it to be high
Is good to be higher in order to prevent the formation of shock waves.
26. Why do we fly at Mach Number
Because MMo is our limiting speed at high altitudes.

27. How do we operate in lower speed ranges with swept wings?

High lift devices (Slots, Slats, Flaps)

28. Spin Recovery

Power idle, full oposite rudder, ailerons in neutral position

29. Different kind of stalls

Low speed stall

Deep stall

Accelarated stall

Shock stall

1- What is mist and fog in a metar (31 Janeiro)
Mist (BR)
Fog (FG)
2- PA 2000ft, temp +30C , density altitude?
DA = PA ( ISA Temp Dev x 118,8) = 2000 + (19x118,8) = 4257 FT
3- Define density altitude and differences with pressure altitude.
Density altitude is the altitude in ISA at which the current observed density
would occur
Pressure altitude is the altitude above the standard pressure level of 1013
PA only takes into account variation in ambiente pressure. It does not take
into account the ambiente temperature of the air, which is a factor that
matters in the aircrafts performance
4- Jet stream what to consider wehen entering (CAT and which side concerning air
mass )
Clear air turbulence is strongest on the cold side of the jetstream.
5- - Jetstream? Why westerly?
Jetstream is a fast narrow air currents found in the upper atmosphere.
They are westerly because of the angular momentum caused by the rotation
of the earth
6- What means br mifg dz in a metar
BR Mist
DZ Drizzle
MI Shallow + FG - Fog
7- how thunderstorms are formed
Thunderstorms are associated with CB clouds which are formed by these 4
A high moisture content in the air, a trigger lifting action to cause a parcel of
air to rise (convection, turbulence, frontal or orographic), adiabatic cooling of
the raising air and a unstable atmosphere.
8- Weather associated with thunderstorms including CB formation? (01 Feb)

Torrential rain, hail, severe turbulence, severe icing, windshear and

microbursts, lightning
9- Why do you avoid them?
Because they can bring several undesirable problems such as: possible
loss of control, handling problems, structural and personal damages caused
by windshear and turbulence; damage do the eletric system, radio and
navigation equipment interferenc
10- Microburst
Is a severe downdraft (vertical wind) from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud
during a thunderstorm.
11- radiation fog
Fog resulting when radiational cooling of the earths surface lowers the air
temperature near the ground
12- What is the cause of jetstreams ?
Jetstreams are caused by large temperature differencials in the
13- At what height do we find jetstreams ?
33,000 52,000 FT
14- Are they a good sign or a bad sign ? Why ?
Jetstreams can give an increase in the airplanes ground speed improving
the range allowing to a decrease in fuel comsuption. Although reas of CAT
may be encountered, mainly on the cold side.
15- What direction is the jetstream above this building traveling? (02 Fev)
16- Whats the minimum windspeed of a jetstream?
60 kts
17- What is a lenticular cloud?
Is a cloud found downwind of mountainous areas and is an indicative of
moutain waves.
18- Where could you expec to find a lenticular cloud, and would you fly through it?

Moderate to high turbulence. We should avoid it

19- You are out for a walk in the mountain and you are facing the wind, where is the
low pressure?

At by right hand (bows law)

20- Difference between a TAF and a METAR

A TAF (Terminal Aerodrome Forecast) is a format for reporting weather

forecast information, issued each 6 hours. Metar is a formato of reporting
current weather information, issued each 30 minutes

1. Venturi and carburettor icing

A carburettor is a system which provides fuel and air mixture in correct

The suction created during the induction stroke draws air from the air intake.
As the air flows, it accelerates causing a reduction in static pressure,
causing a pressure diferencial between the float chamber and the choke.
Carb icing may occur by any one of three processes: freezing of the
condenses water vapour of the aira t or near the throttle (Throttle ice), the
cooling effect of the evaporation of the fuel (Fuel ice) and water in
suspension in the atmosphere coming into contact with engine parts at a
temperature below 0 (impact ice)
2. Anti-icing/ de-icing

Anti-icing prevents ice from forming

De-icing gets ice that has formed off the airplanes structure

3. What is eletricity

Is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of
eletric charge

4. Why different cable widths/how does resistance vary with width

The wider a cable is more flow and lower the resistance.

If we have a pipe full of water, and for the same pump (battery), the
pressure (voltage) will be lower the wider the pipe, more flow and lower

1. Range of a VOR

1.25 Receiver Ht (in feet) + Transmitter Ht (in feet)

1. Which flight is faster - London to NY or return (03 Fev)
Return do to Polar Jetstream (Westerly)
2. Crosswind formula
Difference between wind and runway HDG
Sin(difference) x wind intensity.
3. What is GPS?

Global Positioning Systen is a space-based navigation system that provides

location and time information in all weather conditions.

4. Wind 300/10 runway 27 what's the cw?


5 kts

Is na accident in which an aircraft, under pilot control, is unintentionally

flown into the ground, a mountain, a body of water or na obstacle with no
prior awareness.

1. Mass and balance, what happens if ... , why do we have a load sheet?
Mass and balance is made to ensure that the airplane is not overloaded or
incorrectly loaded. Limitations on mass are set to ensure adequate margins
of strength and performance, and limitations on CG are set to ensure
adequate stability and controlo of the aircraft in flight.
2. Can you give me 7 weight limitations?
Maximum Ramp Mass
Maximum Take-Off Mass
Maximum Landing Mass
Maximum Zero Fuel Mass
Performance Limited Take-Off Mass
Performance Limited Landing Mass
3. Imagine one day we are on the rwy at MTOW, can we go directly at max ceiling?

Multi-engines I've flown:

1. Engine
Two Lycoming engines, one clockwise other counter-clockwise, 180 HP,
2700 RPM
2. Electrical System (batteries, Alternators...) (04 Fev)
28 Volt system
One 24-volt, 15,5 Ampere-hour battery
Two 55 ampere, 28 volt, belt-driven alternator
3. Why they set the horizontal stabilizer on the top (talking about Diamonds)
4. Last MEP you flown?
Beechcraft Duchess 76
5. Explain the Hydraulic System?
Eletrically driven hydraulic pump which powers the hydraulic system. The
gear is hydraulically extended and retracted.
6. Does it have a critical engine? Explain why?
No because propellers rotate in opposite directions giving both engines the
smaller arm possible
7. Anti ice last multi engine
Pitot heat