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Evolution theory

The evolution theory was developed by Charles Darwin. Darwin argued that all organisms have
the ability to produce many offspring than are required to replace their ancestors but not all
survive to adulthood. For example, a rabbit can produce many kittens in a litter but not all will
survive to adults. He also asserted that the numbers of the wide variety of plant and animal
species can remain fairly constant for a long period of time despite the fact that the female
species produce many offspring every year. The stability of the population numbers can be
attributed to several factors including competition for food, disease and predation. Darwin also
claimed that offspring of a common descent display variation in characteristics. All organisms
vary slightly in size, color or behavior. Moreover, he believed that parents pass on many
characteristics to their offspring. Some of these characteristics are easy to notice, such as hair and
eye color. However, some are very difficult to observe, such as blood group. According to
Darwin, all living things are involved in a constant struggle for survival and some organisms are
well adapted to the environment than others. Those organisms that are well adapted to the
environment are more likely to survive to adults than their counterparts and hence have the
opportunity to reproduce, passing on their characteristics to their offspring. Darwin referred to
this as natural selection.
Biological theory
Genetic, neurological and physiological factors influence behavior
The brain and the central nervous system is the main determinant of behavior
Normality is a well-functioning nervous system

Biological theorists believe that humans are a product of their physiology and genetic. They
examine behaviors, thoughts and feelings from a biological point of view. They argue that all
behavior, feeling and thoughts have a genetic cause. Our genetic makeup has a great influence on
our personality. Biological components influence our physical characteristics including our
height, eye color, and hair color and body size. The biological theory holds that our physical
appearance determines how we perceive ourselves and how we interact with others. This in turn,
has a direct impact on our behavioral and psychological development and hence determine
whether our adult life become successful or not. Biological theorists also hold that the way the
brain and the nervous system works has an influence on our behavior. They conducted a research
of identical and fraternal twins to validate their claims. They found out that identical twins even
when reared in different environments display the same characteristics while fraternal twins
showed some discrepancies in behavior. According to biological theorists, abnormal behavior
can mainly be attributed to genetic disorders, brain injury or disease, organic disorders, chemical
imbalance and mental illness.